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Core purpose of conducting the environmental review is to explain the organisation's impact on its pertaining environment and the needed action required by the organisation for maintaining the environmental standards. Environmental review also increases the awareness within the organisation about hazardous environmental issues. Management system for environment is best illustrated and introduced by the environmental review.
Environmental review starts with the flow and efficient usage of energy, waste, transport and water. Risk areas for the wastage of material and accidents occurrence are also identified by the organisation in the environmental review. Environmental work is considered as the essential area of any business process and all workers of the organisation have to follow the processes for this area. There are many stakeholders, who are interested in the environmental issues such as government bodies, citizens, industrialists and businessmen. The focus of this report is the efforts of the environmental organisation of the the Al Jubail city and the policies that I needs to adopt. Significance of Al Jubail is this that it is also a city based on various industries. The vision of the local environmental organisation of Al Jubail is to make Al Jubail a model city in terms of environment friendliness. Nama Chemicals and the environmental organisation of Al Jubail are the key stakeholders in this regard. Following areas have necessarily been considered by the stakeholders.
Tremendous developments are going in Al Jubail for the new transportations infrastructures and for the renovation of the old public transportation systems. New bridges have been constructed for the flow of heavy traffic of the city. New roads mostly encourages the more flow of traffic and causes the problem of congestion, need of time is to improve the scope and effectiveness of the existing transportation system. The consultants have proposed that usage of cars should be cut down and public should be encourage to utilize the transportation options available. Old transportation fleets should be replaced with the new fleets of public transportation.
These public transportations should use compressed natural gas and should conform to the standards of the vehicle emanation. New environmental regulations should be put in place and these public transportations vehicles should obey the new regulations for the public vehicles and should consider the causal effects of the vehicle emissions. Transportation issue is of great importance for any city and companies existing in the city should comply with the standards of the transportation.
Currently there is no ozone protection program and consultant also proposes conducting the ozone protection programs. These programs should direct the industries to not to use the ozone depleting materials and suggest the specific activities to be implemented for the protection of the ozone layer. Review of these ozone layer programs should be conducted by committees and through the review meetings. Dozens of new vehicles are registered almost every day in the city. Al Jubail should consider the hazardous transportation issues in order to control the increasing air pollution due the high emission of the vehicles. Emissions produced from the vehicles are carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxide. New standards are being proposed for controlling these emissions. Inspections of car emanation and efficient traffic system are also proposed order to deal with this issue.
Labelling system can be carried out by the government. With the introduction of the new emanation standards, only that vehicle should be allowed to move within the city that is marked with label. These labels should be authenticated and released by the inspecting centres. Vehicle emissions standards can be verified by these inspecting centres. Recirculation devices for gas can be introduced by the city for the reduction of the pollution. City should also go for planning the installation of the sealing systems for the storage of fuels in tanks. Since petrol is very cheap and abundantly available in Saudi Arabia, organisation needs to take strict actions against the air pollution from petrol.
Environmental organisation of city has reinforced new facilities and new fleets for public transportation. Vehicle tracking systems can be applied in the public transportations in order to locate the vehicle and get the arrival information of the passengers. This system can increase the efficiency of traffic management system.
Project of fuel-cell busses can be launched in Al Jubail city to reduce the unhealthy effect of the greenhouse gas emanation and air pollution. This project can enable the technology suppliers to locate opportunities for the reduction of cost and also give knowledge to the public transportation operators for the adoption of fuel-cell busses in future. Organisation is also trying to increase the awareness about the solution for zero emissions among the industrial sector in the region.
Energy infrastructure in city is experiencing wide range of restructuring. Cleaner energy sources are taking the place of coal and diesel. Cleaner energy sources include the natural gas energy, wind energy and also the geothermal energy. Coal fired boilers have been renovated or replaced by the other energy source that causes the less pollution and emission in the environment. Less usage of coal will enhance the energy performance, efficiency and quality of air in city as well as in the country.
Industrial sector impact on environment has also decreased within the city because of the closing and removal of the polluting industries from the area of city. Advanced, innovative and new technologies, new standard for environmental pollution and different pollution controlling systems related to environment need to be adopted.
In environmental hazardous issues emission from the vehicles and heavy flow of traffic causing the congestion, is just the tip of the iceberg in the city. Coal fired boilers emit large amount of unhealthy material and sulphur dioxide in the air. Organisation is reducing the usage of coal and is moving towards other cleaner energies in order to pursue the continuous development. Cleaner energy sources include seeking various potential options like natural gas energy, wind energy and also the geothermal energy. Organisation has also asked the consultant to plan the project for reducing the consumption of energy and increasing the energy efficiency within the city.
With the advancements of technologies and new methods of manufacturing, consumption of energy has also reduced. City's energy consumption is mainly consumed by its manufacturing sectors. Offices of government in the city have also contributed in the consumption of energy. Innovative technologies and methods need to be adopted by the offices like heat preservation systems for outer walls of offices, windows for energy savings, energy saving doors and other utilities like heat, electricity and water. Solar energy as a renewable energy is a very important option to consider as the Saudi Arabia needs to conserve its key strength i.e. fossil fuels for years to come and there is a surplus of sunshine in this region. Large companies need to be asked to make commitment with the government for conservation of energy.
Diesel and coal boilers are considered to be the great source of emanation and cause of the air pollution in the city. Diesel and coal boilers of large scale have the capacity of generating power above 14 MW. And a small scale boiler can produce power up to 14 MW. The environmental organisation has the charge to look after the air pollution standards generated by these diesel and coal fired boilers. Prevention of pollution from these boilers can be carried out through the usage of clean energy and by completely renovating the plants that are using coal fired boilers.
The organisation is paying heed towards the development of the sources of clean energy. This act of city will enhance the air quality and can helpful in the energy saving objectives. City is establishing innovative and new projects for the promotion of geothermal energy in the city. The organisation is going to launch new plan for the control of pollutant emissions. Systems for supervision and controlling the pollution sources are identified and new standards are made and enforced by the government. (Abdullah & Tucki, 1989; Beaumont, 1989; Daghistani, 1993; Grima, 1986)
Al Jubail city lies on coastal area and hence there is a lot of sea water availability but it is not usable in the original form. While the consultants have proposed that significant results can be obtained from the improved water management policies and innovative methods of recycling the waste water, saline water treatment plants are already in operation under auspices of the organisation. New plants for the treatment of the saline water have been built and sewage systems have been improved in the city. City is trying to save water and provide treatment to the sea water. Different schemes and plans for water savings have been formulated and proposed by the consultants. Systems for the collection of rain water should also be proposed for usage in the city. (Al-Subaie, 2007; Hamed, 2005; Hashim & Hajjaj, 2005; Kahraman & Cengel, 2005; Khawaji, Kutubkhanah & Wie, 2008)
Environmental organisation of the city is also making effort for improving the drinking water quality. It has made effort to provide the residents pure drinking water. The organisation's agenda is to make water reservoirs and to improve and maintain the high quality of water. Yet, users always demand more improvements and higher quality of drinking water. There is always considerable room for the improvement of the water as drinking water does not conform to the world health organization standards because quality of water cannot be same when it reaches to the end user's tap as when the water left the plant. Currently processed bottled water has a great market in the city.
Severe water shortages can be faced by the city and can go in the state of drought if it will not give consideration and serious attention towards the water short fall. Water reservoirs have been made for reducing the water supply and demand gap. Also city needs to take measures for the protection of the water resources. It is planning to save the water and to collect the rain water. It is also taking measures to recycle the waste water and process more sea water for different uses.
City needs to take all measures to improve the quality of drinking water and to reduce the pollution issues from the industrial sectors. It should be promoting the different water saving procedures in industries in the city. City's environmental organisation is trying to enhance the efforts for the treatment of waste water. Treatment of saline water is carried out efficiently and effectively at the saline water processing plants.
Water authority in the city is liable for enforcing the laws pertaining to the water, regulations for the water distribution networks, management for the water works and related projects and the treatment of the waste water. Water authority is also responsible for providing the water to the end users. Water authority has installed various plants for waste water treatment in different areas of the city. Traditional and new technologies can be used for enhancing the quality of drinking water within the city.
Demand for water is increasing day by day for domestic and industrial both purposes. Environmental organisation of city is planning to improve the process for the treatment of waste water, for solving the problem of the water shortage and for filling the gap between the supply and demand of water. Domestic plants of waters are planned to be installed near the main stream of treatment plants. Main purpose of the installation of the recycle plants is to; provide the water to industry sector, encourage the usage of domestic water for the irrigation purposes and to provide water to the general public. (Abdul-Kareem Al-Sofi, 1994, 2001; Al-A'ama & Nakhla, 1995; Al-Zahrani, Al-Ajlan & Al-Jardan, 1994)
Al Jubail city has made significant improvement in the management of the solid waste. The Environmental Organisation of the city needs to follow the 3-R strategy of the circular economy. According to this strategy solid waste and other wastes need to be reduced or reused or should be recycled. City needs to make making continuous efforts for the management of the urban, rural and industrial dangerous waste. Waste processing systems in the city has also improved. New and improved procedures for recycling the urban and industrial wastes have been made and implemented within the city. City has achieved a lot of success for the management of waste including the industrial wastes that are abundantly produced in this industrial city. City further needs to conduct programs to provide the education and more awareness through newspapers and through other educational programs among the general public about the disposal of waste and effects of waste on the environment. Recycling programs also need to be implemented in the city.
The organisation should pay attention towards the waste processing and management along with trying to minimize those wastes. Solid wastage problem in city needs consistent attention. The organisation should be committed to apply the safe waste disposal programs for urban, rural and industrial areas. Also other non-hazardous waste programs need to be established. Medical and industrial wastes are very dangerous and cause the environmental problem issues. City has needs to implement efficient system for recycling of these materials properly and making the city environment pollution free.
Environmental organisation of the city also needs to introduce new initiatives for managing domestic and household garbage. It is also important to revise and improve its existing waste management system. The recommendations of the consultant focus on new plans for the construction of the ecological city and also give importance to reduction of the wastage within the city. Main strategies recommended by city for the reduction of the waste include the development of new process for waste management by using the new technologies. After chalking out a plan in accordance with the recommendations, the organisation needs to develop new facilities for processing the domestic waste. City is expected to have 15 disposals of domestic waste new facilities by the end of 2010.
Out of the existing domestic disposal of waste facilities 2 are for the waste transfer to the waste stations, 8 are for the landfills and remaining five are for the processing of this wastage in plants. Scope of the existing facilities processing includes the more processing of the domestic garbage that is mostly non-hazardous, more importance on the disposal of urban garbage and improving the waste management system of the urban area.
For improvement of the waste management system of urban area, the environmental organisation of the city needs to apply the principals of 3-R and that are reducing, recycling and reusing the waste with new set standards for the disposal of waste. It needs to introduce new terms and policies for the collection of garbage. Recycle able waste and non-recyclable wastes need to be separated in the collection process. (Al-A'ama & Nakhla, 1995; Beaumont, 1989; Bowden, 1982; Grima, 1986)
The organisation is taking multiple precautionary measures for preventing its air free from pollution and also it is trying to improve the air quality of the city. By replacing diesel and coal fire boilers with the clean sources of energy and implementing the new strict standards to be followed for the vehicle emission, city has positively enhanced its performance. These initiatives gave the benefits to residents of this city. Environmental organisation of the city has made continuous efforts for improving the quality of the air. It has addressed main issues of the vehicle emission, pollution from coal energy and from industries. More progress has to be made by the organisation for improving its air quality.
Because of the growing use of diesel in the industrial plants, and increase in the number of the existing vehicles, the quality of air is adversely affected and this situation has slow down the efforts for the improvement of the air quality. Due to the mountain ranges around the city, circulation of air has blocked and also it prevents the pollution to be dispersed and the natural cleansing process of the air. Quality of air cannot be improved in short period of time. Long term planning is needed and strict measures have to be taken to get the significant results. (Abdullah & Tucki, 1989; Al-But'hie & Eben Saleh, 2002; Dumbleton & Abanmy, 1991)
The organisation needs to make sure it conforms completely to the environmental standards given in the ISO standards. According to the ISO standards top management of organisation has to fabricate the environmental policy of the organisation and make sure that organisation activities and its products or services impacts are not harmful for the pertaining environment of the organisation and scope of these activities are according to the defined limitations in the ISO standard. The organisation policy also needs to be committed towards the continual improvement approach and is conducting the prevention plans for the pollution. The organisation should comply fully with the environmental rules and regulations, and with other regulations that organisation has to carry out. Organisation should conduct periodic review meetings for setting the framework for the environmental objectives that organisation has to be achieved. Environmental policy should be communicated among all stakeholders. It is implemented by all stakeholders. Organisation should strictly follow and maintain its environmental policy measures. This environmental policy should be made available outside the boundaries of the organisation to the general public. Environmental policy for the organisation should focus on the impacts on the environment caused by the organisation products and services only. (Ashford & Caldart, 2008; Crabbé & Leroy, 2008; Greenberg, 2007)
Some conflicts can occur while formulating the environmental policy. These conflicts should be resolved and balance has to be maintained for the policy statement. Policy should be specific and it should be easily understandable by general public as environmental policy is made for the stakeholders and general public. Organisation's environmental policy can be understood and read easily by a lay man and it represents the future planning of the organisation with respect to the city's environment. Products and services of the organisation are also explained in the environmental policy of the organisation. Also policy should not be that much specific that it becomes out-dated quickly and need to be updated. Organisation should not set those objectives and targets that are difficult to be met by the organisation. Organisation's objectives are formulated with due consideration by the top management. (Ashford & Caldart, 2008; Crabbé & Leroy, 2008; Greenberg, 2007)
Stakeholders of the organisation are cognizant of the services provided by the organisation. The organisation also needs to provide the detailed roadmap document apart from the environmental policy, in that document set targets and objective of the organisation should be clearly stated. This document should be reviewed by the organisation's top management after every three to six months while the environmental policy should be reviewed on yearly basis. Organisation should not hide anything with respect to its activities, products or services and their impacts on environmental issues. The actions and activities of the organisation should be transparent and in greater interest of the people. The organisation should always focuses that in the formulation of the policy no higher-level policy of the organisation should prevent its lower level policies. Policy of the organization should not contain the list of individual illogical statements. Policy should be specific to the organizational activities. Organization should make its policy available to the general public. Standard makes it compulsory requirement as it is positive aspect for the organisation, attention of the investors can be grabbed easily by providing more information to the investors. (Calhoun, 2005; Cohen, 2006)
Environmental policy of the organization should illustrate that organisation is taking its environmental obligations on serious note and is managing the impacts of its activities by taking certain constructive measures. Due to this environmental policy organisation's image in eyes of the general public can be positive only if the stakeholders and the public have belief in the seriousness of the organisation.
The organisation also needs to identify those activities, products and services coming under purview of its jurisdiction, that contain effect on environment and that can be controlled by the organisation in environmental aspects in its environmental policy. Organisation's environmental coordinator acts as the representative of environmental management. He ensures the contribution of each member towards the environmental friendly activities and keeps an eye on those activities that can have adverse effect on the environment.
Environmental action plan
The organisation for environmental issues is paying heed on minimizing the problems that occur because of the operations and activities of the local industries on the environment. The organisation needs to first identify those factors that can affect the environment around the city. The organisation should follow the IS0 14001 standards as they are best option available for the organisation. These standards can be applied to the overall organisation working conditions. According to ISO standard organisation's confidential information needs not to be available to the general public. The organisation should establish those targets, goals and procedures that can be met by the organisation easily. Organisation can boost its efforts for the improvement of the environmental management systems through these targets and procedures. The organisation should apply ISO 9000 first for carrying out the implementation of ISO 14001 standards. After ISO 9000 the introduction of ISO14001 becomes easier for the organisation. Requirement for the legislative compliance makes ISO 14001 different from the ISO 9000 standards. These standard forces that organisation should be familiar with the legislations and rules of the environment. These two standards can provide good operating framework for conducting the environmental operations and for improving the quality of the environmental management system. ISO 14001 is considered to be the gold standard for the achievement of the environmental management system. ISO 14001 standards can be implemented in different phase after the introductory phase full standard can be applied by the organisation. (Dobson, 1996; Fiorino, 1995)
The organisation should broadly define what the core purpose of the environmental management is and what tasks environmental management can perform. Details of these targets and objectives should be present in the organisation policy statement and that statement is different from the plans of environmental management.
The organisation should carry out the auditing for analysing the internal factors and external factors of the organisation. External factors can be the environmental factors or the factors related to external stakeholders. These external factors cannot be controlled by the organisation. Internal factors are the resources and skills of the organisation that are necessary for the implementation of the environmental management. Audit should give importance to those environmental management factors that can influence the needs of the stakeholders.
After the implementation of the environmental management, organisation should identify those environmental issues that can affect the operations of the organisation. The organisation's audit should identify all external and internal factors of the organisation that can have influence upon the existing environment. Targets and objectives of the organisation can be set after the identification of these factors.
The organisation should make working groups and teams for the environmental management. These groups should assign the tasks with deadlines. Members of these groups do not have to be skilled and expert in the field of environmental management but they have to be committed to the benefits of the organisation by their working activities. The organisation's senior management should be involved in these group and teams. They are accountable and responsible for the activities of the group. (Calhoun, 2005; Cohen, 2006)
The organisation should communicate with the stakeholders regularly. They should know what is happening and what is going to be happened within the organisation. Stakeholder's feedback about the environmental management should be taken. Before the introduction of the environmental management system in the organisation, it should look in other aspects also.
The organisation should consider that how this environmental management system can be seen by the stakeholders. Some stakeholders can take this step as the cost saving plan and while other's thinking can be different, it will depend upon the awareness of the stakeholders. The organisation should create the complete awareness among the stakeholders about the environmental management systems.
The organisation should run the environmental audit. Environmental audit is the process of the collection of information that prevails specifically to the organisation and the assessment of that information that how the activities of the organisation affect the environment and it also provides objectives that can reduce the effects of these activities. These objectives provide the basis for the establishment of the organisation's environmental plans. (Ashford & Caldart, 2008)
The organisation's management should be fully committed to the environmental management system in order to install the environmental management system within the area of its jurisdiction. A senior officer should be in the working group for ensuring the high quality performance. Absence of support will make the implementation of environmental system difficult. The organisation should overcome the political issues throughout the implementation phase of the environmental management. (Crabbé & Leroy, 2008; Fiorino, 1995)
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