Employee Job Satisfaction In Public Sector Organizations Commerce Essay

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A lot of researchers have found that HR Practices are positively linked with employee job satisfaction (Weiss, 2006; Spector, 1997; Rose, 2001; Harpaz, 1990). The aim and main focus of these studies have been developed countries. The eyes did not turn towards developing countries like Pakistan in a great deal. Ayan etal (2000) says that there is a lot of room for research in the field of HR Practices i.e Training and development, Rewards and Recognition in Pakistan.

The purpose of this study is to check the relationship between HR Practices (Training and development, Rewards, Recognition) and Employee Job Satisfaction in Pakistan. These HR Practices are also known as key drivers of employee performance. Pakistan is one of those countries where people working in the public sector organizations are often not sure about the job satisfaction level. The unsatisfied employees of public sector organizations, when switch to private sector i.e MNE's have been observed to be much more satisfied, there fore it is very important for the managers to know which HR Practices keep them satisfied and how much important role training and development, rewards and recognition have regarding employee job satisfaction.

This study can be very fruitful for HR Managers of Public sector organizations in Pakistan and they would get a very clear idea about the relationship of three important HR Practices and employee job satisfaction and as a result can have much more productive employees and a decreases turn over rate in their organizations.

Literature Review

HR Practices

Human Resource Management refers to the policies and practices involved in carrying out the human resource aspects of management including human resource planning, job analysis, recruitment, selection, compensation, performance appraisal and training and development (Dessler, 2007). HRM is composed of policies, practices and systems that influence behavior, attitude and performance (Noe, Hollenbeck, Gerhart, and Wright, 2007). Six HR practices selective hiring, compensation policy, rewards, recognition, training and development and information sharing have been studied with relation to employee job satisfaction (Vlachos, 2009). The present study examines the relationship between three HR Practices i.e training and development, rewards, recognition and employee job satisfaction.

Job Satisfaction

Job satisfaction is simply how people feel about their jobs and different aspects of their jobs (Robbins, 1997). It is the extent to which people like or dislike their jobs (Spector, 1997). Job satisfaction may be general attitude formed as a result of specific job factors, individual characteristics and workplace relationships (Blum and Naylor, 1996). Various factors such as an employee needs and desires, social relationships, style and quality of management, job design, compensation, working conditions, perceived long range opportunities, and perceived opportunities elsewhere are considered to be the determinants of job satisfaction (Byars and Rue, 1997; Moorhead and Griffin, 1999). According to Robbins (1999), a satisfied workforce can increase organizational productivity through less distraction caused by absenteeism or turnover, few incidences of destructive behavior, and low medical costs.

Training and Development

Training is focusing on fixing a specific issue (Thomos Raney, 1999). Training often answers the question "what happens if" Development on the other hand takes a more global approach. Training is related with current performance and progress of an employee while development is related with the future performance and progress (Phillip, 1994). Training is anything offering offering learning experience (Claire Belilos, 1997). Training programmes increase the firm specificity of employee skills, which, in turn increases employee productivity and reduces job dissatisfaction that results in employee turnover (Huselid, 1995).

H1: Training and development is significantly and positively related with employee job satisfaction.


Recognition is a process of giving an employee a certain stakes within an organization. This is a very crucial factor towards employee motivation. Recognition shows how much appreciation an employee receives from the organization for his/her work. (Flynn, 1998) argued that recognition keeps high spirits among employees, boosts up their morale and create a linkage between performance and motivation of employees. The level of motivation and satisfaction increases when employee gets an unexpected increase in recognition (La Motta, 1995). Recognition increases the level of job satisfaction and satisfied employees are a valuable asset for any organization (Entwistle, 1997). Tangible recognition takes two forms, cash or prizes given as an award. Proponents of cash incentives say cash is easy to give, cash programs are easy to administer and most employees prefer cash. Proponents of non-cash awards say cash is a poor motivator, money is spent on everyday necessities, and it soon becomes confused with salary or bonuses (Holmes, 1994).

H2: Recognition is significantly and positively related with employee job satisfaction.


Work rewards have been defined as "potential sources of rewards to the worker" (Kalleberg, 1977). It represents what the individuals want to obtain from work or what they perceive. Previous research shows how job rewards are strong determinant of job satisfaction. For instance, (Gerald and Dorothee, 2004) and (Clifford, 1985) found that rewards are significantly related to professionalism and job satisfaction. They supported the argument that job satisfaction for professionals is derived in part from what professional perceives from job. Job satisfaction is influenced by job rewards (Clifford, 1985). Earlier research work posited that the job rewards includes the entire work benefits. However on the other hand, the work of (Kalleberg, 1997), had raised questions about the manner in which work values affect job satisfaction. Actually Kalleberg distinguishes between work values and job rewards. Work values refer "to general attitudes regarding the meaning that an individual attaches to the work role" (Kalleberg, 1977).

H3: Rewards are significantly and positively related to employee job satisfaction.

Theoretical Model of the Study





Training and Development

Relationship of Variables / References

Independent Variable

Dependent Variable


Training &Development

Job Satisfaction

(Thomas Raney,1999); (Philip, 1994); (Claire Belilos, 1997); (Huselid, 1995); Decenzo,


Job Satisfaction

(Flynn, 1998); (La Motta, 1995); (Entwistle, 1997); (Holmes, 1994);


Job Satisfaction

(Kalleberg, 1977); Gerald and Dorothee, 2004; Clifford, 1985;

Job Satisfaction (Dependent Variable)

(Robbins, 1997); (Spector, 1997); (Blum and Naylor, 1996); (Byars and Rue 1997); Moorhead and Griffin, 1999);