Entrepreneur is a person who invested something and make their own business to gain a advantage. (Zimmer and Scarborough,2002) said that "entrepreneur is someone make their own business, analyze and take advantage of opportunities also with the abilities to get a benefit and make a deal with the risk." From that opinion, someone certainly born with their abilities or characteristic already haved the important assets to be an entrepreneur. Other opinions, be an entrepreur also need effort. (Drucker,1985) said that inovation and creativity are specific tools of an entrepreneur, but an entrepreneur nevertheless needs a practical skill and education. For practical skills it is important to know about planning, organizing, and people also need to study to had knowledge about entrepreneurship.
A born entrepreneur is a person born with qualities to be an entrepreneur, for example an innovative or creativite personality. A made entrepreneur is a person with a good knowledge education to support their ability to be an entrepreneur. From various opinions and definitions for entrepreneur it can be concluded that in order to become an entrepreneur it is not only need the characteristics of a person, but also required knowledge about entrepreneurship. Thats mean between born and made is balanced, because this is complement each other to become an entrepreneur.
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Creative, innovative individuals are the nature asset from the entrepreneur, but it takes leadership and business discipline to completed to became an entrepreneur. Every one has different characteristic and this characteristic are one of the most important parts to became an entrepreneur. Innovatived, creatived, motivated, independent, mobility is part of the many characteristics and most of these characteristics are possessed from nature. "Many of the few entrepreneurs already have main factor to be succeed from birth, and this is in themselves as innovative, creative, independent or fighting spirit " (Bruce,1976). According to Bruce, characteristic people are born with are more important than a good education to understand about entrepreneurship.
Another point is entrepreneurship, this is also needed to be an entrepreneur. ." (Coulter,2001,p.6) Entrepreneurship are the process to understand business concepts, especially to understanding about financial or marketing strategy to take an advantange of opportunities and generate value. In accordance to Coulter, an entrepreneur need to understand business concepts to organized or manage business and for that they need to learn and have a good educational background.
Some entrepreneurs have important assets like characteristics to be an entrepreneur, but these characteristics alone are not enough to create the conditions for business success. Building a successful entrepreneurial effort also depends on a complex interaction of internal and external factors, including timing, geography, culture and for that they need to learn about entrepreneurship. There are some information about successful entrepreneurs by the characteristic and successful entrepreneur because the effort to learn and study about entrepreneurship which is usefull for the leadership.
1. Steve Jobs
(Isaacso,2011) Steve Jobs is an entrepreneur from United States. Many people who use Apple products would know who Steve Jobs is. Steve Job start job in 1976 founded the Apple along with 2 friends that Steve Wozniak and Ronald Wayne. In leadership, Steve Jobs is known as a tempramental and discipline leader. He is also very highly motivated in every job. Passionated and innovationed are his principal to become a successful entrepreneur. As we see today, his innovation and creativity make Apple products being popular on gadget lovers. Iphone product innovation and it is now thought to be cellular telephone or smart phone that is not only good for an attractive design but also has a variety of useful features. (Isaacso,2011) said that Steve Jobs knew how to create products that pleased, interfaces that were friendly, and marketing messages that were enticing.
Steve jobs is one of the entrepreneur, who maximizes his natural abilities. He was not too concerned with formal education. (Isaacso,2011) said that Steve Job is not a person who prefers a formal education. He felt too much cost that his parents must pay, but he did not get anything and then he took a course of calligraphy which there is the origin of logo created macintosh with his inovation an imagination. Mr. Jobs's intuition was based not on conventional learning but on experiential wisdom. He also had a lot of imagination and knew how to apply it. As Einstein said, "Imagination is more important than knowledge." (Isaacso,2011). Innovation is one important point to be an entrepreneur, with innovations one can create new things included in the business world.
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Spirit of innovation steve jobs is his natural abilities, and it is nature cause he have that characteristic on his self. He always trying to create something interesting and with the experience he gained when he study course of caligraph it helped him to develop his talents. He is innovative but he need an effort to maximization his nature and know how to use that to be an entrepreneur.
2. Donald Trump
"Donald trump is an entrepreneur who never gave up. Donald Trump is a person, according to himself, who likes to think big" (Trump and Zanker, 2008). Thinking big is a strong factor in Trump's business successes. Considering his business aims, he was bound to be considered as a major success, if even some of the aims were attained. Similarly, however, his failures are also magnified by the size of the things he attempts to do. Donald Trump also tends toward the simplistic. He stated that most "people think small, because most people are afraid of success, afraid of making decisions, afraid of winning." (Trump, 2008, p17). He is the chairman of The Trump Organization and also the founder of Trump Entertainment Resorts. (Willey,2008) Donald Trump was born on 14 june 1946. Donald trump started his career working in his father's company The Trump Organization are concentrated in the middle-class home rentals. Not only do business in the property, donald trump is also expanding its business into the field of entertainment. In 2004, Trump became the executive producer and host of the NBC reality show, The Apprentice.
(Willey,2008) Donald trump was born in a family with a good education. Trump attended The Kew-Forest School in Forest Hills, Queens until he was 13. After completing high school, he continued his studies at Fordham University for two years. In 1968 he earned a Bachelor of Science in Economics and a concentration in finance at the Wharton Business School. At first he wanted to continue studying at film school, but eventually he decided that real estate is a good business and the business schools he can learn about the management and financial it is useful for the progress of the family business. (Willey,2008).
Donald Trump always had the motivation and spirit despite having suffered huge losses in business. Trump also never stop learning more and learn from experience. His abilitites to face of the pressure is a nature characteristic that was he have. Educational background also one of the important points in his business success. With the education about the business, he was able to learn and practice how to build good business including finance and marketing issues.
3. Anita Roddick
Body shop, one of the famous brand that does business in the field of retailers of cosmetics and related products. Anita Roddick was the founder of The Body Shop, she was born in Littlehampton, England in 1942. (Gray, 2007), explain that roddick began The Body Shop to create a livelihood for himself and her daughters, while her husband travelled the United States. Out of desperation, she created cosmetics out of every ingredient that she stored in her garage. She opened her first shop in Brighton, England, with the idea of providing quality skin care products for a woman. The first time she open the store with only fifteen products and was able to finance the store using her hotel as collateral. Her products contained ingredients that women used in cleansing rituals. (Gray, 2007).
Creativity and confidence became the start for her in building and running a cosmetics business. Characteristics of a confident and creative in a new venture to build their capital for annita Roddick, with the confidence he runs his idea to start a business in the field of cosmetics. (Gray, 2007), in the course of business Anita Roddick always respect the opinions of employees or other people for product development. "The most succesfull entrepreneurs are those who recognize that they need other people around them to manage their business, to question their idea, and to provide the skills or knowlegde thay they not have it." (Rassam,1988). Receive opinion from costumer or other people is very useful in running a business, we can find out what consumers want so that we can increase sales and customer satisfaction about our products. This point is very influential for Anita Roddick in running the body shop business.
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Annita Roddick, she never get an education about the business in the university or another business schools. Anita used her 'gut-instincts' to create her own way of operating her business. her courage and self-confidence are able to pave the way to start a good business. (Gray,2007). According to (Roddick,2005), "you have to be and outsider, a person who does not go with a mainstream. You have to have a vision, ideas, optimism and a certain degree of craziness." According to Roddick, the understanding that skills and money are not the criteria for a successful entrepreneur, is important. You do not have to know how to do something. (Roddick,2005). Vision or creativity must do with action to be a successful entrepreneur not only get a profit, but also knowed what will you do in our business.
Based on the description of examples from some entrepreneurs , some people are clearly born entrepreneur like Anita Roddick. She may not have the proper educational background to become entrepreneur but she have a nature characteristic to become an entrepreneur. An intuition that guides her in building her enterprises. People like this see that others do not recognize opportunity and while others fail to do so. Most of their business comes from the resources within themselves.
On the other hand, based on the example of entrepreneurs described above. Entrepreneur requires not only the characteristics, but also takes effort to build his business. Steve Jobs he have the nature to be an entrepreneur like creativities and innovative, but he also takes education to develop their talents by taking a course of caligraphy. Donald Trump, he chose to get a formal education in business. Learn about the business of real estate, including learning about financial management and to strengthen its abilities to be an entrepreneur in the property sector.
There are a variety of factors that can be contributed to be an entrepreneur. Some of these factor are nature or inborn, like a characteristic or personality and motivation. The others attributes is nurture or made, like education and life experience can be gained by everyone. The personal attributes of , creativity, innovative, risk taking and confidence are important, building on that with a good and strong education is make it better. Combines that factors with a drive to succeed and perseverance will make the best possible chance to be an succesful entrepreneurial. Between nature and nurture, both of this are balanced and it can be complement each other to become an entrepreneur.