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Human resource management is a well planned approach in order to manage the employment relations which highlight that the action taken by the people's capabilities is critical in order achieve highly competitive advantage, this being is done by set of combination of employment policies, programmes and practices.
The 1980s and 90s witnessed a period of dramatically change in both the context and content of managing people. Human resource management has given more importance on internal sources of competitive advantage. Human resource management rules and practices emphasizes on 'hard' and 'soft' scenario's of HRM. The 'hard' version highlight the 'resources' and accepted a 'rational' way of managing employees, the 'soft' HRM model highlight the term 'human' and thus planned in training and development to ensure highly skilled and liable employees gave the organization a quality advantage. The term Human resource management is a subject of debate, and its underlying philosophy and character which are highly controversial.
Human resource management underlines that people really makes the difference; only people among other resources have the good capacity to achieve and generate value. Another feature of HRM relates to the incorporation .The workforce is so critical for an organizational success, the HRM activities rests with all chief executive and should not be left to HR specialists. To know the nature and significance of HRM, it is important to know both the management process and the role of HRM in an organization(Bratton, J. and Gold, J.(2003).Human Resource Management: Theory and Practice. 3rd. ed. pp. 3,6,7,15).
INTRODUCTION ABOUT RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION
Interview is still most commonly used method to select a candidate for an organization in spite of the fact that many studies suggest that it's a very blemished technique. Many researches has been done on interviewing techniques and these techniques are experimental in nature. Selecting a candidate via interview have relevance to some other interviewing techniques such as discipline, grievance, appraisal and exit interviewing, relevant to other interviewing situation techniques are important as mean of background inquiry, research , criminal investigation and social work. The unstructured interview technique has been found untruth related achievement. Interview is very effective technique and several reasons can be used to describe this such as
Some human resource managers are unaware of the research evidence discrediting the interview means some of the HR mangers do interview for their personal attack.
Some of the HR manager feel an interview is very effective method of selecting right candidate. Interviewer maintain great believe and confidence in their own decision taken.
Interview is very effective in order to assess the certain interpersonal skills such as sociability and verbal fluency.
Other important technique is assessment.
(Barclay, J.(1997). Employee selection: a question of structure. pp. 134-135)
In order to critically analyze the employee selection via interview can help organization to achieve work performance, the effective hiring is very important.HR is attracted is to those who have desirable qualities, whether HR actually possess those qualities or not. Many HR or hirer's have difficulty being objective and impartial to candidate so for hirer the objective assessment is very important to hire effectively. Bad hire mistakes can be, not analyzing job properly, not screened resumes effectively, not checked references and so on. Such hirer's lose their subordinates trust and also indicates personal insecurity. Such a person lose own confidence and competent prospective employee. Hirer's indecision cause delay in hiring and lose a well qualified candidate to competition. For HR it is important to understand the company's need for vacant position. Should mention the duties and responsibilities of the job. If HR need to hire a candidate he should analyze what went right with previous employee and what has not. In order to hire the candidate effectively how intelligent must candidate be to perform job? What educational background is? What experience is truly necessary to perform job? What kind of personality is required for the job? It is also noticed that different job require different personality types.
By looking personal profile of the candidate reveals much needed his character for example if candidate possess high energy this generally implies that this candidate gives the extra effort in small things as well as important things. There are many behavioral models which highlights the candidate's personality, not only during the hiring process but also helps in counseling, training and motivating these employees later in workplace (Gurumurthy, R. and Kleiner, B.(2002). Effective Hiring: Management Research News.Vol.25, pp. 60-61).
The stages of recruitment and selection of a candidate is shown below:
As shown below the stages of recruitment and selection where the HR consider the external and internal factors during recruitment process and than HR select the right candidates from pool of applicants and give brief idea to selected candidates about the job profile and organization policies and analyze the job. These stages give clear idea to applicants he or she going to be during selection process (Bratton, J. and Gold, J.(2003).Human Resource Management: Theory and Practice. 3rd. ed. pp. 3,6,7,15).
Internal factors External factors
Human resource planning
Pool of applicants
The employment cycle of an employee till he resign or get retire is shown below as like stages of recruitment, the employment is very similar to it the possible vacancy is identified by an organization or HRM manager and than process of recruitment starts and complete job details are published and candidates personal details drawn up and short listed candidates are called for interview and than selected candidates are offered with appointment letter of an organization. Complete induction is conducted for new hired employees about organization policies and plans and job related training is provided to the employees and than stage come where employee free to decide for resign and retirement (Cartwright, R(ed.)(1993).Managing People. Vol. 1, pp. 57).
"Total quality management (TQM) has been widely applied process for improving competitiveness around the world, but with mixed success". Organizations launch quality management initiatives with great effort to achieve performance improvements which are very short -lived such organizations fail to sustain continues growth and thus cannot remain competitive in their industries for periods of time. Factors such as lack of top management support and employee empowerment, bad human resource management policies and failure to establish conductive culture such factors contributes to TQM failure. A number of studies are made of certain components of HRM system, such training, incentive systems, performance and appraisals on quality management. Recruitment and selection of employees is as important in establishing an organization as in service organizations. Thus the impact of the recruitment and selection process on effectiveness of good management policies in establishing and organization.
Possible vacancy identified
Analysis carried out to see if the job has
Changed or it is still needed
Job description drawn up Recruitment Phase
Person specification drawn up
Advertisement designed and issued
Interviews Selection Phase
Training,development & appraisal
Resignation or retirement Exit Phase
An organization should understand the customer and employee need into objectives for operations known as competitive priorities. These competitive priorities include quality, flexibility, low cost and delivery and an organization should focus on these and not to ignore them. An employee is more likely to be motivated and satisfied when his/her values match with an organization value. It is said to critically analyze employee selection in turn increases an organization performance. Thus an organization should play close attention to employee recruitment and selection cannot be over emphasized. Both resource based view(RBV) and socio-technical systems theory(STS) support the idea of paying respect and attention to recruitment and selection process can help an organization to grow. Generate and sustain a competitive advantage. The quality management practices and recruitment and selection process is very important to the effectiveness of the quality management however this theory does not evolve over time. Thus management has to make an effort for proper recruitment and selection processes by utilizing relevant resources.
All progress have been made in human resources practices, but it came as surprise only few organizations have adopted selection, promotion and career development processes that are consistent with TQM based human resources perspective. A TQM approach pay importance and attention selecting employees based on their motivation and ability to perform effectively in TQM process. A quality management is a multi-dimensional concept which focused on quality improvement principles throughout an organization. Such quality management include:
Customer focus: this measures the customer involvement and responsiveness.
Feedback : this includes timely feedback about the performance.
Process control: it includes the use of statistical process control in production to monitor and reduce the process alteration.
Supplier involvement: in quality management practices it include long term relationships and joint product development.
The reliability analysis was carried out to examined whether employers assessed candidates work values, desires toward teamwork, attitude and eagerness to share ideas regarding process improvement as well as problem solving aptitudes and on scale it was measured 0.88.
Due to high competitive pressure it is very hard to find an organization that does not emphasize quality management practices. It is too often an organization concentrates on employees technical skills without evaluating behavioral skills. Doing proper and impartial recruitment and selection is consistent with one of basic principle of quality management which is the notation that prevention is better than a cure. It is hard to modify negative behavioral traits of employees. Therefore it is best to check employees traits during recruitment and selection process in order to avoid mismatch between technical and social systems. Qualitative process oriented investigation is needed to know the process by which the behavioral traits of blend with quality management practices to create value that are hard intimate (Ahmad,S. and Schroeder, R(2002) Sustainability of total quality management.Vol.19, pp.540-547).
During recruitment and selection process some selection and staffing decisions turn out to be successful, but others not. Good saying "place the right people in the right job" .The problem arises when the candidate is screened during entry level position or promotion, some of the factors contributing to job performance may be checked and verified. Such factors are work related and defines abilities, such as knowledge, skills and qualification. But there are some variable factors, such as motivation and the way employee perceive their role versus the perception of their supervisor. Nobody including candidate can guarantee that she or he will display motivation on the job because motivation cannot be easily generated. Some people enjoying working with new ideas and some prefers to work with number. In downsizing and outsourcing world, executives have to be highly effective by achieving more with less. The establishment of new discipline called neurolinguistic programming(NPL).The components of its name reflect NLP:
Neuro it's a Greek word "neuron" meaning "nerves", it refers to formation and sensation to decision making.
Linguistic it's a latin word "lingua" means "language" this refer to body language during recruitment process of candidate.
Programming it is the process of using the software-type programs to achieve certain desirable specific outcomes. If HR is interviewing somebody either for managerial position or as management trainee, it would be critical if managing is truly among candidate's work performance (Georges, D. (1996) Improved employee selection and staffing through meta programmes. pp. 5).
Hirer follow the following process during the recruitment of candidate:
The process begins with evaluating resumes. The objective of resume is to generate enough interest to get an interview. But resume rarely give any clear picture of the candidate. Four basic style of writing resumes: the functional resume, the general resume, the chrono-logical resume and the combination resume. Each style of writing the resumes has different capabilities to highlight certain and strength and keep weakness well hidden. Hirer examine the resume and get the basic idea about the candidate how specific they are in their job description. Some negative candidates give lengthy description of education, background. Than hirer short these resumes into "reject", "maybe" and "definite" This short listing of resumes help hirer to make phoner list for next round of recruitment.
The short listed candidate get call for telephonic interview and hirer try to find the details of candidate as that mentioned in resume matches or not. This telephonic round of interview helps to determine as much as possible about the candidate's capability.HR ask open ended questions during telephonic round of interview. This round of interview gives idea whether candidate is willing to do the job and than they called the suitable candidate for face to face interview in which HR explain about company policies and expect punctuality. The important thing here to note as HR is evaluating the candidate, he/she is also evaluating the organization through HR and determines whether he /she would like to work for company or not.
Ability and Willingness to do the job
After gathered all information, HR should evaluate ability again. Does candidate has any performance history in that position. What short of responsibilities he/she have? The HR gain insight into skills, special knowledge, strength and weakness thus this help HR to get clear picture of candidate's special capabilities (Gurumurthy, R. and Kleiner, B. (2002) Effective Hiring. Management Research News. Vol.25, pp. 61-62,65).
INTERNAL OR EXTERNAL RECRUITMENT
In a important of cases the organization seeks and plan to recruit its executive from its exciting workforce this helps in the continuity of the organization culture and helps to "pass on" knowledge of the business. The level of success is better known than recruiting external candidate because best predictor of future behavior is often past performance and services. With the limitations of internal recruitment, organization has better opportunity to provide support from initial placement, these known recruitment limitations can work against internal recruit. Weakness of internal candidate is discovered over time and visible easily on other hand the weakness of external candidate is not visible and known to organization. An added advantage of internal recruitment is that organization is better prepared now than compare to past and their own internal candidates.
Study has been made on internal recruitment and it is most effective process for and organization because it help to produce senior executive with strategic plans and have CEO support. Sometime the selection of internal candidate may not be the best solution; thus organization may seek for external recruitment. The main reason is the lack of interest of internal candidate. This relate to management growth and downsizing the weakened bench strength. Additionally, an organization may lose some of his management depth because changing values in today's workforce have contributed to job mobility among managers and executives. Another added advantage of external recruitment is strategic development in a new direction, with hope that new values and ideas of outsider will help the organization to change in vision and mission for future at great values. In this case the choice is made to create the future rather than just continue it. External recruitment help to strengthen their senior management team by increasing diversity, including ethnic, racial, age and gender.
Advantage Of Internal Recruitment
Internal recruitment helps to save organization time.
Level of probable success is better known than with an external candidate in internal recruitment.
Organizations are better prepared now than in the past to anticipate and provide their own internal candidate.
Internal recruitment of internal candidate in an organization helps for organization growth with past organization knowledge.
Internal recruiting reduces the recruitment cost of the company.
Internal recruiting have more familiarity with the organization and it become more easier to tell them about company policies and norms.
Disadvantage Of "Internal Recruitment
It reduces the innovation and creative idea in the organization.
It cause conflicts among the employees for vacant position.
More training is required for employees selected in internal recruitment.
Advantage Of External Recruitment
This helps for organization growth with new innovation and plans.
Strategic development in new direction for an organization.
External recruitment helps to strengthen the senior management team.
People have wider range of experience.
Disadvantage Of External Recruitment
Takes time to adjust with company policies and norms.
The new employee may not fit the culture of the company.
Organization really never know what they will be getting with an employee hired from outside.
External recruitment brings down the employee morale with in organization.
(Souza, F. and Zajas, J.(1995) Recruiting executives in business.Vol.8, pp. 24)
Some organization have attempted to improve their recruitment and selection procedures in order to minimize the bias and unfair discrimination and on assessment centre which is very useful technique in this aspect especially for managerial selection. The assessment and development centers can play fair role in employee selection and positive career development. Need for complete fair selection and analysis of jobs involved, using job descriptions. Emphasis also made on importance of gender and ethnic monitoring so as to identify the existing workforce combination of function and level of knowledge. Success of any equal opportunity play fair role selecting or giving employment to black men and women and thus achieving specific staffing target. Many organization plans to do recruitment and selection training often including information about relevant legislation and codes of practices and also sexism and racism training may also be included. The three important selection and recruitment techniques are 'situational interview', 'work sample tests', and assessment centres.
All three process shows high validities, minimal adverse impact and favourable applicants reactions. All these three process of selection and recruitment based on systematic and thorough job analysis so selection is based on ability to recognize and identify actual skills rather than implicit. Assessment centres refers less to a place as to process, because it's a process where the performance and potential especially managerial potential, are assessed. Assessment centres involve assessment in groups, by groups and the use of multiple techniques with emphasis on situational exercises. The main purpose of assessment centres is to identify managerial talent for firstline supervision where the demands of skills is more and the present employee unable to possess those skills for such position. The purpose of this assessment centre is to select fresh graduates and to select officers in Navy, Police, Army or Airforce.
The assessment centres for recruitment and selection usually considered to include the following characteristic :
Use of multiple assessment techniques
Much use of work sample.
Use of multiple techniques.
Separation of observation from evaluation of performance (Lles, P. (1989) Equal opportunity in selection and career development.Vol.8, pp. 1-3).
The different types of interview for a candidate to go through recruitment and selection process are:
The highly qualified team of delegates is send to any campus to recruit fresh candidate with new innovation and skills, who can contribute in organization growth. In this kind of interview lots of candidate participate in and around of other campus students, it's a long process of interviewing candidate and it involve 4-5 rounds to interview stages. At each stage candidate is filtered and called for next round of interview and selected candidate is offered with appointment letter and other details of an organization.
Walk in interview:
Walk in interview where candidate directly walked in to an organization for interview as his/her resume is verified online by the HR of the company and they arrange the call to candidate about the interview details and date. Here candidate is assessed with verbal communication, confidence, kinds of assessments and than finally manager round of interview.
Face to face interview:
Its one to one interview process, where HR interview the candidate and verified all his/her details as mentioned in resume and check the candidates confidence, skills and willingness to do job in an organization.
In this process of interview the panel is assigned to interview a candidate. The panel try to get complete skills and depth knowledge of candidate and assists the candidate for his positive attitude and team player. On other hand the panel interview some time not be much effective compare to other class of interviews, because panel of 4-5 interviewing a single candidate at a time cause candidate to lose his/her confidence by getting bombarded by series of questions and thus this makes candidate to get panic and loss of confidence and thus an organization may lose talented and skillful candidate with new innovation and ideas.
The process of interview where candidate get the call from company HR after his/her resume verification and HR over phone conforms all details as mentioned on the resume and try to get positive out come from candidate for doing job, HR get details about candidate's background and qualification details (Keats, D. (2000) Many types of Interview. Interviewing: a Practical Guide for Students and Professionals. pp. 6-19).
The class of interview where candidate get see job vacancy online and applied for it. This class of interview is not transparent as compare to other class of interviews, because the assessment may be taken by someone else on behalf of particular candidate. Web site addresses now found in newspapers, journals and in job advertisements, some substantial part of the recruitment budget is being devoted specifically to on-line recruitment. An equally interesting observation was the relationship between the culture of an organization and its on-line recruitment the practices (Article Type:Â Internet briefingÂ From:Â Journal of Managerial Psychology, Vol. 15, Issue 7).
To critically analyze the topic Employee selection via interview can help an organization to attract staff and encourage high work performance, have referred journals, articles and books, find different types of recruitment and selection process of an employee. Employee is assist based on his skills, confidence, team player, willingness to do job. Certain policies and norms of an organization is followed to do recruitment of a candidate and HR cannot go beyond those policies implemented by organization. The candidate is filtered during process of recruitment and hirer expect performance from new employee for organization growth. The different kinds of interview class are mentioned and useful to hire a employee. Thus its very important HR and interview manager should be impartial and should judge the candidate on his/her skills not by they appearance.