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The company crisis can be explained by the influence of external factors, they can be the determining cause of both its success or failure without giving up their course from the influence of internal factors must also be taken into account.Â This approach can help guide the development of more accurate diagnosis for the company in crisis.Â A comprehensive treatment of company management problems involved in studies of the relationship between the company and its environment from a spatial perspective, the question that arises is how to characterize and describe the space within which the company exists.
The external factors of the company apparently listed as "uncontrollable" because they come from causes apparently unrelated to it because they arise from the components of their environment.Â The company is an open system that has to face threats and opportunities as a condition for its survival that exists in a society that has a specific feature.Â External variables can be generalized although conceptually not have the same meaning, behaviour and weight in each particular case because the societies are different and have features that are specific to them.
The contemporary environment characterized by continuous and rapid changes brought about mainly of New Technologies of Information and Communications, as well as a process of globalization of economies has changed the way of business competition, which are currently dominatedÂ for intangible assets and the people who either make them up or use them.Â For this reason, companies that operate globally with a special focus on the direction of Human Resources, conceiving these assets as strategic component.
Globalization has brought within reach of any company the same competitive resources, so the need to find sources of advantage difficult to imitate by competition has become imperative for organizational success, because of this organizations seek new management methods in which factors such as continuous learning, innovation and creativity become critical elements and critical to achieving more efficient and competitive organizations.(Rodriguez.G.2009)
Faced with these challenges, human resources and their management becomes a major source of sustainable competitive advantage in business.Â In this context, its proper management has become the foundation of modern business competitiveness, showing that people make the difference in the operation of an organization.Â
Usually we talk a company has competitive advantage when the entire market or part of it prefer its products or services.Â Companies are constantly looking for ways to compete that can last for a long time and can not be imitated by rivals. Therefore the notion of competitive advantage is related to a relative superiority is established with the competitors of the entity.
Porter, M.(1994) suggest that "when we refer constantly to the concept of competitive advantage we always do in the understanding of sustained advantage.Â The basis of performance on the long-term average is an asset held and if it does not behave well is a simple short-term result that does not make the company competitive. "Â so one of the vital issues for the company is to achieve a sustainable competitive advantage over time.
Companies that have some kind of sustainable competitive advantage, they must, first, be different from its competitors, second, generate economic benefits, and third, that competitive advantage is not easily and quickly imitated (Pfeffer, J,1994)
Based on these concepts is clear that organizations must implement a strategy creates value, to generate and maintain a competitive advantage that differentiates their competence and that this latter can not easily imitate.Â He also must be viable to achieve sustained profitability in time and defend against competitive forces.
A.4.1 HOW TO GET COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE
The competitive advantage is derived from the resources of the organization. Resources are the basic element for capacity building, and from them, competitive advantage.
The resources in organizations can be grouped into the following categories:
-Tangible resources: they are easier to identify and assess as they appear listed in the financial statements of companies in the case of those assets with a physical embodiment, and financial resources.
-Intangible resources: they can be: technological (and knowledge available technologies applicable to processes, products, etc.) Organizational (prestige, brand name), human capital (experience, the propensity to take risksÂ , motivation, loyalty and wisdom of individuals associated with the company, the social capital or networks of relationships that has an individual).
For resources have the potential to generate sustainable competitive advantages should be:
-Valuable: allow you to create or implement strategies that improve the effectiveness and efficiency
-Uncommon: valuable resources if the competitors also have these resources will not be in itself a source of competitive advantage
-Do not imitable: competitors cannot obtain them, e.g.Â corporate culture, interpersonal relationships
-Do not interchangeable: they are not replaceable by other resources
Below are the characteristics of the resources that are sources of competitive advantage available, where evidence that resources can be a source of competitive advantage when they have a high value for the company, for which also must be two conditions: the shortage and heterogeneity of the resource.
Figure 1.Â Features resources and sustainable competitive advantage.
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Among the sources of competitive advantages are:
Make the product with the highest quality, providing superior service to customers, achieve lower costs than competitors, have a better location, design a product that has a better performance than competing brands.Â Also people within the organization, the creation and protection of human knowledge.
To sum up to achieve a sustainable competitive advantage through human resource management must meet three conditions:
1.Employees should be a source of added value: As the employee an intangible resource value cannot be counted, despite the attention of employees, how they feel and behave can be useful in predicting financial performance.Â This is because investors prefer companies with satisfied employees, since they result in satisfied customers, especially in the services sector.Â In addition to making customers feel happy with the organization's employees have a sense of pride and satisfaction of being part of it.
2.Employees should be unique in some way: Employees must be a unique resource of the firm to achieve a sustainable competitive advantage.Â In the event that competition can easily access the pool of talent, it will provide an advantage over competitors
3.Competitors should not be able to easily copy or imitate the company's approach to human resource management: Business practices that are not easily copied by competition generate sustainable competitive advantages.
According to Pfeffer. J (1994), the achievement of competitive success through personal demands, require all to change the way we think about the employees and the employment relationship, which means that success is achieved by working with people, not replacing them or limiting the scopeÂ of their activities.Â This requires that employees see as a source of competitive advantage, not only as a cost to be minimized or avoided.Â Too often, companies assume that different perspective they can be far more adept and get better results than their rivals.
B.7. COMPENSATION PACKAGES DEFINITION:
Laza. S (2010) argues that In the employment context, there are plenty of ways to motivate staff,but not everything is in a remunerative compensation, just for the basic wage.Â And while it is also very important to motivate staff, beyond a certain threshold, there are other mechanisms to achieve greater efficiency and productivity of workers, such as awards, prizes, training plans, benefits for family groupÂ etc.Â The so-called compesation packages, are placed in this group of alternatives, ie, a mechanism that goes beyond the simple monetary reasons.Â
For most theorists, the importance of a good system of staff motivation is the power to go beyond the strictly economic-wage and through extra-pay mechanisms, able to align employee expectations with the company,Â so that both have a win-win.Â Therefore,Human Resources Management experts have devised many extra-pay options, such as recognition programs, participation programs, payment plans for skills and flexible benefits, among others.
Going to the flexible benefits on time, they allow employees to choose among a list of benefit options.Â The idea is to let each employee choose a package tailored to your needs and situation, replacing the old entitlement programs such as a program the same for all which did not recognize the differences in performance between the personal needsÂ .
B.7.1 TYPES OF COMPENSATION PACKAGES:
B.7.1.1 Modular plans:It is a different feature set, or different benefit coverage levels, designed for different groups of employees
Â B.7.1.2 Plans with additional options for power:: it is a core set of basic benefits and a wide range of options for additional benefits that employees can add to the basic plants.
B.7.1.3 Â Flexible spending accounts: individual accounts for each employee, funded by the employer, the employee or both.
B.7.2 ADVANTAGES OF COMPENSATION PACKAGES
Among the benefits are often attributed to compensation packages
-Â Employees and their families are motivated to see that they can choose customized packages, resulting in a family loyalty with the company, and not just with the worker. In addition companies able to meet changing needs of a force work also changing;Â to be flexible, these programs make it less expensive (low cost marginal) to introduce new features, as the new option is added only one element among the great variety to choose
- Intranets are especially useful for the development of these plans (In medium and large companies), and that through them, the employees learn about each of the services involved, their coverage, costs, etc., the employee may perform simulations performance and suggest changes or alternatives to include.Â Finally,through the intranet, the system will collect each election employed and as a result will benefit by administering the process flexible.
B.7.3 DISADVANTAGES OF COMPENSATION PACKAGES
From the point of view of the organization: due to the high variability of alternatives to choose, are plans much more difficult to monitor than traditional benefits or similar for all employees. Additionally, it is more expensive manage (compared to traditional ones), as required to have dedicated staff to monitor such plans.Â It is also likely that in some cases, do not exceed, in terms of motivation to other less complex alternatives, such as recognition programs, certain programs of participation, and certain payment schemes for skills Â
From the standpoint of the employee :Certain employees are not very familiar with the "choice of many alternatives", and perhaps rather simpler matters, because for some "greater diversity means more problems."Additionally, it is likely that different alternative packages sometimes do not adequately reflect the different levels of productivity and skills of different groups of workers, and therefore, the most competent, or that contribute most to the value chain, considerÂ relatively unfair compare with its alternative packages available for other areas.Â
Finally, in the opinion of many experts, these programs have much to further improve and that there remain significant conflicts between work and family life of employees (people care at home for their labor problems and work for their family issues are usually economic) Â That is the reason why many compensation packages often include family child care, flexible work days, reduced work-related trips, family picnics, use of sports facilities, programs to pay for college for children, etc.Â so it points directly to resolve family disputes sources.
B.8 COLLECTIVE BARGAINING
At present it is not difficult to understand that welfare Human Capital experience, both inside and outside the organization, success depends on it.Â And it is logical and intuitive thinking, no one can work with quality if the conditions under which he makes are adverse and even hostile.
Man's need for cluster has been demonstrated from the beginning of its history, regardless of the reasons that motivated it, the man realized it was more powerful when acting in groups and not individually, did so to hunt, build and conquerÂ , at different stages of cultural evolution and the extent to which civilizations were becoming increasingly complex.
Later, after the significant influence that religion had on the development of communities, the presence of representatives was present as a way of reaching agreement between different groups that had emerged, thus initiating a system of negotiations which is still working well results.
Centuries later, with the advent of the industrial revolution and the changes suffered by the concept of work, the need to come together is distorted due to economic conditions and existing dependency, and in the workplace, it was normal to employees being exploitedÂ and even abused by their employers, because they depended on the livelihood of these, guaranteed income, however small it was and in some cases, provided the hope for growth in what they called the company.(Socorro.F 2004 pp 242)
Now it is obvious to note that their treatment of employees was unfair and disproportionate, but by then the game was made so that issues were only permitted in the shelter home or anywhere else where employers do not listenÂ .
There were so many abuses committed that finally emerged movements and groups engaged in challenging, regular and even order the companies to abandon such practices and direct their efforts to ensure the welfare of worker collective bargaining had emerged as a means to balanceÂ employer-employee relationship and ensure the coexistence of two entities whose natures were observed as being different.
The collective bargaining have become real advocates of employment status, provided ideas and solutions to those problems where the company had not ensured sensitivity and treatment under the vision of equal conditions for all staff, and it made sense for the momentÂ appeared employees were merely a "resource" must for the development of the tasks of the company or a smaller number in the template of the payroll, for transfer only had the old concept of slavery to the work environment beingÂ only notable difference salary payments for work done.
B.8.1. OBJECTIVES OF COLLECTIVE BARGAINING
The main objective of unions is to defend the rights of workers, and actions used to accomplish this task can be classified as immediate and mediate.
The task of unions is to first seek the union of workers to defend their rights and, second, to achieve collective agreements in better working conditions for its members, the above are considered immediate action.Â
Meditate actions relate to the transformation of the state in order that it provide better living conditions for workers, what becomes of political actions.Specific objectives of unions are:
- A fair wage.
- Better working conditions.
- Stable employment for anyone.
B.8.2 COLLECTIVE BARGAINING CONSISTS OF THREE INTERLINKED PHASES, WHICH ARE:
The first phase, preparation for negotiations, is the first and most essential, and can include data collection and preparation may require many months of hard work.Â
The success of the second phase, negotiations with the collective bargaining, depends largely on the preparation that each party has fulfilled the first stage.Â
The third phase includes activities to monitor the administration of collective agreement
B.8.3 WHAT ROLE COLLECTIVE BARGAINING PLAY IN ORGANIZATIONS TODAY
The companies were no longer seen as such great monsters of buildings that stood in major cities, or in its outskirts, and it was hard to realize that hold large buildings and almost an unlimited number of goods was not what made the business prosper,Â but the emergence of concepts such as intellectual capital as an element of value in organizations and understanding of knowledge management and its impact on the environment have disproved anything that would prejudice the dignity of human beings.
In theory, companies should be aimed at maintaining a work environment conducive to creativity, balance and well being of employees, compensation and benefits have to seek the incorporation of character "tailored" to meetÂ the needs of both workers and keep them motivated, detection, quantification and development of skills is another way that should be using those whose responsibility is to manage the human resources in order to increase the individual's personal development and lead to a higher degree ofÂ professionalism should study the colours of the facilities, lighting and types of furniture, according to the case, to match the work done and, to top it off, flexible schedules to fit the ideal time where the employee is more production and to facilitate their social and personal development beyond their job responsibilities.
Faced with a scenario like the previous one does it require the presence of a collective bargaining?Â
In an atmosphere described as a collective bargaining it does not fit the duties inherent to their existence have been assumed by those human capital management and treat it as a real resource, then why do you need a collective bargaining?.
Additionally, collective bargaining are the representatives of the employees at the company are those who bring their requirements to those with the capacity to respond to them
The workers spent a third plane (them) to a main plane (we) as the vision of separate businesses into two halves, first the weak legal system: the employee, and on the other hand, the holder of theÂ financial resources: the employer, has tended to disappear, the organization is understood as a whole, while its efforts to a common good, in fact there is already talk of corporate social responsibility which directly impacts the quality of lifeÂ of their workers.
If organizations have realized the value of the people who make up does not make sense the presence of an organ other than HR-monitoring also reminded of their duties and responsibilities as the good treatment they should provide staff, becauseÂ There would be the strongest evidence of poor work that unit and those who run the firm are doing on human capital management.
Can it be said, after analyzing the foregoing, the Human Resources Management for Excellence should be the best collective bargaining of any company, but not as a liaison, but as a guarantor of balance, equity and ID must existÂ always in the organization, otherwise, and of course, discontent and disillusionment with brewing culminate in individuals a way to defend themselves and, in turn, protect one who fails.