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This reflective journal is the work which has been collected during the lectures and the personal research from various text books and journals; it enables me to understand the subject of Organisational Analysis in depth.
A team is defined as a "psychological group whose members share a common goal that they pursue collaboratively. Members can only succeed or fail as a whole, and all share the benefits and costs of collective success or failure" this by Huczynski A.A. and Buchanan D.A. (2007). What I think in group/teamwork every member must play an important role so as to get the desired goal. For instance in our group work, every member, of the group was assigned a certain problem and give solution to that problem, for example problems related to high level of scraps and interdepartmental conflicts, all of these were discussed in the group and the consensus reached, which was then presented in the class. In our group work every member has a role which he plays as a member for example, member No.Aa and No.Bb were playing as team co-ordinator that is to say They are mature, confident, good chairperson clarifying goals and also promote decision making. Group member Cc I considered her, as shaper as she was challenging, dynamic, thrives on pressure, has courage to overcome obstacles but her problems are: can provoke others, hurts people's feeling. Member Dd I feel was like specialist with single minded, self-sharing, dedicated. She provides knowledge and skills in rare supply, who I think she contributes on only narrow front. Member Aa also played as monitor/evaluator she was sober, strategic and discerning. Sees all options and judges accurately but lacks drive. I was playing as team-worker that means I was co-operative, mild, perceptive and diplomatic, listener, builds and averts frictions, and was good in making decision, in crunch situations, not as Belbin team role suggests, he described the team role as a pattern of behaviour, characteristic of the way in which one team member interacts with another whose performance serves to facilitate the progress of the team as a whole. That is to say if you are team-worker you must be indecisive in crunch situations, I completed my task and disseminated it on time as required. I was not indecisive in crunch situations. In our group we lack some team roles such as 'plant', the one who is creative, imaginative and can solve difficult problems, also we lack 'completer' the one who is painstaking, conscientious, anxious, who also search out errors and omissions, and delivers on time. Belbin's nine team-roles were Ok. Some of the critiques against Belbin's team role are as follows, it is difficult to say that a given team succeeded because it possessed all nine roles or it failed because it lacks some of them, the team roles and individual personality differences have been insufficiently related because the concepts of team role and personality have became more intertwined being treated as interchangeable rather than as separate but interrelated, performance is affected by various factors such as strategy and different leadership, structure and management style and interpersonal skills, focusing exclusively on team composition leads to ignoring these other factors. The theory does not sufficiently take into account differences in the type of tasks that the team is being asked to perform. For example additive, conjunctive and disjunctive tasks may require different combination of team roles to achieve success and so many others.
These critiques may be found in Huczynski A. A. and Buchanan D.A. (2007) if compared to the book by Mullins L.J. (2007) who just mention the doubts about the values of Belbin's self Perception Inventory he didn't give any critiques to those roles.
Wendell and Cecil (1990) Insisted intergroup relations so as to increase communications and interactions between work-related groups so as to reduce the amount of dysfunctional competition, and awareness of the necessity for interdependent of action, he said it is common for a significant amount of dysfunctional energy to be spent in competition, and misunderstanding, miscommunication, and misperception between groups.
Yeh Elizabeth et al (2006) with their 3 dimension team model considered individual preferences, personality and behaviour which were not considered by the traditional writers. The traditional writers they just considered functions and status, and the 3 dimension team model incorporated appropriate roles identified in Belbin's model the composition of the team was crucial for the team performance. If this model is compared by Aritzeta Aitor et al (2007) their attention have been given to the influence of the team member diversity in terms of roles he played in a team.
1. 1 Conclusion
In the group, members should work together as a team, in order to bring up an expected performance; each member in the group should play its role so as to improve team performance. The team members also should be strive to solve problems and develop individual skills, for example in our group/team work was striving to solve the existing problem and give the solution to the problem and also improve the skills on how to solve the problems.
2.0 Work Experience
From the group work, every member of the group has got his own work experience. Starting with myself I have worked with various organisations, I have worked with banking sector from bank clerk to accountant level, in banking I started with writing vouchers, posting voucher entry to the ledger accounts, balancing of daily work, assisting customers in filling telegraphic transfer forms, issuing of bills payable receipts and so on, in Accountant level I used to verify vouchers and approving them, Testing of the telegraphic transfer, in the Government apart from the above explained duties also I was preparing the departmental budget of the Ministry of finance, reconciliation of itemized printout, with vote book, replying audit queries, facilitating workshops attending departmental meeting and other duties as may be assigned by my supervisor.
I have worked with Legal sector as an accountant and I am currently working with Government sector, as an Accountant, by education I am a Postgraduate Diploma in Accountancy holder, through education I learnt theory in relation to total quality management and it works because in our organisation they involve people, accountant especially in setting the budget, and you start feeling that it is yours and make it fit for the purposes intended, also by involving people in the organisation with aim of satisfying customers or suppliers it gives everyone responsibility in improving quality and satisfying final customer.
The experience I have got from work and knowledge obtained from education contributed to great extent in performing the group assignment. Using my work experience and knowledge I got from education, was required to provide the solution on how to reduce the higher level of scraps and resolve conflict between the packaging and production department.
My suggestions was that setting a pace which is attainable by the staff, and that, the decision making should be made by general meeting or by the appointed committee, not to be done by one individual, as it was always done by the production department supervisor because this will . Setting the pace attainable by the staff could reduce or eliminate the scraps, and by making the decision in meeting or by the committee could reduce the conflict between the packaging and production department. I also introduced the concept of Total Quality Management (TQM) whereby the management should involve people, to be committed to customer satisfaction through a continuous process of improvement and contribution to the change of quality. Other group member have got experience for instance group member 'a' has hold position of marketing manager with Bachelor of Business Administration contributed in area of management and production, where she suggested to up-grade the existing machine or to invest in new machine depending on the budget of the firm, because she thought this could reduce the complexity and breakdown hours that affect the output of the machine. Other group member 'b' with bachelor of law and held a position of Head of Human Resource Department in her office, she contributed in areas of dissatisfactions or low moral for motivation, Job content and unreasonable job reallocation because she thought if people are not satisfied they cannot deliver what is required. Also in delegation or empowerment, lack of supervisory skills or management skills and no team building skills, she suggested solutions as to set clear job descriptions, job rotation, to provide incentive programs, salary grading system, provision of training programme and job manuals provision for example un-skills workers with operation manual or basic and clear work instructions, this she thought was very important because if an employee knows what is supposed to do and also there is motivation for the work, she should work hard. Another member of the group with Bachelor of engineering who worked as a business consultant contributed in the area of internal communication as explained by the FAB Sweets Ltd company, there was communication problems, he provided some of the possible solutions as to hold weekly and monthly meeting, as such weekly for production and packaging workers and monthly for management and supervisors. This could reduce or eliminate the problem of communication, because if there is something which is not understood, it can be easily understood by holding a meeting in a short period. I basically agree with the suggested solution my colleagues have delivered.
In writing this part here, I considered my experience, experience of my group members and I feel that having experience will reduce the time taken to do a certain job, because if a job is done repetitively although it becomes monotonous but it can be done in less time than if a job is being done for the first time.
3.0 Organisation Structure
The structure is the pattern of relationship among positions in the organisation, it makes possible the process of management and creates framework of order and command where the activities of the organisation can be planned, organised, directed and controlled. The FAB sweets structure will define tasks, and responsibility, relationships and roles and channels of communication, Mullins: (2007)
If we examine the Burns and Stalker model we can find two types of organisation structure, Mechanistic and Organic model. It would appear that Mechanistic is a more rigid structure and more appropriate to stable conditions which according to Fab Sweets case study conducted in the class, this structure are good when conditions does not change it means there is stable environment whereby there is little or no unexpected change in the product, market and also technology and this has similar feature to that of bureaucracy by Max Webber (1864-1920) and it is unable to deals adequately with rapid change, therefore it is appropriate with stable environment, for example under this conditions the Organization is able to have high employees specialization. According to the model the organic structure is a more fluid structure which is appropriate to changing conditions, for example under this conditions; the specialization will be impractical, because always new problems and unforeseen circumstances arise constantly.
Taking the example of Fab Sweets which we completed in the class, the company may be related to highly mechanistic structure, as you can observe the diagnostic tools scores of the model in the appendix it shows that total scores of 42 points were obtained, which indicates that it is highly mechanistic and it means that the organisation has clear rules and regulations that everyone is expected to follow closely to a considerable extent, and to almost no extent has this organisation have policies being reviewed by people they affect before being implemented, in this organisation there is no room for everyone to be allowed to develop their talents and abilities, and to great extent everyone in this organisation knows who is, his immediate supervisor and supporting relationship are clearly defined, and to considerable extent jobs in this organisation are clearly defined and everyone knows exactly what is expected of a person in any specific position, and in this organisation work groups are to the no extent typically temporary and change often, all decisions in this organisation to the great extent must be reviewed and approved by upper level management, and to the no extent does the organisation emphasis on adapting to constant environmental change, also to a considerable extent jobs in this organisation are usually broken into highly specialised smaller tasks, and to considerable extent standards activities in this organisation are always covered by clearly outlined procedures that define the sequence of actions that everyone is expected to follow.
Jackson and Carter (2007): Has analysed structure in terms of physical, abstract structure, the ontology of structure and tried to relate Poststructuralist and structure. In physical structure he explained that structure has two basic functions, that is providing support and organising relations he compared the structure and building and concluded that building provide shelter and organise what is inside. The building contains space- different rooms, different functions for rooms. Structure create amount of order, structure is also linked to purpose. In terms of abstract structure, this also have the same characteristics as physical ones.
Pugh and Hickson (2000) Great writers on organizations
The writer of this omnibus Edition tries to identify the prominent writers on organizations and describes the contributions they have made.
Here we can find Max Weber (1864-1920) with his theory of authority structures, why people do, as they are told and also the concepts of bureaucracy but also there are critics in relation to Webber's ideas for example officials may develop a dependence upon bureaucratic status, symbols and rules. Over-emphasis on rules and procedures, record keeping and paperwork may become more important in its own right than as a means to an end. Position and responsibilities in the organisation can leads to officious bureaucratic behaviour. Sometimes there may be a tendency to conceal administrative procedures from outsiders. Impersonal relations can leads to stereotyped behaviour and a lack of responsiveness to individual incidents or problems.
Derek Pugh at al have contributed to formal structures which were analysed in terms of degrees of specialization of functions and roles; standardization of procedures; formalization of documentation; centralization of authority; configuration of role structure.
It is true that every organisation needs a direction, and the structure depicts the way in which the organisation can go. There is no specific structure for all organisations to follow, but any organisation can design its own to save for the purpose. The design will depend on the organisation it self, in regard to Fab-Sweets because we have decided that this is mechanistic structure, and we should work within established rules, systems and procedures as set out by the management.
4.0 Intercultural Skills
Sharabi M (2009) Said according to Hofstede (2001) Culture can be defined as the learned programming of the mind that differentiates one group from another group. In his research he compared values especially between individualism and collectivism dimensions, between nationals. In his research he found that the meaning of work is expressed differently in different society, according to his view culture shapes and directs the choice, commitments and standards of action which in turn influence a person's altitudes and values. For example in our group work every group member were given a chance to select a sub topic which he/she have to go through it and give suggested solution, after getting group consensus was presented in class, in that regard every group member was committed to that work.
In this part of the reflective journal for organisation analysis, I am considering the group I was working with, during the case study in our class. I remember sometimes you may find that you do not understand what the person is talking about, due to language differences, for example a Chinese lady may pronounce the word, which you could not understand, and you may ask to repeat the sentence so that you may understand. Sometimes this may also cause inconvenience to some other group members. But because you value every group members, you have to tolerate for whatever she is doing. In this regard I learnt how communication and interaction skills are very important. My expectations when I came here was that I could find a class of at least half the number of students in the class as we used to be in our country, because in our country a class used to be more than one hundred students. But things here are different, students are less than expected, in here the interaction skills is very important because if you are in a class with few students it is easy for the Lecturer to know the problem of every student and solve that problem. As a group become more diverse, and due to globalisation of business, an individual should be more sensitive and combined to ability to adapt his or her behaviour is of paramount important. Fortuin K.P.J and Bush S. (2009). Culture differs with respect to task completion and relationships. For example in our country, there is time set to enter the office, let say 2.30 am. There may be time set for leaving the office but, to leave the office it will depend on the completion of tasks you have been assigned. This also will depend on the Ministry or department you are, because other Ministry or Department has less tasks compared to others. If compared to UK, as I have observed they are very flexible in that you may leave the office when time is over, and they insist much in punctuality. In our country a person may come late in the meeting without any big reason and no apology at all, another example is that kissing in public in UK and other western countries is normal but in our country it is not common, Kreitner R et al (1999)
Dorn and Cavalieri-Koch (2005) Proposes that cultural differences should be recognised from early stage of formulation of the company's mission statement and reflected in rules and regulations set out for employees, for example in our group work, we have to understand culture differences at early stage of forming the group, but we took for granted that, we are all the same, thanks that everything went well.
Sharabi (2009) the journal describe the work values, employment and ethnicity but also he mentioned about cultural differences as this can shape and modify values, there is work related discrimination, also the author said about Hofstede (1980, 2001) who compared collectivism and individualism between nations and Erez and Early (1993) who compared work values in different countries but they both came with the same conclusion that the meaning of work is expressed differently in different society, according to their view culture shapes and directs the choice, commitments and standards of action which in turn influence a person's altitudes and values. Other literatures on work values suggest that work attitudes and behaviour are governed to the large extent by values. Refer
Khalil M and Abu-Saad (2009)
Many of the text books talk about Hofstede's research for national cultures which mainly was about Individualism and collectivism but his work was not conducted to include large sample for example he took the sample of IBM employees in different countries and minly from sale and marketing departments and in other countries he a sample size of less than 37% respondent and was oversimplified, static and for not providing basis for his judgement whether two cultures are different, Huczynski A. A. and Buchanan D.A. (2007)
In every work which is performed by group of different nationalities or diverse group it is very important to be aware of intercultural skills, because this will help to adapt according to prevailing situation. Also members of the group should be able to acquire new knowledge and use that knowledge for communication and interactions.
5.0 Reference list
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Belbin, R.M. (1993a) Team roles at work. Oxford: Butterworth Heinemann.
Burns, and Stalker, G.M. (1996) The Management of innovation: London: Tavistock.
Dorn and Cavalieri-Koch (2005) UK Trade and Investment: Intercultural Skills Edited by The national centre for languages
Fortuin K.P.J and Bush S. (2009) Educating students to cross boundaries between disciplines and cultures and between theory and practice: International Journal of sustainability in Higher education; Vol. II No.1. 2010. www.emeraldinsight.com/146-6370.htm
Gareth Morgan: (1998) Images of organisation: California: SAGE Publications; Inc.
Grey C. and Willmott H (2005): Critical Management Studies: Oxford: Oxford University Press.
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Jackson N and Carter P (2007): Rethinking Organisation Behaviour: A Poststructuralist Framework.2nd Edition. England, Pearson Education Limited
Khalil M and Abu-Saad (2009) Islamic work ethic among Arab college students in Israel: Cross Cultural Management: An international Journal: Vol.16 No. 4 pg 333-346 www.emeraldinsight.com/1352-7606.htm
Kreitner R,Kinicki A and Buelens M (1999) Organizational Behaviour: First European Edition: Berkshire England, McGraw-Hill Publishing Company
Mintzberg H (1979).The structuring of Organizations: London: Prentice-Hall, INC
Mullins L.J. (2007) Management and Organisational Behaviour 8thedition: Edinburgh Gate England: Pearson Education Limited
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Sandra Dawson (1996) Analysing Organisations: Third edition: London, MACMILAN PRESS LTD
Sharabi M (2009) Work values employment and ethnicity: Jewish and Muslims academic in Israel: Cross Cultural Management: An international Journal: Vol.16 No. 4 pg 398-409
Wendell and Cecil (1990): Organisation Development: Behaviour Science Interventions for Organisation Improvement Prentice Hall International Editions
Yeh E, Smith C, Jennings C and Castro N. (2006) Team Building: a 3-dimension Teamwork model: Team Performance Management. Vol.12 issue No.5/6 pp 192-197 www.emeraldinsight.com/1352 -7592.htm