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Organizations do not exist for the sole purpose of producing want satisfying goods or services for society. According to Smith (1776) the butcher, baker and brewer do not go into production and sale because they want to just help out but rather because they have their own interests at heart. Business in a sense has exploited society's desires and turned them into avenues where they can make profit by producing goods and services which would ease humanities insatiable wants. Business years ago did this without considering all the effects their activities would have on society and even when they considered the effects, they still places profit first and societies perseveration last.
The adverse effects business was having on society some hundred and fifty years ago and the rapid growth of capitalism lead to various uprisings against the practices of business. McEwan writes (2001) that the anti-trust movements resulted from "the new industrial trusts and corporations which had become too powerful, wasted resources were politically dangerous and socially irresponsible" (p4). Farmer, R. and Hogue, D (1973) also wrote that as early as the 1890's the American government spear-headed the efforts to cause corporate entities to be socially responsible by passing safety laws, laws on child labour, and gave workers the opportunity to create trusts.
Nader et al (1997) wrote that Corporations on American soil became more aware of their responsibilities to societies in 1906 when the Supreme Court announced that "the corporation is a creature of the state. It is presumed to be incorporated for the benefit of the public. It receives certain special privileges and franchises, and holds them subject to proper government supervision" (pp22-35). Men such as Andrew Carnegie (1835-1919) who built three libraries for the public and believed that rich people have a responsibility to give back to society and Julius Rosenwald who developed the infants' 4-h "heads, hands, heart and health" club for the youth and came up with the Countries farm agent system believed one in order to do well in life needs to do good. These men saw the need to develop the competence, productivity, and income of the still desperately poor and backward American farmer. In the United Kingdom men such as Robert Owen, Cadbury and Leverhulme debated that "workers who were treated well would respond well" (p17) this belief was called the enlightened self-interest (Cannon, 1994).
Corporations have come to understand that they are not working in an area where they are the sole influencing agents but rather that they exist in a society where they influence with their policies and are influenced also by the actions of the society. Corporations are born out of the need of society. Adam Smith ( 1776) said "It is not from the benevolence of the butcher, the brewer, or the baker, that we expect our dinner, but from their regard to their own interest" (p. 26). Henderson (2008) said a free-market system is a market system where the prices of goods or demand and supply are determined by both the purchaser and the supplier without force or the aid of a third party be it government interventions or whatsoever.
Corporations begin their existence by recognizing a need of society and creating a product which would satisfy that need, society takes this product and makes use of it and the more society is interested in the product of the organization the more the organization grows. This is the work of the invisible hand theory of a free-market. Smith (1776) also believes that in a perfect competition market the prices or supply of goods would be determined by the producer of the commodity or service and the consumer. This means should a seller advertise a product at a set price and I chose to buy the product at that price, then an exchange has taken place in the free-market in that I was not forced by threat or insult to purchase the commodity but rather chose to purchase it to satisfy my need. Should a company sell a tin of milk for GH cedis 150.00 and I do not buy it, and government did not also force the company to reduce the price of the commodity, then price would most likely keep falling until it is of reasonable pricing to me the consumer. There is an expected balance between the affairs of the business and that of the society in that the policies of the organization are not expected to be detrimental to the society and society is also expected to keep away from activities which would have negative effects on the corporation.
In this century, it is not enough for any corporation to achieve financial excellence. Corporations are expected to give back into society by embarking on projects which would also safe-guard the other needs of society. This is known as Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). CSR can be used by companies as a means of gaining favour in the eyes of the society or creating better image for itself by making society believe that the organization cares about the well-being of society.
Businesses engage in projects such as the provision of clean drinking water, free or subsidized medical care, building projects such as schools, clinics and recreational centers amongst others. This paper seeks to outline what CSR means, how it came about, which types of projects are embarked on, the pros and cons of it, and whether it is ethical.
Background of Study
Corporate Social Responsibility also known as CSR has many definitions of which some are (Bauer, R & Ackerman, R, 1976) "It is seriously considering the impact of the company's actions on society". It is also defined as "the obligation of decision makers to take actions which protect and improve the welfare of society as a whole along with their own interests" (p.39) Keith and Blomstrom ( 1975). Another definition of CSR is by McGuire (1963) who said "The idea of social responsibility supposes that the corporation has not only economic and legal obligations, but also certain responsibilities to society which extend beyond these obligations" (p.144).
Various definitions have followed the other stated definitions. One of these definitions was by Carrol who placed four responsibilities on CSR. Business according to Carrol (1991) has four responsibilities and they are the economic, legal, ethical and philanthropic responsibilities. The economic responsibility requires that businesses follow their primary objective which engages in activities or projects which result in profits or material gains. The legal responsibility also ensures that businesses work within a law abiding framework and does not violate society; the ethical responsibility also denotes that there are various practices which are not unlawful but rather unethical in that they are not codified but rather are general conducts which society frowns on.
The ethical aspect expects business to not just be lawful but also ethical in their day to day activities. The last responsibility which is the philanthropic responsibility is a modern addition to the responsibility of society since businesses also have the structure and resources to make an addition to improving society by engaging in activities which can help better the lives of society and not expect any material gain from these activities. This ideology has come under criticism by various scholars.
Another writer by name Lantos (2001) places the responsibilities of business in three (3) categories which are the ethical, altruistic and strategic. The ethical responsibility is a combination of the economic, legal and ethical aspect in that businesses are expected to be productive by following the legal or moral codes of society and any attempt to go against these laws places business at logger-heads with society since society would not permit its rights to be trampled on by business. The altruistic aspect of business which is business giving to society without expecting returns from society has come under various criticism since some people see it as business using resources which are primarily meant to better shareholders capital, and using these resources for activities which do not result in material gain without the permission of the shareholders. Also strategic CSR is when businesses engage in activities which better the living standards of the people and also benefits the business organization. Society also becomes encouraged to give back to business and this is another means of advertisement for companies. Friedman (1970) who leads the classical economic theory argues that the main responsibility of business is to make profit for its shareholders or investors and not to resolve social issues. He believes social issues are resolved by the free-market system and the issues which are not resolved should be dealt with by government or other bodies. A thorough scrutiny of Friedman's debate gives the impression that he accepts the legal, economic and ethical responsibility of business but not the philanthropic or altruistic aspect of the responsibility.
Statement of Problem
There have been various debates concerning the ethics of corporate social responsibility. Most arguments against CSR are aimed at the philanthropic or altruistic responsibility of CSR. Some of the prominent arguments against CSR are that the altruistic and philanthropic aspects of CSR are unethical. This is because the corporation takes resources which are supposed to be used for the conducting of activities which would result in material gains for the company and the shareholders. They use those resources on projects or programs which are aimed at reducing the challenges society faces. Shaw and Barry (1992) wrote that "Business organizations are not usually competent to effectively involve themselves in public welfare issues". This is because they do not have adequate training and facilities to provide the needed aid which society desires.
MTN Ghana has indulged in several activities which are aimed at improving both the health and educational sectors of Ghana. MTN Ghana is a communication service provider whose corporate vision is to be the leading telecommunication service provider in emerging markets. It is the primary function of business to provide quality products which would satisfy the needs of society and make profits for its shareholders. MTN Ghana is expected to facilitate good services for its subscribers, and all resources are expected to be used to facilitate that good services are provided. This paper seeks to find out whether the CSR activities undertaken by MTN Ghana are supported or frowned on by the shareholders.
The following questions need to be answered in this project work;
What kind of CSR activity is practiced by MTN (strategic or altruistic)
Why organizations will choose either strategic or altruistic form of CSR?
What are the effects of CSR on the organization and the society?
Are the stakeholders in agreement with this type of CSR or any form of CSR?
The chosen organization for this research is a communication network known as MTN since it is one of the leading communication service providers. MTN was chosen because it has the largest market share of subscribers in Ghana (MTN Group, 2008).
Sampling of Respondents
Since this research is a qualitative study into the attitudes of shareholders towards CSR activities, the researcher would limits his research to the MTN workers who are not shareholders and workers who are also shareholders. This is because workers who are not shareholders stand to benefit if the resources that are allocated to CSR activities are rather used to improve working conditions by increasing salaries, allowances and provide better technology to simplify work whiles workers who are also shareholders would reap larger profits from the investments when the profit is shared.
Relevant information on who the shareholders of MTN Ghana are would be collected from the MTN office in Dansoman due to its proximity and familiarity with the researcher. The Madina and Dansoman MTN offices have few workers and as such twenty of these workers would be quarried and the needed data recorded.
The simple random sampling method, which is that sampling method where all members have an equal chance of been selected would be used. Although this method has its own faults of which some are its inability to present a fair representation of all concerned members in situations where one group has few members present in the total population. It may give all members (Tucker, 1998) an equal chance of been selected and by so doing reduce researchers bias.
The snowball method according to (Trochim, 2006) is that method of gathering data whereby an interviewer may enquire from a source that meet the criteria for inclusion after which the source also suggest others who also meet the criteria of the research. This method is mostly used in circumstances when it is difficult to locate sources that fit the researchers' criteria. This method would be used for the shareholders since the shareholders know themselves due to the shareholders meetings they have been attending and it is highly likely that it would be difficult to acquire the list of shareholders from the organizational heads.
Instruments for gathering data
Data would be collected from both primary and secondary sources in that the secondary sources include various libraries in Accra from which information would be gathered. The internet would also be used as a source of gathering data. The primary sources would be gathered with the use of structured questionnaires for the shareholders and workers of MTN. This is due to the probability that they may not have time for interviews.
Significance of Study
Organizations have the responsibility of facilitating a good relationship with the community in which they can be found or seek to establish themselves. Businesses apart from non-profit organizations which are into charity works are expected to maximize profits.
The finding of this paper would outline the pros and cons of CSR and will educate businesses that undertake CSR activities and those who are not. This research will serve as a source of reference to future researchers who will be interested in CSR and related issues. It would also give companies a fair idea of the activities shareholders would like to see sponsored and shareholders would also be able to hold the company responsible for any CSR activity taken.
This research would use a single private firm which is MTN Ghana as its case study and the population of study would be limited to only workers of MTN Ghana. The shareholders to be sampled would also consist of only those who work for MTN Ghana.
This study is designed to examine the ethicality of Corporate Social Responsibility practiced by private enterprises and the views of their shareholders. This research uses only one organization as its research base and would select 20 representatives for its data collection. This organization may have policies in place which may influence the representatives. This research can not form a general view of all shareholders since it makes use of representatives within a single business entity.
The organization of study
This study follows the original five chapter dissertation structure. The chapter one of this study includes the following sections: An introduction of the study, the background of the problem, statement of problem, the research question, methodology, significance of the study, delimitations and limitations of the study, the organization of this study and a chapter summary.
The chapter two follows and includes a review of literature and also concludes with a chapter summary. Other headings are the theoretical section which consists of the social contract theory, the stakeholder theory and the issue of utilitarianism. This is followed by a review of literature which presents the case of doing some good. The empirical section of this literature review would contain various organizations, countries and groups who have practiced CSR or do not practice CSR and their reasons. Chapter three includes the overview of study, a corporate profile, representatives, mode of selecting representatives' and more
The Chapter one of this study unearths various definitions of Corporate Social Responsibility and it provides the views of various scholars on the types of responsibilities an organization has. It also provides critiques for most of these definitions and responsibilities provided by other scholars.
2.0 Literature Review
In this chapter, related literature would be reviewed and this review would take the form of research works, books, magazines, journals and web articles written or published in relation to this subject matter. This section would take two forms been the theoretical framework and the related literature. In this sections various theories pertaining to the history of CSR would be addressed along with current research into CSR activities by various scholars and a detailed background into the company been understudied.
2.1 Theoretical Framework
This study attempts to find a place for the significance of CSR on its shareholders. Here theories that support and speak against CSR would be discussed.
2.1.1 Social Contract Theory
A prominent theory which is believed to have actively contributed to the development of CSR is the Social Contract Theory. This theory was first described by (Locke, 1689) who believed that before civil society developed ruling bodies or central authorities that regulated the affairs of people. Societal members lived in a state where they were all equal and had the right to pursue any interest without fear of prejudice. He believed that this society that lacked a central ruling body was not unethical or immoral because they where capable of been guided by the law of nature. This law of nature according to Locke was the foundation of morality since it embodied the will of God. This basic law commanded that no harm should be done to others with emphasis on life, freewill and ownership.
SCT describes an agreement between society and state and underlines the respective rights and obligations of these two entities. This theory entails various other theories that describe why and how societies form states in their attempt to create a system of social law and order. The theory also holds that people give up a part of their sovereignty to a central ruling body or structure that is charged with the responsibility of regulating social order. In order words states arise out of the joint agreement of all or most members of the society, who agree to relinquish part of their autonomy to the central body and charge this body with the duty of ensuring order.
Another social contract theorist who had a similar belief was (Hobbes, 1651) who believed that a society that lacked a central ruling authority would be a chaotic society. He categorically stated that in the absence of an authority's control, "men would live in a state of nature, governed by his reason in the service of his passions and to achieve his desires men would not only strive for power, but for more power to secure the power he already has. Hobbes basically meant in order to achieve social order; individuals in society would have to give up their personal rights to a sovereign who was required to ensure the protection of life, freewill and ownership. Hobbes believed that without this sovereign people would live in a state of nature. This state of nature provided the grounds for unlimited freedom and thus gave people the right to pursue their interest with complete disregard for other individuals, which eventually results in what he termed as a "war of all against all"(p.5).
Hobbes further believes that in order to avoid this war, freemen must establish societies based on social contracts so as present civil rights to individual members who subject themselves to this ruling body or political authority.
Locke and Hobbes have similar believes with the main disparity been Locke's belief that people in the state of nature would have firm morals although he also acknowledged that these people would constantly fear each other while Hobbes believed that people in this state of nature would live a "solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short" life. He believed this society would experience a constant case of chaos and anarchy since all individuals would actively pursue their own interest without considering the negative effect on other members of society.
Hobbes believed that anarchy in the state of nature was solved by the relinquishing of individual rights to a central authority. The similarity of their believes was that a state of nature was a necessary evil since it laid the basics or foundation for a social contract which eventually results in the relinquishing of autonomy to a sovereign. This sovereign was they required to protect the lives, freewill and possessions of the individuals and groups within the society
Business exists in the premises of society and as such they both interact both directly through trade and indirectly though the effects of the trade such as pollution, or employment. A state of nature can in a sense be compared to a pluralistic society, which according to McGuire (1963) is "A society in which there is wide decentralization and diversity of power concentration". Society and business have some similar interest as well as different interests. There is therefore the need for an external body to regulate the affairs of both business and society so as to ensure that both parties do not pursue their personal goals at the detriment of the other party. This body of authority is mostly the government and other regulative bodies.
2.1.2 Stakeholder Theory
According to Carroll, A., & Buchholtz, A (2006) "a stake is an interest in something and Stakeholders are those groups or individuals with whom an organization interacts or has interdependencies" (p.7).The word stake or stakeholder can be used in various ways of which some are descriptively and instrumentally (Donaldson, T and Preston, L. E. 1995). When stake or stakeholder is used descriptively it is used to represent situations where a person or group is affected by the direct activities of the organization. It in essence shows the relationship between the group and organization. The word is used instrumentally to represent situations where the individual or group may have an effect on the organization (Freeman, 1984).
Every organization be it business, government or non-profit has numerous stakeholders. Some of the stakeholders stand to benefit from the operations of the firm whiles others would prefer the shut-down of the organization. The stakeholder management concept is placed in three categories. The first requires that a business knows who its stakeholders are and the kind of stake they have in the affairs of the firm. The second requirement is for the stakeholders to manage the affairs of their stakeholders.
According to Brummer (1991) the maximization of profit for the stakeholder's investment is the view of the instrumental use of stakeholder management but the normative view looks at the normative claims that lend moral support to the stakes. These claims must first be well defined and the obligations outlined, although in some circumstances it is not known to whom a business is obliged and the extent of the obligation. Evaluation the claims of other stakeholders is also important because by first acknowledging that organizations have various stakeholders, conflict between these groups are inevitable and as such these conflicts need to managed and reconciled amicably and that can be done only when the firm knows who the stakeholders are and the kind of claim they have. Freeman's book on strategic management looks at how firms can operate with moral values.
The stakeholder management theory basically addresses the groups that make-up the stakeholders and how best to address the interest and desires of these groups. Stakeholder management tries to integrate groups with a stake in the firm into managerial decision-making (Dome`nec Mele' & Elisabe Garriga,, 2004 p 59). The shareholders of MTN have all invested resources into the activities of the firm and it is their desire that these investments reap profits. There are various arguments stating that shareholders are the main interest of the firm in that it is the duty of the firm to ensure that its activities would result in the maximization of shareholder profits.
The stakeholder management theory holds that management needs to know who its stakeholders are and achieve the goals of the primary stakeholders as well as have an ethical relationship with the other stakeholders. The stakeholder management theory looks at the various ways management can have or foster good relationship with all its stakeholder groups.
In a traditional view of the firm, the stake holder or shareholder is the owner of the organization and the organization has an unwavering duty to put their needs first. Proponents of the stakeholder theory argue that other parties involved include governmental bodies, political groups, trade associations, trade unions, communities and many others (Rockson, 2008).
This theory by (Mill, 1863) holds that "actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness, wrong as they tend to produce the reverse of happiness. Happiness here implies intended pleasure and the absence of pain whiles unhappiness means pain and the privation of pleasure" (p.9). This means an act is morally justified if more people derive happiness or pleasure from it in comparison to those who do not derive pleasure or happiness from it. In other words, if a choice is to be made between two choices to see which is most pleasurable then that choice which has provided a much greater pleasure to a larger group that has tasted both choices is the best. In the theory of utilitarianism as long as a greater portion of people derive pleasure from an action, activity or incident then that act is justified. This leaves no room for individual rights since the action or initiative that benefits the group is the most obvious choice, since this theory considers the act that benefits the group and not the sub units in the group and it does not matter whether the initiative or action infringes on the desires or rights of a lesser group. This theory can be likened to a socialist economy where the government controls all the factors of production and distributes resources to its citizens based on some pre-established principles. As an be observed in a socialistic state the rights of individuals citizens are not respected or recognized but the general rights of the citizens are what form the basic framework for which all laws are enacted. This theory is greatly criticized by Kantianism which forms the basic framework for human rights. The Kantians frowns on utilitarianism since utilitarianism does not consider individual rights. Also when production takes place there is a resulting private and social cost of the product. The private cost is the monetary cost of the product while the social cost is where people are affected negatively
2.3 Review of related literature
The purpose of the literature review was to identify and analyze the extant literature related to the concept of strategic and altruistic Corporate social Responsibility has been researched and how that is important for businesses today.
This review is categorized into four sections. The first section will focus on the history of CSR while the second section would look into organizations that have practiced CSR intentionally or unintentionally and their take on CSR whiles section three would look at organization that do not practice CSR and why they do not practice it. The final section would try to discern whether CSR can be measured and on what principles it can be measured.
Various CSR Initiatives
Cause - Related Marketing
A corporation usually does this by partnering with a non-profit organization. The corporate donates proportion of its earnings to a particular cause based on the sales of products. This corporate initiative works both as a marketing tool and a social responsibility and as such can be described as a form of strategic CSR. This tool is run for a fixed duration and used for a particular good and charity. MacDonald's (MacDonald's Corporation, 2004) which was ranked fifth best CSR organization by the Wall street journal in 2001 used this form of CSR on November 20, 2002, when it announced that it was going to raise funds to support the Ronald MacDonald's Donation house as well as various local children charities. Advertisements which promised that a percentage would be donated for the sale of every happy meal, Big Mac and other packages purchased in any MacDonald's restaurant in a hundred (100) different countries. The donation gathered where used to organize various activities and programs for children. This initiative significantly increased the sales by 300% in some countries and 5 in others.
Corporate Social Marketing
In this type of CSR initiative a firm attempt to re-orient society by embarking on campaigns which look into areas such as public health, safety, and societal well-being. These campaigns seek to develop and implement changes in some behavioral practices. Some firms initiate these campaigns on their own while other firms partner with public sector organizations. Ronald MacDonald's Charity House which is an arm of MacDonald's restaurants in collaboration with some health care providers have for the past few years been educating parents on the importance of early immunization for children.
This type of CSR is when the firms make donation or contributions to charity or a cause. This was the general CSR initiative practiced some years back but after pressure from both or either internal or external factors which are forcing corporations to adopt a more strategic approach to CSR. Washington Mutual contributes to the funding of the development of professional teachers, programs that inform parents of school performance, training for principles. Wamu provides scholarship opportunities for teachers who seek professional development and aids teachers who seek accreditation from the National board for professional Teaching Standards and more (Washington mutual, 2003). They provide the funding by looking for programs which focus on the development of individuals or groups that seek to make positive influence on the education systems. The Ronald MacDonald souse provides scholarship opportunities and contributes to projects that would lead to an improvement in health care.
Some firms encourage their workers to volunteer, participate or support local organizations pursue developmental initiatives. The organization may partner an NGO, stand alone or have a section of their workers decide to engage in the initiative on their own but have the support of the firm. Macdonald's during the 9/11 trials and some weeks that followed provided free foods in the disaster areas for the volunteers working on all the disaster sites. Its official arm of charity is also known for its volunteering efforts in tornado, floods, earthquakes and other disaster sites. It has in collaboration with the Red Cross provided aid to food and healthcare to disaster victims (MacDonald's Corporation, 2002).
Social Responsibility Business Practices
Corporations engage in programs or projects that result in the general benefit of society. Washington Mutual runs a high school intern program where they prepare young students for the future market by making available extensive ob training and experience. They recruit and mentor potential talents during these programs. MacDonald's also uses recycle paper and other recycled materials to run their business and this significantly reduces environmental pollution.
Gram posit that (1969) "the business firm is not only a producer of goods and services; it is a social system, a producer of social satisfactions for people connected with it, and tries to get things done through and with people" (p.5). Business abides by its own code of ethics with its major concern been more than the personal weakness in the nature of mankind. Business ethics rather concerns itself with the mode or way by which a business professional, as a business man conducts his business. It in essence is the ethics of doing business.
According to Culliton (1963) "there is no evidence of a basic conflict between business and ethics". That is to say business does not adhere to any lower form or standard of morality and according to Karl Marx theory of economic determinism is not the cause of immorality. The ethicality of business can be measured by measuring the procedures, methods and practices by which the businessman buys his resources, produces and sells his products and earns a profit. It entails how the organization relates with its customers, workers and other business entities. Business ethics thus goes beyond good practice and honesty since it includes social actitities or social contribution projects meant for the development of society.
The individuals of capitalist economies form the basics of society and are the main concern of the government, business and society. The individuals determines what business should produce at what quantity and quality, who should produce and when to produce it, and as such it is not the fault of business if it should produce goods and services that may harm society since the business only produce the desires of society the free-market provides society with varied choices.
The basic idea behind the free-market theory is that healthy competitions are the result of the freedom of choice and that the bad practices of a firm are as a result of poor competition. In other for there to be an improvement in the ethical standards one only has to reduce all monopolistic presence and all hindrances to fair trade. The ethics of this society and business results from the knowledge that unhappy consumers can purchase from competitors, and as such business professionals need to treat all consumers with real and delicate care. "Always let the people decide" is the slogan of the free-market economy. Milton Friedman is a stout supporter of the free-market cause, he believes that
The firm is the mode by which shareholders are able to extract profit on their initial investments from the consumers. According to Gram the firm is more entitled to the shareholders than the customers. This is because it is the shareholders resources that are used to create goods and services for the consumption of the consumer. The absence of shareholder investment would lead to a significant fall in production.
CSR in china
China is infamous for its human rights violations, sweatshops, poor standard products and extreme environmental pollution, which has given credit to the belief that Chinese companies are willing to make profit even when they infringe on the rights of humanity. Products manufactured by Chinese companies are known to be of low cost and poor quality but China has recently developed many CSR initiatives which comprise of laws, non- governmental standards, government regulations and the sort. Article 5 of the Chinese constitution requires that companies engage in socially responsible initiatives in doing business (Chinese Government, 2006).
Overview of study
The purpose of this research is to look into the ethicality of CSR practiced by private enterprises with a case study on MTN Ghana. The literature was chosen based on historical evidence, current observations and some relevant empirical writings of CSR and finally an analysis of the selected information. This chapter would comprise of an overview of the private entity been study which is MTN Ghana, the participants, selection of partakers, elaborations on research instruments to be used, analysis of data, and the results.
The purpose of this study is to outline the pros and cons of CSR and educate businesses that undertake CSR activities and those who do not. It will also serve as a source of reference to future researchers who will be interested in CSR and its related issues. It would also give companies a fair idea of the activities shareholders would like to see sponsored and shareholders would also be able to hold the company responsible for any CSR activity taken.
This research is limited to the MTN workers who are not shareholders and workers who are also shareholders. This is because it is the desire of the research to gather data from diverse groups. The basics of this diversity is that workers who are not shareholders stand to benefit if the resources that are allocated to CSR activities are rather used to improve working conditions by increasing salaries, allowances and provide better technology to simplify work whiles workers who are also shareholders would reap larger profits from the investments when the profit is shared. One group has invested not just time and effort but also financial values into the business and are expecting profits on their principal amount, whiles one group have invested effort and time and hope to be awarded accordingly although CSR finds the firm using resources for a different purpose which does not lead to the direct benefit of the workers or workers who are shareholders. Due to financial constraints, comfort and convenience 20 representatives would make up the population of study
Selection of Representatives
The goal of this process is to have a far balance of representatives for each group and as such ten workers would be chosen from both Madina and Adenta offices whiles ten shareholders who are also workers would be selected from the same offices. The use of an equivalent number of representatives for both groups would reduce the rate of bias or a singular influence on the data from a particular group.
Organization been studies
MTN Ghana has several offices in Ghana but their offices in Dansoman and Madina have been chosen because of familiarity to the researcher. Furthermore these offices have sufficient workers in them to make up the population of study.
Hello my name is Bethel Otchere - Baffour. I am a student of Ghana Christian University. I am researching on the topic; The Ethics of Corporate Social Responsibility in Private Companies: Case Study MTN Ghana. I wish to assure you that any information you may give is purely for academic purposes and will be kept secret and confidential. Thank you.
Do you work for MTN?
How long have you been working for MTN?
a) 1-6mths b) 6mths-2yrs
c) 2yrs-5yrs d) 5yrs upwards
Are you a shareholder of MTN
Are you familiar with CSR projects?
Yes b) No
Which of these CSR projects undertaken by MTN have you seen or heard?
a) Maturity ward b) Festivals
c) Educational fund d) Community development
How do you perceive those projects?
Important b) Not important
c) Not applicable
7. What are some of the immediate CSR projects you will want to see in your community?
Please indicate by marking the appropriate box.
10. Sex: female male
11. Age: 18-30 31-38 39-46 47-54 55-63
12. Professional level
a) Senior staff b) Middle level
c) Junior staff
13. Educational level
a) Senior secondary/ O'level
b) Certificate c) Diploma
d) Masters e) Bachelor
f) Professional qualification...please specify