A soft drink also called soda, pop, soda pop, or carbonated beverage a non-alcoholic beverage that typically contains carbonated water, a sweetening agent, and a flavoring agent. The sweetening agent may be sugar, high-fructose corn syrup, or a sugar substitute (in the case of diet drinks). A soft drink may also contain caffeine or fruit juice.
Small amounts of alcohol may be present in a soft drink, but the alcohol content must be less than 0.5% of the total volume if the drink is to be considered non-alcoholic. Widely sold soft drink flavors are cola, pepsi, lemon-lime, rootbeer, orange, grape, sparkling lemonade, squash, and flavored water. Soft drinks may be served chilled or at room temperature. They are rarely heated.
Nowadays, communication has been one of the most important aspects of the growth of human society and culture. Without it so many things would not get done, people would be divided, and the world would not be how it is. Telecommunications, the transmission of signals over a distance for a purpose of communication, is also very important. Telecommunications provides a lot for the world. The commerce that telecommunications creates is a nice little chunk of the gross world product. It provides business, money and market stability in the world.
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In this research, the method used to recruiting users was internet focus groups with heavy users of soft drink. 10 questionnaires was designed on this research to know how many of internet focus group with heavy users of soft drink. This questionnaire was sent to 20 respondents through the mail. The research focus on heavy users of soft drink only and others people with non-heavy users of soft drink and medium heavy users of soft drink will be waive from this research. Heavy users of soft drink have to identify before go through to next step on the research.
There are several advantages of mail survey which is mail questionnaires are relatively low in cost compare to personal interviews and telephone surveys. For instance, telephone interviews was a high cost compare to the mail questionnaires, this is because interviewer make a call to interview a people. There have a charges on telephone bill.
There also have some disadvantages of mail survey which is it is take at least 2 weeks in order to receive majority of the responses. If research results are needed in a short time frame, mail survey may not be the best communication medium.
Research design is the strategies that can be used to collect data. Research design is the blueprint for the implementation of the research process. Prior to the actual collection of data, the concepts of the variables used must be defined, the measurement of the concepts or variables must be identified, and the method of the data collection must be explained. The research design will also show the relationships among the variables in the study and the design strategies will lay out each procedure from the hypothesis to the process of analyzing the data. The research design was use is the purpose of study. Purpose of study is classified as either a descriptive or an explanatory study. In the descriptive design, the research find out who, what, when, where or how much of the subjects. The objective of a descriptive study is to show an accurate profile of the persons, events or situation. It is done in order to describe the characteristic of the variables of interest in a situation. The main goal of a descriptive study is to offer the researcher a profile or to describe relevant aspects of the phenomenon of interest from an individual, organization, industry-oriented, or others perspective. A descriptive study that presents data can help reader to understand the characteristic of a group in a given situation. Besides that, the reader can think systematically about aspects in a given situation and can offer ideas for further probe or research also can assure certain simple decisions.
Sampling is the use of a subset of the population to represent the whole population. Probability sampling, or random sampling, is a sampling technique in which the probability of getting any particular sample may be calculated. In business research, it is not possible to assume that the sample is selected using probability methods, so the sample has to be chosen by some other way. Non-probability sampling does not meet this criterion and should be used with caution. Non-probability sampling provides a range of alternative techniques based on the researcher's subjective judgments. Non-probability sampling techniques cannot be used to infer from the sample to the general population. Often field workers do the sample selection, so, there is greater opportunity that unfairness would enter the sample selection procedure and distort the findings of the study. And since the probability of selection is not known, the range within which to expect the population parameter cannot be estimated. For this research, the sampling technique used is a non-probability sampling design. The choice of non-probability sampling is based on practical reasons even though there are technical disadvantages compared to the probability methods. The use of non-probability sampling can satisfactorily meet the sampling objectives. Sometimes, the true cross section of the population may not be the objective of the research. For instance, if there is no desire or need to generalise the results to the population parameters. In this case, the sample does not have to be representative of the population. The others reason for choosing non-probability sampling is the lower cost and time factor. Probability sampling is time consuming and expensive. If the non-probability sampling is carefully controlled, it can produce acceptable results. Although probability sampling produces superior results, it is often subject to constant breakdowns in its application. Carelessness in application by the people involved often leads to biased results. The non-probability technique may be the only feasible method if the total population is not available for the study or not known. In such cases, the sampling frame will not be available to choose the elements. It may not be possible to determine completely that the respondent of the mail questionnaire is actually the person selected or the true cross section of the population. Purposive or Judgmental sampling - The researcher chooses the sample based on who they think would be appropriate for the study. This is used primarily when there is a limited number of people that have expertise in the area being researched. Such as in case study research and when the main purpose is to select cases that are particularly informative. The researcher can use his own judgement to select cases to enable him to answer research questions and meet the objectives. It is very useful in the early stages of an exploratory study or in selecting a biased group for screening purposes. The main disadvantage of this design is that the sample may not have the specific criteria, which differ from the criteria of the population.
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After one weeks, the respondents reply the mail with the result. The result shown in graph below:
The graph shown the internet groups have 13 people heavy users of soft drink. There is the factor stated that why most of the internet group like soft drink.
The first reason is it is very tasty. The taste could be one thing that gets us addicted to drinking soda, it is delicious. In fact, it is so good, that many people drink it with every meal. Unlike the mineral water, that is no taste compare to the soft drink. The second reason is it is everywhere and convenience to get it. Even if you wanted to drink something else, you would be hard-pressed to find it as prominently displayed in vending machines, at fast-food chains, 7-eleven shops and supermarket checkouts. You might choose many favourite of soft drink such as Cola, Pepsi, Sprite, 7-up, 100-plus and etc. The most addictive thing about soda is the convenience. If you want something quick or are in a hurry, it is so easy to grab and convenient to drink. The third reason is promotion and advertising. Soft drinks are heavily consumed in part because companies promote them vigorously. Billions of dollars are spent on advertising sodas and market them everywhere such as in supermarkets, restaurants, gas stations, museums, and even schools. The fourth reason is soda habit. For some people, drinking several sodas a day is a force of habit. Drinking soda is a habit when you find yourself going to the grocery store at 10 p.m. because your refrigerator is tapped out.
The fifth reason is it is very cheap in price. Soda may be pretty inexpensive when compared with fruit juice and milk. During the promotions, with combo meals, a large soda is only an extra ringgit, and you get fries or snack. The sixth reason is thirst. Often people drink soda to quench the thirst. However, this is probably the worst time to drink soda, because when you are very thirsty or dehydrated you have low levels of saliva. And saliva helps to neutralize acids and soda is the most acidic beverage and can wash your teeth clean. The seventh reason is caffeine addiction. Many soft drinks contain caffeine and caffeine is mildly addictive. This fact is part of the reason soda is such a hard habit to break. If you are addicted to the caffeine in soda, you are really having two habits it is the soda habit and the caffeine habit.
Many regular soda drinkers are aware that soft drinks are bad for the health. There are many reason to advise to stop drink soft drink. Firstly, soda is useless. There are no nutritionally beneficial components in soft drinks. Soft drinks mostly consist of filtered water and refined sugars. Yet the average American drinks about 57 gallons of soft drinks each year. The second reason is obesity or as known as weight gain. Many people either forget or don't realize how many extra calories they consume in what they drink. Drinking a single 330 ml can a day of sugary drinks translates to more than 1lb of weight gain every month. Several scientific studies have provided experimental evidence that soft drinks are directly related to weight gain. The relationship between soft drink consumption and body weight is so strong that researchers calculate that for each additional soda consumed, the risk of obesity increases 1.6 times. According to the results of high quality study reducing consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages helped reduce body mass index in the heaviest teenagers. The third reason is diabetes. Anything that promotes weight gain increases the risk of diabetes. Drinking soda not only contributes to making people fat, but it also stresses the body's ability to process sugar. Some scientists now suspect that the sweet stuff may help explain why the number of America with type 2 diabetes has tripled from 6.6 million in 1980 to 20.8 million today. Rapidly absorbed carbohydrates like high fructose corn syrup put more strain on insulin-producing cells than other foods. When sugar enters the bloodstream quickly, the pancreas has to secrete large amounts of insulin for the body to process it. Some scientists believe that the unceasing demands that a soda habit places on the pancreas may ultimately leave it unable to keep up with the body's need for insulin. Also, insulin itself becomes less effective at processing sugar; both conditions contribute to the risk of developing diabetes. Researchers from Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston and Harvard Medical School analyzed data from the Nurses' Health Study II, a trial tracking the health of more than 51,000 women. None of the participants had diabetes at the onset of the study in 1991. Over the following 8 years, 741 women were diagnosed with the disease. Researchers found that women who drank one or more sugary drinks a day gained more weight and were 83% more likely to develop type 2 diabetes than those who imbibed less than once a month. Interestingly, women who consumed a lot of fruit juice which is high in natural fructose were not at increased risk of diabetes, leading researchers to speculate that naturally occurring sugars may have different metabolic effects than added sugars. They also speculate that vitamins, minerals, fiber, and phytochemicals in fruit juices may have a protective effect against weight gain and diabetes, counterbalancing the adverse effects of sugar. The fourth reason is weakened bones and risk of osteoporosis. Frequent consumption of soft drinks may also increase the risk of osteoporosis, especially in people who drink soft drinks instead of calcium-rich milk. High soda consumption (particularly cola) in children poses a significant risk factor for impaired calcification of growing bones. In the 1950s, children drank 3 cups of milk for every 1 cup of sugary drinks. Today that ratio is reversed: 3 cups of sugary drinks for every cup of milk. Tellingly, osteoporosis is a major health threat for 44 million Americans. Most experts now say that the real culprit is soda's displacement of milk in the diet, though some scientists believe that the acidity of colas may be weakening bones by promoting the loss of calcium. The fifth reason is kidney damage. There is good evidence that cola beverages can increase the risk of kidney problems, more so than non-cola sodas. Researches clearly demonstrated that large quantities of cola result in enhanced kidney stone formation. If you're wondering exactly how soft drinks cause kidney stones, it's because of their acidity and radical mineral imbalances. Your body must buffer the acidity of soft drinks with calcium from your own bones. As this calcium is eliminated through your urine, it slowly forms kidney stones. In a study published in the journal Epidemiology, the team compared the dietary habits of 465 people with chronic kidney disease and 467 healthy people. After controlling for various factors, the team found that drinking two or more colas a day (whether artificially sweetened or regular) was linked to a twofold risk of chronic kidney disease.
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There are so many healthy alternatives. Soda replaces healthier drinks. By drinking soda, you cut the intake of fresh juices, milk, and even water and deprive yourself from essential vitamins and minerals. First is water. Water is the best drink in the world. The second is tea. Any kind of tea which is herbal, green or black is rich in antioxidants, which were shown to protect the body form many health problems. The last one is 100% fruit juice. Fruit juice can be also useful for flavoring your water and teas.
In the conclusion, the steps in the research process are Problem identification > Formulate research questions > Literature review > research philosophy and approach > research design > Data collection (sampling and questionnaire) > Data processing and analysis (Qualitative) > Conclusion. To complete a research, we must be follow the research process step by step in order to understanding to whole process. The importance step in the research process is choosing the research design and do the suitable data collection which is either choose probability or non-probability sampling design.