Employees Turnover And Turnover Intention Commerce Essay


This chapter will discuss the employees' turnover intention including the definition of turnover and turnover intention. Besides, this chapter also includes the other variables that are related to intention of employees to stay. One of the variables reviewed was job satisfaction where some of the theoretical views were stated out. Lastly, this chapter stated out some of the previous study regarding intention to stay of the employees within the organization.

2.2 Employees Turnover and Turnover Intention

Based on Taylor (2002), he mentioned that one of the biggest and greatly cost to an organization is employee turnover. He also argued in the same paper that unwanted, undesirable, and voluntary attrition that companies experience when highly valued employees quit to take another job somewhere else is a much bigger problem than the frequency of business layoffs. Thus, organization needs to make employees feel as a part of the organization in order to keep them loyal to the company. As Taylor

Lady using a tablet
Lady using a tablet


Essay Writers

Lady Using Tablet

Get your grade
or your money back

using our Essay Writing Service!

Essay Writing Service

(2002) mentioned, employees need to feel like their contributions to the organization are appreciated.

One's intention to turnover is due to his or her behavioral which lead to the intention to quit. According to Abassi and Hollman (2000), turnover is derives as the worker's rotation around the labor market; between firms, jobs and occupations; and between the states of employment and unemployment. Turnover can be branch into two categories which is the voluntary and involuntary. The proceeding of dismissal of employees refers to the involuntary turnover whereas voluntary turnover is the resignation of employees.

Below are five highlighted reason for employees turnover in the organization (Abassi et al., 2000):

Hiring practices;

Managerial style;

Lack of recognition;

Lack of competitive compensation systems; and

Toxic workplace environments.

In addition, (Abassi et al., 2000) further their discussion by highlighting hiring practices, managerial style, and recognition and workplace environments as a stimulus for turnover within the organization.

While for Tan, Vicky Tiong and Ngoh (2007) in their study at few foreign companies had identified variables that related to turnover intention. Those variables can be divided into three broad categories such as the demographic factors (employee's age, gender, marital status and number of children); organizational factors (an employee's length of service, salary drawn and number of staff); attitudinal factors (job satisfaction, work-related stress and level of commitment in the organization).

Researchers Bigliardi, Petroni and Ivo Dormio (2005) derive the intention to leave refer to individual's perceived likelihood that they will be staying or leaving the employer organization. Meanwhile Souza-Poza and Sousa-Poza (2007) define intention to leave as the reflection of the subjective probability that an individual will change his or her or job within a particular period and it is an immediate precursor to the actual turnover.

Withdrawal behaviors are included as one of the variables related to turnover intention. Based on study, some of the researchers relate job satisfaction with organizational commitment because they believed that with right organizational measures, it will help to improve employees' attitudes and in turn improve their performance. Thus, one way to approach it is by examining withdrawal behaviors of the employees. For instance, withdrawal behaviors are defined as behavior involving physical withdrawal, such as absenteeism and turnover (Falkenburg & Schyns, 2007). Often, the negative attitudes would cost the organization greatly. In addition, another research by Carmeli (2005) study on social workers from health institutions found that organizational culture that provide challenging job are able to diminishes the employee's absenteeism and their withdrawal intentions from the occupations, job and organization.

On the other hand, personal factors such as a sense of powerlessness and a lack of personal control at work also found by researchers to evoke the intentions to quit (Firth et al., 2004). Therefore, behavioral intention to quit has been found by researchers to be strong predictor of personal turnover across industries and theoretically is believed to be an important antecedent to turnover (Gregory et al., 2007).

A number of researchers have tried to have better understanding on the unexplained turnover intentions and decisions. They also suggest that the traditional models are narrowly focused on how dissatisfaction triggers one's withdrawal and measures used to gauge the relevant attitudes must be improved (Sharon, Holt & Rilovick, 2008). Therefore, Griffeth (2005) have begun to address the issue by improving measures used to access and individual's evaluation of external employment opportunities.

Lady using a tablet
Lady using a tablet


Writing Services

Lady Using Tablet

Always on Time

Marked to Standard

Order Now

Based on Newton et al. (2004) research, they proposed that large numbers of research support the idea that organizational commitment has strongly related with turnover. They also concluded in the study that organization commitment is one of the significant factor impacts on turnover intention.

2.2.1 Mobley's Turnover Theory

Mobley's turnover theory (1977) has established a broad explanation for the psychological turnover process. This model is developed based on a few former previous studies which includes the study of Porter and Steer's model (1973) of met-expectation and intent to leave and study of March and Simon's theory (1958) about ease and the desirability of work concept.

The figure attached below is a schematic representation of the turnover decision process. Firstly, the termination decision process can be termed as a sequence of cognitive stages. It is start with the process of valuing the existent job and is then followed by the emotional state of fulfillment or dissatisfaction. However, one of the significances of dissatisfaction is to initiate thought of quitting.

Secondly, this step is where the evaluation of the expected utility of search such as loss of work time and of the cost of quitting. The next step would be behavioral intention to search for alternatives if the costs are not that high and if the perceived possibility of finding a substitute is available. It is then followed by the actual search and evaluation of alternatives if they are alternatives exists.

It is then followed by the comparison of the alternatives with the present job. Thus, it will stimulate to the behavioral intention to quit if the comparison favors the alternative which will in turn trigger the final decision of the particular individual to quit (Mobley, 1977).

However, the Mobley's turnover model features frail on empirical evidence for the theoretical distinction among his explanatory constructs (Hom&Griffeth, 1991). Therefore, one of the well-known theoretical alternatives Hom&Griffeth (1991) enhanced Mobley's model by argued that Mobley's theory did not have sufficient empirical evidence for the conceptual distinction among his explanatory constructs.

Nevertheless, there are also similarities among their findings to some extent showed a likely potential intermediate step in the turnover process but yet there exists a major difference. In their study, it resulted that the "Intention to Quit" takes place before an "Intention to Search".

Figure 2.1 : Mobley's Employee Turnover Decision Process Model

Source : (Mobley, 1977: p. 238)

Intention to Stay

In an organization, the importance in retaining employees is increasing due to the rising competition in business market to retain talent workers. According to Arthur (2001), intention to leave or stay is affected by employees' job satisfaction and commitment to the organization. Besides, there is wide-ranging of researches done presenting that when employees are satisfied with their jobs and committed to their organization, thus they will have a lower tendency to leave their organizations. Another researcher name Hewitt (2004) proposed the definition of intention to stay in an organization reflects the employee's level of commitment towards his or her organization and the willingness to remain employed.

Intention to stay is the inverse of intention to leave or turnover of the employees in an organization. Since the turnover of an employee will indirectly incur a high cost for recruiting and maintaining another employee (Abbasi & Hollman 2008), therefore some researcher think that highlighted and put more concern on intention to stay is better rather than turnover.

On the other hand, a study by Taylor (2002) pointed out that employees need to feel the sense of being as a part of organization in order to retaining them. This is because humans like to perceive the feelings as their contribution and sacrifice are appreciated (Taylor, 2002). Thus, various retention programs can be plan in order for the process to be work effectively.

Lastly, researchers pointed out the Social Exchange Theory which suggested that if a people feel that he or she accepted advantage from others, it will in turn feel an commitment and thus will think of compensate by loyalty and effort (Mossholder, Settoon and Henagan, 2005). Since the focus of Social Exchange Theory is on citizenship behavior where workers ended in finding for other job because they feel responsible to remain and payback for the organization, therefore workers loyalty obviously will fit its framework. (Rhoades & Eisenberger, 2002). While the loyalty and effort can be seen through the individual's commitment towards his or her job and the strong intention to stay with the current employer.

Organizational Commitment

Lady using a tablet
Lady using a tablet

This Essay is

a Student's Work

Lady Using Tablet

This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.

Examples of our work

Commitment which is considered as a variable was found by to be inversely related to turnover (Chang, Du and Huang, 2006). According to Allen and Meyer (1990), they defined organizational commitment as "a state of mind, reflecting the relationship between employees and organizations and implying the employee's decision on whether to remain in the organization. From the past, the concept of organizational commitment has attracted considerable interest in an attempt to understand and clarify the intensity and stability of an employee's dedication to the organization (Mester, Visser, Roodt & Kellerman, 2003).

Based on a study, career development and suitable training are said to increase organizational commitment. Thus, organizations may need to identify suitable training and career development needs for individuals (Wetland, 2003). Furthermore, job satisfaction and organizational commitment are found to be interrelated as the more satisfied one is, the more committed they are to the organization (Firth et al., 2004).

Another study has been suggested that personality dimensions or one's character may mediate the effect of both job satisfaction and organizational commitment and one's intentions to quit (Firth et al., 2004). Apart from that, studies done by Schiebel and Pochtrager (2003) have also reported that organizational ethics increases employees' commitment (Schiebel & Pochtrager, 2003). There is one previous research done in Anglo cultures which can supports the proposition that those with higher organizational commitment and job satisfaction are less likely to have intentions to quit (Firth et al., 2004).

Generally speaking, before turnover, the organizational commitment will have an important impact on turnover intention. It is therefore rational to make organizational commitment a variable to measure employee turnover intention in the actual measurements (Wang Yu-mei, Cong Qing, 2007). In addition, organization must be able to satisfy employees in order to make them loyal to the firm (McLean and Andrew, 2000).

Meyer and Allen's Three Component Model of Commitment

One of the most widely used models to describe organization commitment is the Meyer and Allen three components model which classified into affective, continuance, and normative commitment. Affective and continuance were first proposed and then followed by the normative commitment at latter.

Affective Commitment

The definition of affective commitment based on Meyer & Allen (1991) is where the worker's affective or emotional attachment, identification with, and involvement towards their organization. Affective commitment will arise accordingly when employees amass positive work experience. Besides, they also indicated that the main driver of affective commitment is the work experience. For instance, a study by few researchers found that employees who have invested a great deal of time, effort and energy in an organization may be reluctant to leave the organization (Meyer et al., 2002).

Continuance Commitment

Continuance Commitment derived by (Meyer and Allen, 1984; Becker 1960) proposed it is representing the perceived costs associated with leaving the original organization. The potential costs of leaving an organization includes wasting of time and effort spent acquiring nontransferable skills, losing attractive benefits, giving up seniority based privileges, or having to uproot family and disrupt personal relationship. In addition, Meyer & Allen (1990) stated that workers who stay in the organization based on continuance are because he or she needs to do so. However, Allen & Meyer proposed that although continuance commitment may well keep an employee tied with the organization, but it is unlikely to produce a high level of performance.

Normative Commitment

Normative Commitment is the last being introduced and it is least studied by researchers. In normative component, it is concern with the reflection feelings of employees' moral belief on his or her obligation to continue with the organization. The feelings of obligation usually develop from familial and societal norms before he or she ever enter an organization (Meyer & Allen, 1991). This means that the employee rotates around their feeling of commitment and devotion to the organization (J.P. Meyer & N.J. Allen, 1997). Besides, according to Meyer & Allen (1990), those employees with high level of normative commitment will most probably have the feeling that they are ought to stay with the organization.

2.5 Job Satisfaction

In accordance with Falkenburg & Schyns (2007), job satisfaction is seen as consisting satisfaction with different aspects of the job and work situation. Research done by Griffeth, et al. (2000) suggests that variables such as job satisfaction and organizational commitment are mediating factors for the actual action of quitting. They added that if an employee who is less satisfied with his or her job would be more likely to quit.

While according with Adam (2010), one of the major causes of employee's decision to leave organizations begins with a sense of low job satisfaction. According with him, "job satisfaction represents a person's emotional feelings about his or her work. When work is consistent with employees' values and needs, job satisfaction is likely to be high."

It has been suggested that one's disposition contributes to job satisfaction in that individuals are disposed to be satisfied or not satisfied with their jobs (Heller et al., 2002). Heller et al. (2002) found that the big five partially contributed to job satisfaction in that when you control for the big five, the relationship between job and life satisfaction is reduced. The other research done by researchers has also shown that internals develop the relationship with managers to a greater extent than externals, resulting in favorable working reactions like job satisfaction for internals (Martin et al., 2005).

In addition, a meta-analysis study done by Lambert et al. (2002) on this issue emphatically points out that a fundamental way of decreasing employee turnover is to raise the level of job satisfaction. This can be done by making employees understand of the degree to which information about their job, details of the organization, and significant work issues which is positively related to job satisfaction (Lambert et al., 2002).

However, this study only focuses at four of the elements categories under the job satisfaction. Those elements include working environment, rewards, job stress, and job burnout and it is discussed as below:

2.5.1 Working Environment

Based on Zeytinoglu & Denton (2005), working environment is considered one of the most important factors in employee's retention. Research done by Bigliardi, Petroni & Ivo Dormino (2005) stated that turnover is motivated by the dissatisfaction of the individual with some aspect of working environment. Working environment includes job, co-workers or the organization itself. It may also due to the organization with some aspect of the individual such as poor performance or attendance (Bigliardi et al., 2005).

In addition, Bigliardi, Petroni and Ivo Dormino (2005) in their study also pointed that the process of turnover is motivated by the dissatisfaction of the individual with some aspect of the work environment (including the job, co-workers or organization), or the organization with some aspect of the individual, such as poor performance or attendance. Thus, an employee with high withdrawal intention to leave the organization might finally leave his or her job.

On the other hand, Ramlall,(2003) in his study found that many employees are strive to work and to stay in those organization that provide good and positive work environment. This is because they wanted to feel that they are valued and making difference in the organization.

2.5.2 Rewards

Rewards can be categories into extrinsic and intrinsic whereby example of extrinsic will be bonus or increase in salary for good performers while intrinsic are such as recognition and promotion to excellent workers. Besides, reward is the thing which offers by the organization in any form in response of employee's contribution that encourage employees motivated for doing well with positive behavior in future. According to Silbert (2005), rewards are very vital because it has enduring impression on employees and support the perception of employees that they are valued. Although compensation offer recognition but the non-monetary forms of recognition are also cannot be ignored. This is because recognition from bosses, team members, coworkers and customer enhance loyalty (Walker, 2001).

There are some authors suggest that extrinsic work aspects and social relations at work not only affect job satisfactions, but also intention to leave the current position (Hegney et al., 2006). For instance, Taris and Feij (2001) suggest that an employee's intention to leave decreased until the employee's valued level for this extrinsic value was reached. If the extrinsic supply was increased over the valued level then an employee was more likely to leave the company rather than stay.

2.5.3 Job Burnout

Job burnout is defined as exhaustion of mental or emotional strength or inspiration. It is usually resulted due to continued stress or frustration. Emener (1979) suggested that the indication of job burnout is a result from few aspects includes lack of necessary resources, responsibility with no or less authority or lack of recognition for one's achievement. According to study from Liu Lanlan (2005), it is found that the job burnout have the significantly positive prediction to the turnover intention when researching the relationship among the job characteristics, job burnout and turnover intention (Liu Lanlan, 2005).

Additionally, Bian Ren(2004) also discovered the result that job burnout could influence significantly the organizational commitment and the turnover intention in the case of excluding the impact of the demographic variables and organizational variables, but the different parts had different functions.

2.5.4 Job Stress

Job stress occurs when employees perceive an imbalance between their work demands and their capability and resources to meet these demands. Other factors can lead to work stress includes tension or conflict with other employees, poor supervision or management, job insecurity or lack of opportunity to develop, and dangerous work environments.

Thus, overfull workload will break the balance and then job stress increases the employee turnover intention by its negative impact on job satisfaction and organizational commitment (S. Ang, S. Slaughter, & K.Y. Ng, 2002).

2.6 Theory Related to Job Satisfaction

Job satisfaction has been suggested by many researchers in which satisfy or fulfill one individual needs from various different ways. However, there are also theories related to job satisfaction such as Herzberg Two Factors Theory, Social Exchange Theory, and Maslow Hierarchy of Needs and these are being discussed below:

2.6.1 Herzberg Two Factors Theory

Herzberg is a theorist who uses the needs satisfaction to explain job satisfaction. In his theory, it implies that fulfillment of human needs determines the level of job satisfaction of employees (Dubrin, 2011). According to Schermerhorn et al. (2000), Frederick Herzberg theorized that employee satisfaction depends on two sets of issues, which are hygiene issue and motivator issue. Hygiene factors in this theory refers to sources of job dissatisfaction and these are associated with the environment in which people work, but any improvement in these factors will only prevent the people from being dissatisfied.

For the motivation factors, job satisfaction can be increase by intrinsic to the job and job content. Motivation factors in Herzberg theory includes are achievement, recognition, the work itself, responsibility and advancement. Unfortunately, nowadays most researchers tend to focus on the cognitive processes rather than on underlying needs. Therefore, the need approach has been de-emphasized and job satisfaction is now assessed as an attitudinal variable in the research.

Frederick Herzberg theorized that employee satisfaction classified in two issues in which are hygiene issue and motivator issue (Schermerhorn et al. 2000). As shown in Table 2.1, Two Factors Theory is developed and it is known as the Motivator-Hygiene Theory.

Source: Adapted from Schermerhorn, J.R., Jr. Hunt, J.G and Osborn, R.N. (2000).

Organizational Behaviour (7th ed). New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Figure 2.2: Source of Dissatisfaction and Satisfaction in Herzberg Two factors Theory

The hygiene factors were classified by Herzberg as the table above. First factor would be the organizational policies where this will help to guide employees within the organization. Next factor is on the quality of supervisor. Supervisor is the one who dealing and working with the lower employees at most time and therefore it is crucial and organization must very caution in choosing or selecting an employees to be the supervisors (Syptak et al., 1999). Often, supervisor's quality and attitude too will affect the satisfaction of the subordinates.

Following factor is on the employees pay where Herzberg disclosure that an employee that perceive low wages will in turn make he or she to be dissatisfied while those with higher pay does not necessarily can satisfy or motivate them. Then it continue with the forth factor that is the working conditions or working environment. Providing a better working condition is whereby the organization set up a comfortable working environment, keep facilities and equipment up-to-date. For the interior, personal working place can be provided to each employee. With a good working condition, employees will be more satisfy and organization runs smoother.

The fifth hygiene factor is the relationship with peer. Syptak et al. (1999) suggest that chances and opportunities should be given to employees towards socializing with others during lunch or break time in order to strengthen the relationship and teamwork among colleagues. However, Schermerhorn et al. (2000) study stated three more hygiene factors that most of the books did not included which is the security, status, and relationship with subordinates.

Besides hygiene factors, improvement on satisfaction of employees can be start by making effort on motivator factors. The motivation issues are those related to job content. Motivation factors can be divided into six where it is what people actually do at their workplace. First of all, the sense of achievement factor can motivate people. This is done through the supervisor whereby subordinates to be allocate in a right position so that they can fully utilize their talent and skills to perform better in the task. The next motivator factor is advancement. For advancement, organization may support the employees by further studies or giving rewards for those perform well in their work or position. Besides, organization may also give recognition or new title complement for best employees. This will not only beneficial to employees but as well as the organization because this can result in more professional and knowledgeable employees (Syptak et al., 1999).

According to Schemerhorn et al. (2000), they discover a factor in the Herzberg's theory which is the growth factor where they found that employer or the organization can encourage creativity and innovation among the workers as a motivator. Furthermore, setting up or make effort for a library can encourage and motivate employees to reference and do more reading on book or knowledge material that relevant to their work. Then the following motivator factor is the work itself. According to Syptak et al. (1999), organization should help individuals believe that the work that they are doing is important to the organization. The employees will be motivated and make full interest into their work when they are told that their tasks are meaningful.

The sixth motivator factor is recognition. Workers with good performance and acknowledgement by the organization can help to retain the level of their satisfaction. As a result, all the employees will favor the ir organization especially for those who did their job well Syptak et al. (1999). Lastly, it is the responsibility factor. Syptak et al. (1999) suggest that given authority and responsibility will not only encourage them at the same time also let them feel better and more confident. Besides, responsibility can motivate employees when they perceive ownership of their work.

2.6.2 Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory

According to Pearson (1991), Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory, as shown in Figure 2.2, identifies five distinct levels of individual needs. From the top, is the need for self-actualization, stream down to esteem needs, social needs, safety needs and the basic need is survival and physiological needs.

Source: Heinz weihrich, M. V. (2010). Management : A Global and Entrepreneurial Perspective 13/e. Nel Delhi: Tata MacGraw Hill Education Private Limited.

Figure 2.3 Maslow's Hierarchy of Need

The second theory related to job satisfaction is the Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs theory. In this theory, Maslow assumes that there are some needs which consider being more important than others and it must be satisfied before the other needs care able to survive as motivator for people. Maslow theory of are categories from the lowest to highest need includes biological and physiological, safety needs, love and belonging, self-esteem, and self-actualization.

This theory begins with the explanation of people to fulfill their biological and physiological needs where they done through the work carried out in their daily life (Furnham, 1995). The basic needs of life are describe as the beginning and simplest element to be fulfill before the other needs. Example of physiological needs includes air, food, water, shelter, warmth, sleep and others. When all these are being fulfilled, people start to put concern on the safety needs in their life.

Based on Maslow in his theory, he mentioned that safety needs is the needs for security, protection from various dangers, protection from law and stability. They hope that they are protected in terms from physical to interpersonal (Furnham, 1995). Social needs come up when people safety needs is fulfilled. In this stage, concern for people will put on belonging and love as it becomes the motivator for them. They will tend to search for affection, relationship with family and others, love, belongings and so on. All three motivation factors mentioned above are those categories in the lower level needs of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs.

Next is the starting of the higher level needs. According to Furnham (1995), self-esteem and self-actualization needs are include in the higher order needs. Self-esteem involves the need for achievement, need for respect from others to fell self-worth, need for status and reputation, need for recognition from others, and need for responsibility. With all these needs, an individual tend to have self-confidence to be develop inside the people (Furnham, 1995). Once all the above are fulfilled, the final and the highest need arrive which is the self-actualization. This need is concern with the personal growth and fulfillment, to have self-abilities to the highest and to be most creative extent.

Overall, Maslow's theory stresses out the importance of individual in organization to improve and this will indirectly change the people needs. As a result, people will put more effort so that they can achieve non-stop in their needs and satisfaction (Samad, 2006). Finally, a study done by Price (2001) has consistently reported that job satisfaction is one of the factors or reasons for employee intentions to leave the organization.

2.7 Relationship between Organizational Commitment and Job Satisfaction

A study by C. P. Maertz Jr & R. W. Griffeth (2004) shows that organizational commitment and job satisfaction are significant determinants of turnover intention. They also mentioned that these two constructs are the affective forces in the employee turnover process and the causal mediators of predictors (C. P. Maertz Jr & R. W. Griffeth, 2004). Therefore, employees who perceive higher job satisfaction scores and more committed to their organizations will less likely to have the intention to quit.

Besides, studies shows that organizational commitment indirectly influences the job satisfaction. Definitely, there's difference between organizational commitment and job satisfaction. Organizational commitment is the emotional responses which an employee feels towards his organization whereas job satisfaction can be defined as the responses that an employee has towards any job. Nevertheless, these two variables are highly interrelated. For an instance, while an employee has positive feelings towards the organization, its values and objectives, is possible for him to be unsatisfied with the job he has in the organization (Meyer et al. ,2002).

On the other hand, job satisfaction has also been associated with organizational commitment (Boles, et al., 2007; Pool and Pool, 2007; Brown and Peterson, 1993), which is understood as "psychological bond between people and organizations" (Buchanan 1974; Tett and Meyer, 1993).

Based on Klaus, et al., (2003) studies show work challenging (intrinsic motivation) effect may impact on affective organizational commitment. However, study also found that the employees with continuance commitment possible to be partially to stay with organization. It can be seen in some studies that work itself (intrinsic motivation) is directly affecting the job satisfaction and also the organizational commitment (Eby et al., 1999).

2.8 Retention

A study by Cascio (2003) describes that retention is an initiatives taken by the management to keep their employees from leaving the organization. The example of initiatives are such as rewarding employees for performing their jobs effectively, ensuring harmonious working relations between employees and managers, and maintaining a safe, healthy working environment.

In a study on employees' retention, skill-based pay systems have been found to improve employee retention, whereas group incentive plans have been associated with high turnover (Guthrie, 2000). Besides, in Mathis and Jackson (2003) study, they found that most of the managers believe that money is the major retention factor. It can be seen by many of the employees cite better pay or higher compensation for leaving one employer for another (Mathis and Jackson, 2003). However, compensation is also a critical element in attracting and retaining employee in a competitive labor market. This may include the professionals in the high-tech industry (S. Ang, S. Slaughter, and K.Y. Ng, 2002). All these are because people nowadays are more towards pursuing the balance between work and life.

Another study by Mercer Report (2003), he concluded that employees will stay if they are rewarded fairly and adequately. This is because employees are more likely to feel they are attached and want to stay with organizations that they perceive as more caring (Cullen et al., 2003). Furthermore, they are also more likely to be satisfied as their role and job expectations are clearer.

2.9 Previous Studies

Based on a study done by researchers from Hashemite University on faculty members' intentions to stay in Jordanian Public Universities, they found that the two intervening psychological variables which are job satisfaction and organizational commitment had positive effects on intent to stay. Moreover, finding also found that satisfaction and commitment each accounted for separate indirect effects in the model (Al-Omari, A. A., Qablan, A.M. & Khasawneh S.M., 2008).

A study by F. Calisir, C.A. Gumussoy, & I. Iskin (2009) done on IT professionals examined on the impact of job stress, stressors, organizational commitment, locus of control, and job satisfaction on intention to quit. Resulted from the study, it indicates that all the relations except job stress-job satisfaction are found to be significant. Apart from that, researchers also found that intention to quit job is explained by organizational commitment and job satisfaction where organizational commitment has strongest impact on the intention to quit.

Yujing Zhang & JIancheng Chen (2010) in their research proposed that affective forces and motivation to protect existing resources are both mediators in the relationship between on the job embeddedness and intention to stay. Besides, they found another underlying explanation for those predictors in employee retention research which is the intervening motivational mechanisms that link on-the-job embeddedness to employees' intensions to stay.

WB Zheng,Sharan Kau & Jun Wei (2009) in their empirical research contrasting of talents retention between samples of China and Malaysia suggest that different specialty types, factors influence technical and executive talents' withdraw tendency from organizations indicates with relative high homogeneity or low replace ability and relatively high withdraw tendency. Employees with dual identity meaning he or she is a senior administrative manager and have high-level technical or special talent. They perceive advantages in the organization and form the main groups where key talents belong and the key retention objects and incitation in the management practices for retaining talents in those organizations. Furthermore, study also found that key retention for achieving talents' job satisfaction and organizational commitment for Malaysian employees will be equity of reward and job-coupling. While for the China organization, key-degree and performance visibility have positive effect on withdraw tendency but off-job recompense and reward fairness exhibit negative effects on withdraw tendency. Since it has conflict with the duality of talents, therefore organization in China should make effort so that they can achieve talents high job satisfaction and organizational commitment.

The result of the study indicates that the major predictor of intention to leave was due to job satisfaction. While the major predictor for job satisfaction was psychological empowerment (June et al. 2003). Besides, result also emphasize on the importance of creating and maintaining a work milieu in which participative management thrives. In addition, it also stressed out affirmance on the monitoring on satisfaction is important and evaluating and implementing strategies to address the dimensions of satisfaction that the data indicate need improvement.

Pascal Paille´, Pierre-Se´bastien Fournier & Sophie Lamontagne (2011) concluded from their research on finding relationships between commitments to the organization, the superior and the colleagues, and the intention to leave among truckers that company is the closest entity to employees or truckers. They also discover the reducing chances on intention to leave are due to the commitment to colleagues and dispatcher. Other than this, the study provides more realistic approach for manager to make improvement on trucker retention by using few foci of commitment.

2.10 Conclusion

This chapter had presented the review literature reviews and relevant previous studies that are related to the turnover process, intention to stay, and retention. Besides, it also includes the discussion on the variables that are related to the turnover intention in the organization. On the other hand, previous studies had found that intention to leave is influence either directly or indirectly by the job satisfaction and organizational commitment.