Employees motivation was very important for the development of the Enterprises. To get a better understanding of the employee motivation, the concept of motivation should firstly been studied. Dongho Kim (2006) defined motivation as that something corresponding to a person's behavior or leading to the behavior, or the reasons of individual behavior. Meanwhile, he argued that individual behaviors can different from each other since people have their own needs. Employee was the important parts in a company and their work efficiency and attitude was directly relevant to the company development. Therefore, in the past several years, business operations management (OM) got more and more attention the employees' motivation. A lot of studies reported that there was a positive relationship between employee motivation and performance of enterprises. Rachel W.Y. Yee (2009) studied the relationships of employee motivation and service quality, firm profitability and customer loyalty as well as the contextual factors. For the fully investigation, the author focused on service industries in Hong Kong. He found that the service staff and customers can have the opportunities to build up the ties and improve the firm performance through the constantly contacts with consumers. Therefore, employee motivation have the directly effect on the consumers and business benefit.
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However, a widely existing fact is that many employees are low employee motivation, which is disadvantageous for both the individual development and the enterprise development. For investigating the cause and effect of the low motivation of staff, Dongho Kim (2006) discussed and analyzed some necessary elements of employee motivation. He pointed out that mangers must realize that the importance of employee motivation and its concepts and clearly recognize the differences in individual needs. James R. Lindner (1998) discussed factors that have effected the employee motivation, including interesting of the work, wages, and appreciation from the leader when the work is done, job security, working conditions, promotions organization, and enterprise loyalty to employees, the ability to handle the personal problems as well. He listed several ranked order of motivating factors done by other authors. Two authors considered that interesting work is the most important motivational factor. However, some researchers disagree that interesting work is the most important elements for the motivation of employee. By comparing and analyzing the theories, James R. Lindner concluded that interesting work and employee pay are the important components to the employee's motivation. He suggested that for it is very important and necessarily to know what motivates the employees and design a motivation program based on those needs for management in the company. Laura Leete (2000) proposed that researching on employee motivation should combine the psychology and management. The author examined some data of labor market of the US from the 1990, aiming for analyzing the difference of motivation in nonprofit and for-profit employees. He found that there are strong link existing between wage equity and the staff that wage equity, which is a very important element for the employee. Especially, it is more apparent for the employees who work in the nonprofit organizations than whose who woke in the for-profit organizations. Work quality is largely corresponding to the worker motivation.
The purpose of this study was to study the causes and effects of low employee motivation. Then the author will propose some solutions to enhance the employee motivation. The last part of this work is a summary and conclusion of the whole research work.
Causes and effects of low employee motivation and some solutions
Causes of low employee motivation are different for individuals. However, all the reasons can be summarized and divided into two components: The organization's loyalty to employees and the dissatisfaction of the staff in the company.
On one hand, the organization's loyalty to employees usually reflected by the leaders of the business who's supervisor's treatment to the staff. Because the leader's behavior usually stand for the on behalf of business, it is important for the business leaders to treat the relationship between with employees. Many companies emphasize that employees must be loyal to the business, but overlooked the importance of corporate loyalty to employees (Matzler, K. & Renzl, B., 2007). This overlook can be dived into three manifestations: no trust, no respects and do not allow creativity. For the first situation, many leaders don't have strong and trust-based relationships with their staff, which can cause the feeling of insecurity. Thus, employees will easily emotionally disengage and morale suffered and results in low motivation. In the second place, many leaders in companies believed that it is the company's kindness that they pay salaries to employees, they hoping to control the activities of the works and ignore the personality development. Thus, employee can easily have the strong emotion that they are only the working machine and the robot in the company. Having being controlled by the emotion, employees are just hoping to finish their assignment and low motivation. Finally, many leaders are destroying the creativity of the employees. Many companies have a strictly regulation and work procedure, these measures are lack of flexibility and any creative ingenuity are considered to be destroy the regulation, which seriously limited the creativities of the staff. Consequently, employees are usually working with the emotion of no freedom and low motivation. On the other hand, the dissatisfaction of the employee is a very important component for workers having the low motivation during the work. Christina G. Chi (2009) studied the relationship between employee satisfaction and customer satisfaction and examined the impact of both on a hospitality company's financial performance. They collected the study data from employees, customers and managers in four star hotels. The study examined the relationship between employee motivation and customer satisfaction, and the impact of both on hospitality companies' financial performance utilizing the service-profit-chain framework as the theoretical base, which links service operations, employee satisfaction and customer satisfaction to a firm's financial performance. They found that the high satisfaction of the employees can directly lead to the satisfaction of customers and well financial performance. Usually, the dissatisfaction of employee is effected by two reasons: the burden and insecurity. Firstly, burden is usually arising from the working and living pressure. Many company pay low salaries to their workers while a large working pressure, which giving rise to the dissatisfaction of the employees and low enthusiasm. Some workers have to take the part time job to increase their incomes and can not concentrate on their work. Secondly, the insecurity comes from the worry of being fired. Many companies decrease their expense by layoff or decrease the salaries of the worker when they faced on the economic crisis, which giving rise to the feeling of insecurity of workers, which is a passive enthusiasm leading to low motivation. In summary, enterprises are disloyal to employee and dissatisfaction of the works is two of the important reason to cause low motivation.
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The results of low employee motivation are very harmful to the development of a company (Bernhardt. K.L.2000). Firstly, staff could not communicate with the leaders and feedback some massages to leaders or superior initiatively they usually have no responsibility and no innovation. These work attitudes is adverse for establishing the teamwork of the company. Because of low motivation, staffs are unwilling to cooperate and collaboration with others, leading to the overall coordination capacity and core competitiveness are seriously affected in the company. Secondly, low employee motivation will affect the promotion and development of corporate culture. With the emotion of resistance and do not want co-operation, employee are unwilling to work energetically. Consequently, the cohesion of the enterprise is accordingly reduced. In a word, the low motivation of the employees can affect the overall coordination capacity and core competitiveness of the company.
In order to solve the problems of employee's low motivation and improve the core competition ability of the company, the leaders in the company should pay attention to establish correct relationship between the leader and the employees (S. J. Bell & B. Menguc, 2002).
At the beginning, many leaders in companies believed that it is the company's kindness that they pay salaries to employees. In fact, salaries are the income from the labor, and it is necessarily that enterprise pay for the wages to employees. If ignore the essence of the salaries and hope to exchange labor with the wages, the company can lead to the low motivation of the employees. Therefore, the enterprise should firstly correct the view on wages and respect the employee's labor. Since a development of an enterprise is largely effected by an excellent group, which consisted by employees who have the motivation to their work. Incorrect treating the paying of salaries and labor is harmful to the development of the establishment of group. For the employees, high motivation in the work should be professional ethics, but it must be achieved through the business-to-employee loyalty. Improve the business-to-employee loyalty is a prerequisite for the development of business, only the business-to-employee loyalty come true and employee loyalty to the enterprise will achieve. Further, leaders in the company should change the manner of working. Most of the companies are more concerned about their own development, they often requiring employees to support and cooperation the company and seldom think of the needs of employees. From their own point of view, the leader of enterprise will consider staff as a tool to achieve their target and dominate their staff with their own though. Often, managers think that they can help subordinates but only increased the burden on subordinates and decrease the working motivation of the employees. Therefore, mangers in the company should give a sufficient thought space.
Besides, manger in the company should understand the needs of employees. Usually, in the relationship of enterprise and employees, enterprises always stand in the active position but employees in a passive position. Before an employee come into the enterprise, the companies have establish reward and punishment mechanism as well as the though that employee should loyal to the enterprise. Thus, employees are in fact involuntary loyalty to the companies but constrained by the enterprise system, which of course, leading to a feeling of inequality and low motivation for employees. Therefore, leaders in the company should understand the needs of the employees and pay attention to the lives of staff, sought to the profit grow together both for the company and the staff. A good example of the company that respects employees and receives the high motivation of employee is the Toyota. In the company, wages are higher and more benefits than the peer companies. In addition, the company also constructed a large staff education, sports and health and entertainment facilities to enrich the life. This kind of respecting and carefulness of the company are so deeply moved by the staff and they are very receptive to the large family and striving for working just as working for their own family. In conclusion, companies should show their loyalty and sincerity to employees when they require the employees striving for work so that the company can exchange for the high motivation of employees, rather than system to impose constraints.
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In conclusion, there are two reasons that lead to the low motivation of the employees. First of all, the organization does not loyalty to the staff including no trust, no respects and do not allow creativity. This management leading to that employee is easily emotionally disengaged and morale suffered, or has the strong emotion that they are only the working machine of the robot in the company or has the feeling of no freedom. Consequently, employees are just hoping to finish their assignment and have a passive attitude to work. Beside, the dissatisfaction of employee can leading to the satisfaction of employees. Dissatisfaction is effected by two reasons: the living and working burden as well as insecurity, which leading employees are low enthusiasm and can not concentrate on their work and insecurity.
Effects of low employee motivation are very harmful to the development of a company. Firstly, it is adverse for establishing the teamwork of the company. Secondly, it can reduce the cohesion of the enterprise.
In order to solve the problems and enhance the employee motivation and improve the core competition ability of the company, the leaders in the company should firstly pay attention to establish correct relationship between the leader and the employees. There are three methods to build the relationship: first of all, the enterprise should improve the business-to-employee loyalty and respect the employee's labor. Secondly, leaders in the company should change the manner of working and give a sufficient freedom and creativities to their workers. Last, leaders in the company should understand the needs of employees and pay attention to the lives of staff, sought to the profit grow together both for the company and the staff.