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ASDA was established in 1965 by the group of farmers from Yorkshire, England. ASDA became a subsidiary of the American retail Wal-Mart in 1999. About 78,000 peoples were working in ASDA. The main thing is that all the staffs of ASDA Company/ stores have good knowledge of the products and they know what offers are on. Those staffs who are ready to give customer service do the well preparation to deal with the general enquires. If the member of staff are unsure of the answer of enquires they refers to the senior management. The main aim of ASDA is to produce good and quality products in low prices to the consumers and publics. All the staff members and management of ASDA are trying to fulfil this aim.
Job analysis plays the vital role for the development and the improvement of the company. It is use to describe a process of examining jobs in order to identify their main features, in particular the duties they fulfil, the result they are expected to achieve, the major tasks undertaken, and the job's relationship with other jobs in the companies hierarchy. This case study will explore the basic notations of job design and job analysis to support strategic objectives of the ASDA Company. This study also will focus on competency modelling as well as human resource strategy and its impact on overall corporate strategy for the future direction.
Likewise this study will explore manpower planning as well as principles related to the demand and supply of labour. Therefore it will help to assess the management requirements in choosing the right personnel, who are capable of completing those tasks that help to the ASDA to achieve its objectives.
Job Design and Job Analysis of ASDA
1. Job Design
Job consists of a set of tasks that are performed by the employee to fulfil the aims and objectives of the company. The content of job is affected by the purpose of the company, the structure of the company, the processes and activities carried out in the company, the technology of the company, environment in which the company operates. Therefore the job design has two aims: first, to satisfy the requirement of the ASDA company for productivity, efficiency and quality of product and service, and second is to satisfy the needs of the individuals for interest, challenge and accomplishment providing for job engagement and commitment to carrying out the job well. ASDA uses the following approach of job design to support strategic objectives.
Job Rotation: Employees can expose to different types of specialized jobs over time from Job Rotation. To provide more techniques and knowledge in different field ASDA uses the approach of job rotation.
Job Enlargement: To increase the numbers of activities in a job and to overcome the boredom of overspecialized work ASDA use this method of job design.
2. Job Analysis
Process of analyzing a job or occupation into its various components like structure of the company, work activities and informational content is a job analysis. The purpose of job analysis is to break the job down in to its essential elements and to be flexible about all other aspects of the job. Job analysis should be done in ASDA to write job description, job specification, to prepare organizational chart, to conduct time and motion studies, to write knowledge, skills and performance of the employee etc. ASDA provide various range of management and business areas jobs like Finance, George, Home shopping, Human Resource, IT, Logistics, Marketing, Optical, Pharmacy, Retail, Store development, Store management, Supply, Trading etc.
Employee Selection Criteria in ASDA
Person Specification: Person specification represents the ideal candidate includes skills, previous experience, qualifications, education, personal attributes, special attributes, interests and motivation etc.
Competency based criteria: Competencies have been defined as underlying characteristics of a person which result in effective or superior performance, like personal skills, knowledge, motives, traits, self -image and social role. ASDA design competency frameworks for a number of purposes, including selecting into the organization applicants who have the desired competencies. For example communication, team working and planning and organizing.
Selection Method: On line forms and interviews are the selection method of the employee in ASDA.
Training depends on the activities and information needed to perform in ASDA jobs. The titles of the task become the titles of corresponding training in ASDA.
A job description is a narrative statement defining a job, that is, what the employer expects of the employee in terms of on-the-job performance. As stated by Winning (1996), "A job description [or position description] is a list of responsibilities and functions â€¦ required in a particular position" (p. 1). ASDA do the Job description for the following purpose,
To provide information needed in determining the selection criteria.
To inform applicants about the nature of the job.
To ensure that newly appointed staffs understand the primary purpose and principal functions of the job and its place in the structure of the company.
Purpose of Job/ Overall Objectives
Specific Duties and Responsibilities
Physical/ Economic Condition
The format of Job Description is given below
Figure No: 1
Job Roles with in the Customer service function in ASDA
The team leader delegate tasks to the lower subordinates in ASDA. The Assistant Manager passes information on to the colleges about what need to be done and give information about dealing with a customer enquiry.
Salary and Benefits
ASDA provide negotiable salary to its all the staffs. Also rewards and benefits of having a job with ASDA include: Bonus, colleague Discount, Share plans, Share save plan, Colleague share ownership plan, Pension, Voluntary benefits, Private medical cover, Recognition, STAR Points etc.
Competencies represent the language of performance. They can articulate both in expected outcomes from an individual's efforts and manner in which these activities are carried out. Also 'Competency is an underlying characteristic of a person that results in effective or superior performance' -Mansfield (1999). Competency modelling is very important to the development and to transfer the good will of the company. The following types of competency are very essential for the good will of the company,
Behavioural Competencies: It represent the type of behaviour required to deliver results under such heading likes team working, communication leadership and decision making.
Technical competencies: Technical competency defines what people have to know and be able to carry out their roles effectively. They are related to either generic roles (group of similar jobs) or individual roles.
NVQ/ SNVQ Competences: It is the fundamental part of the process of developing standards which can be observed and assessed with view to certification.
Human Resource Strategy
To achieve the overall objectives of the ASDA Company Human Resource strategy plays a vital role. Human Resource strategy should aim to capture "the people element" of what the company hoping to achieve in long term, ensuring that
-Right people in right place
-Right mix of skills
-Employees show the right attributes and behaviours
-Employees are developed in the right way.
Management of ASDA Company identifies some plans and strategies before achieving the goals and objectives such as work force planning, succession training, workforce skills plans, employment equity plans, motivation and fair treatment plans, the coordination of approaches to pay and grading across the organization to create alignment and potential unequal pay claims, and Employment issues which impact on staff recruitment retention, motivation etc.
Manpower planning owed its primacy to the importance of business strategy and planning of ASDA. A plan represents one of the outcomes of a process that explores to find a solution to a defined problem. In other words plans represent the defined and unified expression of the company, produced as the result of a rational consideration of the various issues that affect a future of the company. If business strategy and plans find their expression in measurable financial, marketing and production targets with an implicit or explicit demand for people, the manpower plan represents a response by personal and Human Resource Managers to ensure that the necessary supply of people is forthcoming to allow the targets to be met. Hence the Manpower Plan could be expressed in a way that fits the overall business strategy and plan. The rationalized approach to manpower planning is shown in the following figure;
Company's strategy and targets
Company's practices and methods
Man power review and analysis
Internal Forecast External
Adjust to balance
Recruit Retain Reduce
Fig No.2 The rationalized approach to manpower planning
The Process of Human Resource Planning
Business strategic plans: Defining future activity levels and initiative demanding new skills.
Resourcing Strategy: Planning to gain competitive advantage by developing intellectual capital-employing more capable people than rivals, ensuring that they develop organization specific knowledge and skills, and taking steps to become an employer of choice.
Scenario Planning: Assessing in broad terms where the organization is going in its environment and the implication for Human Resource requirements.
Demand /Supply forecasting: Estimating the future demand for people and assessing the number of people likely to be available from within and outside the company.
Labour turnover analysis: Analysing actual labour turnover figures and trends as an input to supply forecasts.
PRINCIPLES RELATED TO THE DEMAND AND SUPPLY OF LABOUR
The supply and demand for labour is much like the supply and demand for any other service. Consistent with the law of supply and demand (as price rises, quantity demanded falls and quantity supplied rises), the curve of demand has a negative slope and the curve of supply has a positive slope.
The supply of labour, like the supply for other services, simply indicates how many labours or workers are keen to offer at different prices. The supply curve for each worker will be different as each worker has different opportunity costs and preferences.
The demand for labour indicates how much labour a firm desires at different prices. The demand curve for each firm will differ as each firm faces different labour substitutes (differing rates of potential capital substitution, for instance), preferences, demand curves for the products they produce, and alternative employments for their resources.
Wage rates are simply the price of labour and as such, are determined like all other prices on the market. The intersection of the supply and demand curves for labour indicates the balance, or market clearing, wage rate for certain types of labour. (In a free economy, unrestricted by government regulation, wage rates for the same type of labour belongs to equalize across markets).
Most of the people are searching for job in the labour market is influenced by factors relating to the size and composition of the population. Principally population and population change, the age structure of the population, ethnicity and gender etc are affecting total labour supply. On the other hand total demand for labour consists of the sum of total employment and unfilled vacancies. Demand for labour is derived from the demand for goods and services it follows the economic cycle, rising in upswings and falling in recession. Changes in labour demand are reflected in changes in the unemployment rate.
This wage rate at the point of curve intersection tends to equal the discounted value of the marginal productivity of labour (DMVP). I know that sounds like a mouthful but it simply means that workers tend to earn the market value of what they produce (less the rate of interest).
Any worker employed for less than this amount will likely be bid away by another firm, as the firm stands to earn profit by doing so. The process of firms hiring away labourers earning less than their DMVP pushes the wage rate to the point where no firm stands to generate additional profit by bidding away the worker. At this point, the wage rate and the DMVP become equal. This argument, of course, assumes an efficient, undistorted market.
Managerial Role in Recruitment and Selection
Recruitment and selection activities of personnel specialists in ASDA can be described in terms of five general roles. Which are given below;
The audit role: Personnel specialists have responsibility for ensuring that all of management carry out those parts of their roles concerned with the effective use of human resource. Checking to established job description supplied by managers reflect the true nature of the tasks.
The executive Role: Personal Management is part of every manager's job, but some personnel activities are carried out by specialists rather than by line managers or supervisors.
The facilitator role: Ensuring that line managers and other involved in recruitment and selection have the necessary knowledge and skills to play their part in this activity effectively.
The consultancy role: This advice to managers on selection decisions.
The service role: Managers need information on which to base decision about the deployment of their staff. Providing managers with response rate data on recruitment advertising to enable joint decisions to be made on the most effective way to attract a pool of applicants is the example of the service role.
Role of legal and organisational requirements in creating a HR plan
Human resource plans are derived from the resourcing strategy and take into account data from a combination of scenario planning, demand and supply forecasting and labour turnover analysis. While creating human resource planning legal and companies requirements play a vital role. Also, while organization have considerable freedom of choice in the type of people they want to recruit, legislation plays a significant role in the recruitment and selection process, particularly in attempts to prevent discrimination on the field of sex, race, disability and age.
The sex Discrimination Act 1975 makes it unlawful to discriminate against a personal directly or indirectly in the field of employment on the ground of their sex or marital status. The race Relation Act 1976 makes it unlawful to discriminate against a person in the field of employment on the ground of their race, colour and nationality, including ethnic or national origin. While legislation and codes of conduct would suggest a certain approach in the UK, differences in job/ occupation being recruited, labour markets and skills availability might cause this approach to be modified. However, factors within the ASDA Company also affect the way recruitment and selection is handled.
Employee personal and managerial effectiveness through a process of personal reflection
Employees are the main part of the successful business. For demand, supply, process, customers service and overall business of the company every employee has the valuable hands. Some important aspects of personal reflections of employee are as follows:
Impact on others: This embraces some essential aspects like speech, dress, manner and reactions, behaviours with the customers etc.
Acquired knowledge or competency of the work: Employee must use their knowledge and experience what they gain and what is necessary for the respective work to solve the problems arising in the ASDA while working.
Motivation: this is concern with the goal-directed aspect of human personality. In the other hand employee have the most important role for the development of the company. If they are not satisfied or not motivated towards the company then the progress of the company becomes quite difficult.
Adjustment: This aspect concerns the emotional status of the employee stability, maturity, ability to cope with stress etc.
ASDA conduct the job analysis to write job description, job specification, to prepare organizational chart of the company, to write knowledge, skills and performance of the employee, as well as to the feedback back of the company. To achieve goals and objectives of the company ASDA always focus on right candidate in right job, right mix of skills, right attributes and behaviours of the candidates while selecting the employee for the required job. For the good will of the company ASDA give priority on competency of the employee like behavioural competencies, technical competencies, NVQ/ SNVQ competencies etc. For the purpose of improving and securing the ASDA companies human resources, to meet present and future needs; three principal stages can be distinguished such as evaluation of existing resources, forecast of future requirements, and finally action plan. While creating HR plan ASDA Company concentrated on legal role of the government and organizational requirements.
From the above study and conclusion, I would like to suggest some recommendations for the improvement and to increase the business of ASDA Company.
Fair selection process need to be appointed on the basis of skills and competencies as per the ASDA HR requirement.
Job analysis and job design should be conducted in regular basis for the effectiveness as well as to achieve overall objectives of the company.
More training and orientation of the work should be provided to the new or prospective employee mainly in the customers' service and technical sectors.
Best performance apppraisal techniques need to be applied for career advancement of the employees.