Shortest definition of organizational politics could be termed as unsanctioned influence attempts that seek to promote self-interest at the expense of objectives, goals and growth of an organization. Cropanzano and Grandey, in press; Drory and Romm, 1990; Ferris, Frink, Beehr and Gilmore, 1995; Ferris and Kacmar, 1992; Ferris and Judge, 1991; Ferris, Russ and Fandt, 1989; Kacmar and Ferris, 1993).
Organizational politics is a subjective experience and state of mind which cannot be measured exclusively on objective state (Gandz and Murray, 1980). According to Gerald R, Farris (1992) mentioned that perception of organizational politics influenced by organizational, environmental and personal factors in turn influences organizational outcomes such as job involvement, job anxiety, job satisfaction and physical and psychological withdrawal from the current working organization. Organizational politics perception also could be due to variability on job, age, sex education as well as the hierarchal level in an organization resulting impacts in job satisfaction, anxiety, employee promotions. In the same way other causes could be job environment influences (Graen, Novak and Sommerkamp, 1982), wok group cohesion (Price and Muller, 1986), span of control (Ferris, 1990), Feedback and advancement opportunities (Ferris, Frink, Galang, et al, 1996).
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Every organization have human resource with a different age, income, education, gender and hierarchal level, and they all respond or participate differently in the organization politics, so we can say that status level, economic conditions and personalities are effects the organizational decisions (Vigoda, 2000). Employees with a low hierarchal level think that organizational policies are the main source of unjustified decisions and employee's frustration and these unfair decisions and frustration simulates negative and unhealthy attitude (Vigoda, 2000). For the top level of organizational human resource, organizational politics works as centrifugal force which pushes them to physical withdrawal and they find a new job place which they think or perceive less political. So we can clearly understand that organizational politics strongly correlated with the organization commitment. Bozeman (1996) and also depicts that this relation cab be a negative relationship.
Every organization provides some rules and policies for employees who are engage in political behavior for guidance. In the organizations where these rules are not available to prescribe how to act, there are more chances of the occurrence of political activity. In the circumstances where rules and policies are not defined and available for the guidance of employees then circumstances allow individuals to define a situation and fit their own wants and needs. This redesign of situation is often called political behavior. (Kacmar, 1995).
Ferris et al (1989) and Fandt, and Ferris (1990)found that, political behaviors are found more in the organization where uncertain conditions and ambiguity exist in work place. According to Ferris (1992) job autonomy, job variety, and feedback can be a helpful tool to reduce uncertain condition from the work place, low uncertain environment leads to reduce political activities in the organization and provide healthy space to achieve organizational goals. According to Daft, 1989. Job autonomy and low variety of tasks could be helpful factors to reduce political situation and environment.
Ferris et al 1989 identified that age, gender, tenure, race play very vital role in perception of organizational politics, human resource with a different demographics sound differently in the way to organizational politics.
Mintzberg (1983, 1985) identify another important factor of organization politics which is Formulization, organizations who are highly formalized, they have very less rate of organizational political activities. It is also an outcome from the research of Mintzberg (1979) which tell us political activities are lowest in highly formulized organization. According to Mintzberg (1979) he indicates that professional organizations have more political environment then other organizations. Ferris also highlighted the same points and fact in his researches that opportunities (Smith et al, 1962) also reduce the political situation or political behavior from the organization and organizational opportunities have negative relation with organizational politics and peoples involved more in politics when they see they have lesser opportunities of growth and betterment. According to (Madison et al, 1980; Ferris and Buckley, 1990) employees performance is linked with the employee's promotion and if the organizational decisions regarding promotion are fair and transparent the ratio of politics in organization at very lower level. Employees promotions is also a most essential and basic ingredient of organizational politics. Every employee in the organization have a different personality so personality traits also an important factor of organizational politics Machiavellianism.
Always on Time
Marked to Standard
According to Cropanzano in 1997 he found that there are so many other factors of organizational politics which could be countless. In the organization where politics exists, there employees think that they are working hard and their hard work will not be rewarded properly, timely and consistently. Since Employees think that power is a key to success and more powerful employees and groups and affiliation with these groups provide more benefits to the employees. In these situations employees have options to quit or withdrawal, (Mobley, 1977) stated in his study, withdrawal process means, the process in which employee want to quit from the organization if a person dissatisfied from the organization he will be start thinking about the switching of job and think about leaving the organization. (Mobley, 1977) these withdrawals could be physical and psychological. In physical withdrawal peoples quit the organization and another one or physically withdraw their self from organization and in the case of psychological withdrawal is quit different with the physical withdrawal, in psychological withdrawal process employees mentally unable to present their self on the work place and do add any value in his or her job responsibilities and they spend lot of time in day dreaming and detracted others and also involved in non productive works. So we can infer that Psychological withdrawal positively correlated with the organization's politices. (Ferris et al, 1993; Randall et al, 1994). Similarly as Ferris et al, 1993 also depicts that organizational politics have a positive relationship with the employee's turnover intentions. This situation could be happen where employees become more isolated and do save themselves from political situations then they take a step towards turnover.(Price, 1977) "Turnover" means the ratio of the number of employees quit from the organization during the period and divided these employees by average number of employee in the organization during the period (Price, 1977).
This research focus on voluntary turnover means turnover from the side of employees. Turnover intentions are the inclination or the attitude of the mind. If the organization noticed that the employee are having attitude of turnover the organization must find out the problem, because these problems making a mind of employees towards quitting. (Wanous, 1979). Organizational commitments, turnover intention and job satisfaction are interlinked with each others, but according to study, organizational commitments had strong relationship with turnover intention, though the employees satisfaction are directly related with the turnover intention, unsatisfied employee always searching new and better opportunities.(Peters, Bhagat, & O'Connor 1981) and all kind of organizations are focusing on these problems and take it seriously to reduce the turnover ratio from their organizations (Lucas, Parasuraman, Davis & Enis, 1987).
Another point of view which was presented by Pfeffer (1981) about organizational politics is organizational politics can be use for the improvement of an organization's processes. Pfeffer (1981) also argued that organizational politics also helps organization in betterment of processes, execution of plan, implementation of new strategies and for running of business. Employees who are skillful in doing politics they can get maximum rewards in his professional career and get maximum benefits from his or her organization.(Wayne & Farris, 1990). According to Pfeffer (1989) he further suggest that political focus is very much important perspective in sympathetic of career growth. He also found that lower levels of employees are highly involved in job rotation or turnover.
22.214.171.124 Impacts of Organizational Politics on Employee's Physical and Psychological Health.
Here it is very much important to understand the impact of perception of organization politics on the employee's physical and psychological health because organizational politics creates number of problems for the organization's human resource. In this regards many researchers explore relationship between organizational politics and employee's health physical or psychological. Organizations where higher level of political environment exist, it will increase or generates the level of stress in employees (Valle & Perrewe, 2000) and it will also increase level of tension for the organizational human resource and this will creates anxiety anxiety (Ferris, Frink, Galang, Zhou, Kacmar, & Howard 1996) job and somatic tension and level of employee's energy is low in these circumstances (Cropanzano, 1997). Political environment effect overall productivity of an employee and political situations are also creates conflicts between employees and organization. Similarly tiredness and burnouts creates number of problems which are known as physical problems like headaches, backaches, lingering colds, gastrointestinal, etc (Maslach and Jackson, 1981).
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The basic out come of organizational politics is work stress. Work stress is subjective feeling of an employees which can be take place when employees feels that he or she do not have sufficient capabilities to perform and complete the organizational work and task and he feels he unable to achieve his or her goals and objectives. (Folkman & Lazarus, 1991; Edwards, 1992). Work stress drops negative impact on the employee's performance as well as organization and economy performance because these all things are inter linked with each other. Due to work stress organizations face number of costs like wastage of time, reduction in production processes, physical accidents and in the shape of lost (Ganster and Schaubroeck, 1991; Holley and Frye, 1989; Joure, Leon, Simpson, Holley and Frye, 1989; Minter, 1991; Murphy, 1988) and these all motives also indicates work stress and organizational politics. If employees feel or perceived, organization have political environment or politics involved in every matter of organization and also involved in decision making process of an organization then employees reports low resistant power, work tension, general health problem and negative attitude (Cropanzano, 1997).
Cropanzano mentions in latest book that, organizational politics badly effects on the organizational formal decisions and politics involved in organizational formal decisions then the decisions are tend not be transparent and this non transparency pushes the employees towards turnover intention and mental withdrawal. Non transparency of decision also increase stress level of employees because employees are unable to execute their decisions as they thought and plan. Political environment and stress will also creates uncertain conditions and situations and politics and stress also involved how peoples understand uncertain situations and where necessary actions can be taken for the removal of politics and come out from stress (Cropanzano, R., & Li, A. in press). Some researchers describe stress, it is internal resistance power of peoples in which they under estimate their self against demands and they think these demands are exceeded from their capacities, some others researcher depicts that "Politics as Stress" (Dipboye & Foster, 2002).
Kahn and Byosiere (1992) categories the responses which will be the creation of stress, according to him there are three kind of responses or outcome of stress, physiological, psychological, and behavioral. Stress damages peoples physically in reduce their physical strength, physical outcome of stress involve, high blood pressure, high heart rates, and high cholesterol level (Fried, Rowland, & Ferris, 1984) here the researcher mentioned very limited outcomes but these should be more then these. Psychological outcomes of stress involved anxiety, burnout, confusion, depression, job dissatisfaction, health problems, and fatigue (Beehr, Walsh, & Taber, 1976; Cooper & Roden, 1985; Davidson & Cooper, 1986; Fisher, 1985; Kobasa, 1982). At the last but not the least final outcome of stress is behavioral damages like absence at work, late arrivals, negative attitude, early going, low motivation level, low work productivity counterproductive behavior, job performance, turnover, and drug use on the job9192 (Blau, 1981; Mangione & Quinn, 1975).
126.96.36.199 Impact of Politics on Decision Making Process
Technology advancement plays very vital role in every field of business similarly technology eliminates traditional decision making process with the passage of time. Traditional decision making approach is not considered as healthy approach; this will affect employees badly and it will also reduce human productivity. Traditional decision making approach creates an environment of politics in the organization and disappoints employees. In all above circumstances political model is a very interesting approach to know the self interests of an employee (Narayanan and Fahey, 1982).
Every political model have some objective in back for example, to get more resources and power in authority in the organization (Mintzberg; 1983). This shows that organization have informal behavior which is design to protect or increase employees self interest and groups also when these interests conflicts with other's interests (Porter, Allen, and Angle, 1983).
According to Drory top management level of an organization or the employees of an organization who are enjoying the supervisory level job status, it is obvious, they have more power and authority because if they don't a have power and authority they will never ever manage human resource activities, that's why organization provide power and authority for managing organizational human resource. So according to Drory organizational top hierarchy level enjoy proper power and opportunities under the flag of an organization (Drory 1993). Drory also depicts in his research which was conducted in 1992, he suggest that, organizational politics varies with the hierarchy level of an organization, politics in the lower level have different style of politics, at the middle level of hierarchy level politics sounds different, and at the senior level of hierarchy, politics sound different. So politics have different colors at every different stage of organizational hierarchy level (Drory 1992). Organizational politics does not based on organizational goals or fairness of stander, actually it is based on the interest level of an employee or a person , who much he take interest in the political matters , employees interest will increase or decrease the level of politics in the organization (Cavanagh, Moberg and Velasquez, 1981).
Drory in his research also unveils that perception of organizational politics should be increased when employees of an organization expect more benefits then they deserve, in this situation organizational politics stand at higher level and this situation will arises when the supervisor of an organization provide benefits to the employees on the basis of personal liking and disliking basis and performance criteria will be ignored by supervisors or managers.
188.8.131.52 Organizational Politics as Stress Factor.
According to Vigoda political behaviors are the undercover activities which have some negative effects on the organizational growth and also disturb the productivity of an individual. It is also creates the uncertain situation in organization. As we discuss earlier organizational politics reduced the speed of an organization al growth and also effect the organization al goals and objectives ,similarly politics impact the employees with regards to mental stress which leads to the low productivity and less motivation (Vigoda 2002). Political activities have some outcomes that could be positive or negative , in the positive sense, it can be helpful in quick decisions , career growth , implementation of unwanted policies, better control, manage uncertain situation etc, and in the negative sense, politics could creates mental stress, decrease productivity of employees, workplace conflicts, decrease in strategic decisions, never meet objectives, low credibility, guilt feelings, low and slow goals achievements, turnover intentions, mental withdrawal and so many others (Vidoda 2002).
184.108.40.206Organizational Politics and Employees Withdrawal Behavior.
Organizational politics have very strong relationship with the withdrawal behaviors and so many researchers point out this relationship in theirs researches. Politics have two possible actions with regards to withdrawal either people leave away the organization and search new organization for better utilization of their experience or they become a part of the organizational politics, here they have also two another choices either they flow with the flood of organizational politics or stay there to normalize the situation for betterment (Dreher,Dougherty, & Whitely,1989; Freedman,1978;Gould & Penley, 1984; Kipnis & Schmidt,1988; Martin,1987). According to Vigoda, people who chose the above mentioned situation, they are on more risk of stress because they don't have ability to handle or willingness to play politics game which is directed by others and feel more comfortable in these circumstances (Vigoda,2002).
With the help of Vigoda's research we can find out another thing that is, organizational politics often Influence organizational process and it will also effect overall performance or productivity of an employee and organization (Vigoda, 2000). Recent researches depicts that organizational politics leads the employees towards mental withdrawal and turnover intentions (Bozeman et al, 1996). Organizational politics generally disturbs the level of justice and lack of fairness in decision making which can disturbs employees and creates lot of problems in the mind of employees (Vigoda, 2000).
2.1.2 Supervisory Influence.
Term supervisor or manager has countless meaning and interpretations but strongly it is used for the management of the activities, task and jobs performed in any organization with a systematic way. A Supervisor or manager is man who leads its team and manages their activities on the basis of practical work experience. Supervisor is the part of organizational management and manages organizational activities and he or she also have sufficient knowledge about the requirement of job as well as employees and should have guts to observe employee's feeling for better handling and resolving problem/issues. If supervisor or managers have all these abilities which mentioned above, then managers can get maximum output from employees and will also increase the level of employee's satisfaction and reduction in turnover intentions and actual turnover. Supervisory influence is the 2nd independent variable of this proposed study and this variable play very vital role in the process of employee's turnover intentions. In this section of literature review we will discuss about supervisor relationship with their subordinates and what are the major effect of negative or positive attitude of supervisor on employees performance or productivity and how this will be the cause of turnover intention. Supervisory relation with their employees and employees satisfaction from there supervisor or manager will creates healthy environment in the organization and this healthy relation also shows that how much employees adding positive energies in the organization and this is just because of supervisor 's relationship (Oldham, 1976). Supervisors are define as , they are the representative of organization who are represent organization before subordinates and creates level of trust between employees and organization which leads to the employee's retention (Kerr et al, 1974). Employee's satisfaction with manager or supervisors positively correlated with the organizational commitment. According to (Billings, Eveleth, Gilbert, 1996) supervisor and organizational commitments had a greatest impact on the employee's performance evaluation that the supervisor provide to the newly appointed employee. Supervisors have ability to Influence subordinates to obey them as they wish on the basis of authority, control over rewards, control over punishment and control over information (French & Raven, 1959). These all variables are the key variables which could be produce influential power to increase employee's performance with in the organization and reduction of employee's withdrawal.
220.127.116.11 Supervisor's Relation with Employees
Relationship of supervisors or managers with their subordinates, play very vital role to reduce employee's turnover intention, actually it depends on the satisfaction of subordinate with their manager and there, supervisor's communications skills are matters a lot to handle and satisfy their subordinates. According to the (Dansereau, Graen and Haga 1975) managers or supervisor are correlated with subordinates because both are dependent on each other. Supervisors have Influence on decision making , exchange of information and employee's social support , if managers take care of their subordinates they will provide them high level of performance , add positive value in organizational growth, reduction in turnover intention, low political environment and better usage of organizational resources.
Lucy et al. (2004) identifies some variables which may be the one of the reason of employee's turnover intentions or actual leave. Finding of the study suggest that employee's turnover intention are take place when employees shows dissatisfaction with job, when organization fails to honor its commitments and due to feeling of stress like workload, job ambiguity these are all the chain of factors which influenced the employee's intention to quit. Supervisors should have ability to observe employees workloads and relationship between both parties (managers and subordinates) is very much important in order to minimize and manage workplace employee's stress level. Another concept which is presented by (Duffy, Ganster, & Pagon, 2002) that, rude behavior of supervisors is also a factor which produced negative outcomes and also decreased employee's self efficiency which leads to low performance and productivity. Rude and bad supervisory relationship creates lower self esteem and abilities and this supervisory behavior also demoralize employees (Burton & Hoobler, 2006). According to the studies and research findings of (Ribelin, 2003) supervisors or managers are playing the role of leaders in the organization they leads their subordinates in every matter related to workplace, moral, financial and work life balance, also set examples for their followers with the help of positive working behavior, otherwise a person who have negative attitude and do not have qualities of good leader and supervisor, this will bring low productivity, less satisfaction with work or organization, low motivation level and increased work absenteeism. Mobley et al., 1979 also work on the employee's turnover intentions; he also depicts that, supervisors play an important role in the process of employee's turnover. Positive support of immediate managers or supervisors increased the employee's satisfaction and has positive impact on employee's productivity and performance which is helpful to the achievement of organizational goals and objectives and also reduced employee's intention to leave the organization and also motivated them towards betterment of an organization as well as self esteem. (Price, 2001).
18.104.22.168 Employees Satisfaction
Cumbey and Alexander (1998), in his study, also verify that, supervisor have an effective impact on the employees satisfaction regarding his or her job, his study also prove that positive relation between employees and supervisor will increase the lavel of employees satisfaction, retention of employees for a long run, employee's loyalty, maximum output and reduction of employee's turnover intentions or actual withdrawal. Bradley, Petrescu and Simmons (2004) conduct and investigate through research and try to find out the impact of human resource practices on employee's job satisfaction. Results of study depicts that, every worker wants to be a close member of his or her supervisor because employees are judged on awarded on the basis of good and healthy performance and close relation between employees and supervisors can be helpful in this regard. If organizations fail to provide effective and desirable environment to their employees supervisors are the only tool that retain employees and reduce turnover intentions and withdrawal and if the organization act according to its commitments and also providing healthy working environment to their employees but the negative attitude of supervisor can spoil every effort of an organization which pushes the employees towards mental and actual withdrawal and will also increase employees turnover intentions. Keashly and Jagatic (2000) also complete their research on this topic according to the conclusion, leadership play very vital role in the organization actually leaders are the engines of the organizations if the engines are weak the you can imagine the pace and speed of an organization it means leaders are persons which find out the way and decide right direction to their follower if the vision and leadership qualities are shaky and not clear its means performance of an organization sounds weak. This study also depicts that positive relationship of employees and leader or supervisors can be the cause of employee's satisfaction and dissatisfaction. In the view of Karasek and Theorell (1990) poor supervision not only the cause of employee's dissatisfaction it is also a cause of employee's turnover intention. Their study proves that employees dissatisfaction can be the main ingredient of employees turn over and pushes them towards physical and pshcological withdrawal. After Karasek and Theorell, Harmon et al., (2007) also work on this topic and his research papers also prove that supervisor's behavior in work place with employees can increase or decrease employees satisfaction and turnover according to the research work both are positively correlated with each other and having positive impact on employee's decision regarding turnover intentions. Harmon et al., (2007)
In the above mentioned contest Beaset (1994) presents his findings and according to these findings, supervisors are the major factors of the employee's work related satisfaction and they have influence towards turnover and retention. Friendly and positive behavior of an immediate boss or manager display positive and prompt responses from employees and they feel secure and safe and also perform their task and job assignments more positively which could be beneficial for both organization as well as employees. Fajana (2002); Rue and Lyord (1984) studies are also aligned with Beaset (1994) and displayed same results. All above mentioned findings present that workers and employee's intentions to leave could be controllable and removeable with the help of supportive and participating behavior of supervisor and could be increased with strict autocratic working style of manager or supervisor. Fecley and Bernett (1997), Flaherty & Pappa (2002) and Rycrat & Shoech (2002) also second the above mentioned finings and they suggested that, if any one want to determined rate of job quit intentions by several factors and supervisory behavior have a major part in this regard. They further stated that when employees are satisfied with the behavior and working style of supervisor they looks to be more motivated and satisfied and less satisfied will be the cause of turnover intention, either it is physical or psychological. Fleishman and Harries (1962) was find out same results, they investigate the relationship of foreman and supervisor's behavior according to them these are two major powerful groups of an organization (foreman and supervisors) which are the major cause of employees turnover intentions. Mojoyinola and Ajala (2007) and Uwakwe (2005). also work on burnout or stress and they observed that, stress level of employees will be demotivating factor them also increases dissatisfaction and change job or working attitude which leads to turnover intentions. When turnover rate is very high in the organizations due to supervisors, it should be an alarming time for organizations to do some thing for own and employee's survival otherwise organizations are fail to achieve its objectives and goals. Sheridan (1978) depict that working environment or conditions have major influence on employee's stress level which push them towards turnover, if organizations provide them healthy working environment and supervisors or managers support the employees and take care of employees well being, evaluate them on merit basis, provide work life balance, lead them as a good leader, friendly working style and the element of respect should also stand between both will raise the employee's as well as organizational performance and also decrease employee's turnover intentions either it is physical or psychological. Sheridan (1978)
2.1.3 Organizational Policies
The organizational administrative policies are actually the statements of the executive organization defining the fixed procedures and practices to be followed with respect to the explicit matters of administration and are devised as an effort to increase the organizational effectiveness to evaluate the organizational potential to ensure the needs of its employees. The organizational administrative policies ensure compliance for certain departments, institute, city, province and state policies and that outlines a precise procedure for administrative activity. The administrative policies are developed to fulfill a need for consistent way of making things done and are considered detach from domination policies.
Many of the factors that contribute to the accomplishment of a project and are those inputs that directs to the success of a project. The act of Project success is largely dependent on many crucial success factors with multiple constraints on project possessions. In the real world, with active policies, unlimited budget and personnel and the ability to take risk, the project success would be quite simple. The foremost ingredients in achieving sensation of the project is an experienced project manager, a competent and hard working project team, commitment from senior management, ample project budget, well defined project requirements and specifications, risk estimation, and the external environment in which political, economic, socio-cultural, and technological dynamic take part in their role. Nevertheless, it is also very important to identify and record these factors into account to minimize risks and ensure project success as by ignoring these factors, these will not become the part of historical project data and the project efficiency can be overshadowed. Herein this literature review, we will come across into the different administrative policies and their impact on the project performance and finally to its accomplishment.
22.214.171.124Organizational Administrative Policies
What are Administrative Policies Called?
Organizational administrative policies are the policies that are being managed by administrative departments reporting to the Senior Management and illustrate the solicitation, clearance, acceptance and definition of laws and contracts which are being used by the organization. Organizational policies are considered separate from governance policies. (Financial and administrative policies and procedure, University of Virginia). As a result of increasing complication and quickly varying global business environments, more flexible policies, methods, and techniques are being adopted such as project management method in order to get quick and high quality products and services against their fastidious demands and to create worth in their products and services (Johns, 1999). Identifies different stages of the lifecycle of a project, these stages are further breakdown into time-based tasks and activities and precise milestones are distinct at which evaluation of time, cost and quality (Slack et al, 2001).
Organization policy can be defined in a common way in spite of being precise, the achievement of organizational project objectives and supplementary performance indicators. These are completed in two fastidious ways (Saee, 2007).
Policies work enthusiastically and do not intricate the simple goals list. The outcomes of the policies should be implemented often with unpredicted consequences. The procedures of an organization may not be in a line with respect to the declared policy. This conflict may be due to political influences, or may be due to lack of policy execution. A policy may not be feasible when subjected to implementation or expose unexpected and volatile consequences.
126.96.36.199 Administrative Policies and Employee Commitment
Because our culture has become quite optimistic and loyalty between employees and theirorganizations is not that prolonged, in such circumstances, it seems quite difficult for employees to build up extended commitment to their organization. Policy pledge can be defined as to understand and execution of special major organizational starters, action plans, based on comparative analysis between personal efforts and organizational responses as they are exposed by organizational policies. Employees' commitment is being used to support of a team-based structure as a substitute for policy promises. The employee's commitment to their organization can be described by the relationship between the actions and apparent roles of employees in response to organizational policies. The ecological factors that drives the employees towards any specific reaction to the environment. An individual's values and training determine to which factors have a positive influence and which factors have negative influence on him, and the resultant of both positive and negative factors acting on any individual describe a net effect of any precise behavior. Additionally behavior is also inclined by those factors that are present and influence the individuals at any moment and success of policies will highly dependent on realizing employees motivations and the positive and negative psychological factors that are specific to their attitudes and values important to those policies. Similarly, the expectations of the management dependent on the understanding of the positive and negative emotional factors affecting their employees with respect to those policies (Lewin, 1951). Précised organizational policies will be devised by keeping in mind their attitudes and ethics in order to maintain their commitment towards the organization and organizational policies are the key factors that will drive workplace environment and are directly affecting employees competence, their communication attitudes towards their social group and subordinates (Lewin, 1951). Through making effectual policies, the efficiency of the managers and supervisors in terms of decision making as well as improved work experience and retaining their commitment can be achieved. For example, if an organization needs to have better productivity of its employees should more likely to the execute policies that appreciates good productivity and try to inspire the constant performance of their employees to boost their productivity. So, the productivity results from such policies determine the intentions of the organization that the value of the organization can be reflected in terms of commitment and productivity of its employees (Lewin, 1951). Organizations create and apply larger number of policies to control their various business activities and these policies directly or indirectly persuade their employees. For example downsizing, reshuffling, rearrangements of structures, technological advancements, monitoring and rewards plans, and quality improvement programs etc (Lewin, 1951). According to field theory, people like things which they think are more valuable for them and dislike the things which they are not important for them or are of least value according to their training, belief, and attitude. Some employees, who find any policy or initiative implemented complimentary for them, will accept it contentedly and will show full support to it. Whereas some will tolerate the initiative and some will find it quite uncomfortable for them.
Attitude can be analyzed by summarizing one's beliefs after extensive experiences. The past experiences leaves a permanent impression at one's mind and takes part in making insight and decision in current scenarios and builds overall attitude of a personality (Lewin, 1951). So the past experiences of an employee with any specific policy will determine the perception and reaction towards that particular policy or initiative and If the previous experiences would be pleasant, then the employee will show a positive response to this and the organization will be in a position to win the commitment of that employee. The employees who better understand their role and job can perform even better and have better promises to their particular organization. Similarly, the employees who can better understand the organizational policies have more confidence and commitment to the policies of their organization. Role conflict arises when an employee is to be paid with more than two roles and while fulfilling one role, the other roles are ignored or incompletely fulfilled. So the employee will show poor performance and may undergo in stressed state of mind and ultimately leads him to a lower commitment to the organization and to the policies as well. It is only an individual's behavior towards a policy which makes it positive or negative but in its true intelligence policy commitment is always unidirectional and successful. So individuals whose attitude is positive towards the policies of the organization, and they have a clear understanding of their organizational role show high level policy commitment.
Finally, the employees having clear picture of their roles and positive attitude towards organizational policies reveal better commitment to the organization, to their job and to the policies.
Researchers recognized organizational promises as eager importance to the organization and employees himself as well. Organizational commitment can be defined in terms of commitment invested explicitly toward the organization as an administrative element. Organizational commitment can be mix of all three points describes below,
(1) The belief and responsibility to organizational policies, procedures and objectives;
(2) Acquire rights to work hard for the betterment of the organization; and
(3) Continuous intentions to be part of the organization (Porter et al, 1974).
2.1.4 Employee's Turnover Intentions
In this section of literature review the researcher will focus the literature regarding Turnover intention. This section includes the definition of turnover intention, reasons of turnover intention, what are the methods use to reduce turnover intentions. Turnover intention is a behavior of any individual to quit the organization. According to the (Bigliardi, Petroni and Ivo Dormio 2005) turnover intentions are the internal feeling of an individual that he will be staying or leavening the current organization. In the organizations we found two types of behavioral personalities regarding turnover, first individuals with the high rate of turnover intentions and second the individuals with a low level of turnover intentions. Individuals who have high rate of turnover and they rapidly change their organization, organization make perception about them they will leave organization near future or very soon (Mowday, et al. 1982). According to Blau the decision of leaving the organization and do separation from occupation is not an easy task because arrangement of new job, accept working environment and adjustment with new people is a very difficult task (Blau, 2000).
Souza-Poza and Sousa-Poza (2007) define in their research work "intent to leave" show us the probability, that an individual will change his or her job during the certain time frame. If the individual have a behavior of physical withdrawal and he or she have a habit of changing jobs this will be a indicator to the organization they will leave the organization very soon. The studies of Johnsrud & Rosser 1991 and many other researchers used turnover intentions as the proxy of actual turnover because it is vey difficult to study the actual turnover intentions (Bluedorn, 1982; Lee & Mowday, 1987; Steers & Mowday, 1981). Researchers such as (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1990; Igabaria & Greenhouse, 1992) believed that turnover intention of an employee and individual is the very close decision regarding actual or physical leave because if the individual think about new job and unhappy with current job he search new place to perform his professional activities so this his intentions will change in actual turnover. According to (Gregory, 2007) turnover intentions are the very important predictor of actual turnover across industries.
Asian countries are facing lots of problem due to employee turnover, countries included like Singapore, Hong Kong, South Korea, Taiwan Proposal LR (Syrett, 1994; Barnett, 1995; Chang, 1996). Unsatisfied employees and unhappy employees of every organization should create lots of problems for the organization. All organizations have a mission and objectives, these objectives and mission can be completed and achieved with the help of some strategies. These strategies are based on the available human resources but when the employees working with the withdrawal behavior and they have intentions of turnover they can not be add some value in achieving the mission and objectives of the organization. This study also stated that normally we find out two type of withdrawal in the organizations. Work withdrawal and Job withdrawal. Here you can ask Mental or Psychological Withdrawal and Physical Withdrawal. If a person physically work with the organization, but he or she have withdrawal behavior and searching new opportunities for satisfying their self and not focusing on the attainment of current organizational goals and objectives, and creates lots of problems for organization Proposal LR(Hanisch, Hulin, & Roznowski, 1998). According to Proposal LR (Whitman, 1999) turnover intention means the thoughts and thinking of a person regarding leaving and quitting the job and organization Proposal LR (Whitman, 1999) the turnover intentions are the back- end thoughts which are the cause of actual turnover of the employee. Turnover intention or thoughts are used instead of actual turnover and basically the turnover intentions are the main indicator and predictor of actual withdrawal if the organization feels the turnover intentions in the behavior of the employees of organization then make some plans for reducing this behavior and kill the factors which are cause of these behaviors otherwise the organization will suffered, Proposal LR (Hendrix, Robbins, & Summers, 1999, Proposal LR (Ajzen, I. 1991).
There are two main indicators of real jab quitting, the "turnover intentions and intention to quit a job". According to this study, every organization have facing lot of factors which might be the cause of employee turnover, like job satisfaction, environment of the organization, organization commitments, politics, polices, supervisory influence, organizational growth and so many others, complete attention about quitting is the best indicator of the real job quitting Proposal LR (Griffeth, etal.2000). Due to real job quit organizations bear very high cost of human resource department, due to employee's turnover and due to mental withdrawal. This cost may be a direct cost or indirect cost, direct cost includes replacement cost, hiring and selection cost, temporary cost and time management cost. Indirect cost included morale costs, work load on remaining staff or work burden on remaining employees, learning and training cost of new employees, product quality cost. Employees are the social assets of an organization and due to mental withdrawal and turnover intentions the organization will bear all these losses. Proposal LR (Dess & Shaw 2001) In 21st century the major problems which are facing by the organization's human resource management is turnover because the availability of human resource is very poor in the market Proposal LR (Batt & Valcour, 2003) and the management of the organizations know or have an idea what effects are leave by the turnover. High turnover ratio increases the cost of the employee's training, recruiting and other costs of new employees and also decreases the performance of the organization Proposal LR (Chen, Etal.2010).
According to (Steers & Mowday 1981) employee's decision regarding turnover is considered as rational choice which is initiate by the individual for his or her current job and for current organization. Employees with the behavior of turnover intention shall not be consternate on their jobs and they lose their productivity and do not add some value in organizational growth so we can infer that actual turnover is better then intentions. (Tett & Meyer, 1993) stated that employees intentions to turnover is the final step in the decision making process after this step employees seriously considers leaving and searching a new place to work and find out new employment. Tett & Meyer also added some new concepts regarding employees turnover intentions they stated that, employees intention to leave or turnover is just a thoughts of changing the job and leaving the organization but according to the workers they actually wants to leave the organization. In the light of all above statements and research works turnover intentions considered as a best or strong indicator of actual turnover (Gregory et. al. 2007). Intention to leave the organization is the final stage of actual turnover. Arnold 7 Feldman (1982) also support the previous idea that, turnover intention is the final stage of the employee's total tenor in the current organization and after this he or she will leave the organization as soon as possible and whenever they found new and better opportunity in the market place.
According to Bigliardi, Petroni and Ivo Dormio (2005), employee's dissatisfaction due to some reasons like lack of motivation, promotions, fair assessments, raise in salary on the basis of personal favoritism, worker manager's conflicts, unhealthy working environment, and so many others motivated the individuals for turnover or the organization with some aspect like low performance, late arrivals, early goings, absent from work, lack of confidence, high ratio of unachieved goals and objectives and so many other reasons have the organization to terminate anyone motivate organization to individual's turnover. Carmeli, 2005 also depicts the phenomenon that, employees turnover intentions are the strong predictor of actual turnover.