Major oil companies operating in 80 countries around the world, British Petroleum (BP) is headquartered in London. In 1908, BP began its activities for more than 100 years ago, in World War II and British colonial rule, the emperor, not benefit from the global activities of the extended was. Changes in third place in the state oil company in each country in order to protect their interests, BP is the latest in countries across the Middle East and the world, has created a strategic alliance. Plays an important role in the economy UK, BP is involved in a part of the supply of nuclear fuel in North Sea exploration, production, and energy demand of the country in a positive way. $ 250, 000 million yen, I was adopted sales of more than 100,000 business partners BP and important in many countries the world over. Participate in the campaign, BP Solar and renewable energy sources in the energy crisis and environmental protection.
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However, in order to provide a significant contribution to the world economy, his reputation, his background in a variety of energy sources, BP was criticized for the environment and corporate governance for the role. Number in this case because experienced, it was a great, death, property damage and environmental impact of the BP accident. Deep water Horizon oil spill was in serious accidents in 2010 and found guilty of poor crisis management of BP, accidents occur in the Gulf of Mexico native and field, Prudhoe Bay are dumping dangerous 1993, 2006, 1967.
Economic and social contribution of local and global economy, BP is important evaluation, focusing on process management and its effectiveness, and compliance with the provisions of the CSR policy.
Effects of globalisation on national economies
In order to provide energy to meet demand 80 countries, BP fusible gas. Annual sales of more than $ 250 billion, the production is more than 2, 400 000 barrels per day. It is one of three major oil companies and approximately 100 000 employees around the world. Operations in 26 countries share national oil company engaged in mining technology, experience, and exploit oil. Major oil companies BP and UK North Sea operations (British Petroleum, 2010), in the block with a local perspective. One hundred million zloty 86.6 BP London Stock Exchange and a leading barometer of market capitalization. (Yahoo Finance, 2011), because the share market oligopoly of leading technology and investment in BP oil and natural gas. As well as a new source of oil like BP in developing a technique to extract oil from tar sands resources, such as low birth rate conventional mining.
In addition to fossil fuel, BR focused market solar power technology in the environment of future production, and development. BP Solar is a global industrial 20th Furthermore, involving BP Castrol and BP brands, under the leadership of the United States, with a market share of oil and gas in more than 80 countries around the world, distribution Sales details of lubricating oil is a leading company. BP Welcome to jet fuel at the airport in 1200 90 countries. For example, BP is considered and giant corporations, the United Kingdom and many other countries, it is important for the economy.
Economic and social impact of BP
What is the other side, the level of carbon dioxide is now the largest environmental problems. BP's commitment to our planet and energy efficiency and renewable energy technology solutions for development is essential for the survival of the ecosystem. Long-term solution to the problem of shortage of players mentioned in BP's oil reserves, energy research program called Challenge is the responsibility of investing.
Monte BP, which many governments in developing countries were forced to work together participated in a dictatorship. Many of these areas standard of living, reduce corruption in the people, in general. BP industry corruption as a serious treatment explains.
Such as the BP oil refinery workers in dangerous environments in the sea. BP employees are an important part of social responsibility. BP influence of environmental and social impacts. For example, infection, tourism, water and Luciana engaged in fishing in the Gulf of Mexico disaster that they have created for local residents in 2010.Hotels, restaurants, tourist attractions, according to the positive and negative social effects of the operation the BP, responsible for great economic losses suffered.
Influence of international institutions
Always on Time
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Given the size and complexity of the BP under the influence of international organizations, which can be divided into two categories.
1.2.1 Indirect Impact
The action of large financial institutions, the World Bank and the IMF in the world do not have a direct effect on blood pressure. However, the current economic crisis and recovery plans proposed for the management of these institutions, that devaluation, BP fuel taxes, adjusted to exclude costs. However, the environmental criteria of the World Bank has an impact on the blood pressure of the World Bank is directly involved in managing the crisis on disaster social, economic and ecological seemingly logical rebuild. (World Bank, 2010) of the IMF to provide funds to governments to projects and their new line of credit to undertake the modernization of Libya to begin oil drilling is an example of the consequences of the MFI BP (U.S. Department of State, 2011)
1.2.2 Direct Impact
OPEC is an international leader that affects BP. How the BP Oil production in many countries OPEC OPEC decision to cut oil production to stabilize the market have an impact on activity, BP and OPEC revenues directly related to commercial partners and national oil companies, as if I were there. (Dessai, 2004) In addition, the Kyoto Protocol requires BP to work closely with automakers to research on energy efficiency due to CO2 emissions.
Influence of EU
EU regulations on BP are twofold. The first EU rules on free movement of workers within the EU Member States, energy efficiency, implementing recycling and maintenance of safety standards. EU emissions forced oil companies led to the introduction of fuel does not lead to the market. Secondly, the EU imposes rules based on specific themes.
After the incident in the Gulf of Mexico caused by BP, the EU introduced new rules to prevent such accidents in the future. Despite the fierce resistance of the sector (including BP), measures relating to oil and gas new security measures will cost the industry ââ€šÂ¬ 130 million per year, and the financial impact on BP is not available. (Lewis, 2011) However, Lewis (2011) justifies the cost and the EU, by comparing the estimated costs of the disaster in the Gulf of Mexico for $ 40 billion.
2.1 Discuss the economic impact of adopting environmental policies
Number of organizations increase public awareness of global environmental issues applicable to direct and indirect BP. Greenhouse gas emissions and the protection of human life and the environment by preventing accidents are two main areas of concern.
Instructions are in the United Kingdom with respect to the environment that determines the Environment Agency in England and Wales and the U.S. Environmental Protection body responsible for these activities. Set based on local and international regulations as Kyoto Convention and EU regulations. BP is required to follow these instructions. These conditions relate to air pollution, hazardous substances, land and water, recycling of waste and packaging. Also paper written as climate change levy.
U.S. Chemical Safety Board and danger reviewed BP's refinery accident in Texas in 2005 and in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010 to review the safety of another environmental disaster. Based on the results of their research, they also recommend fines and compensation imposed on BP. According to BP submitted a change management (Mok) in order to prevent another disaster. (Bea, 2011) Control of the largest-accident hazards (COMAH) is the public body responsible for the activities of this type in the United Kingdom. After the accident held at BP Grange mouth COMAH recommend penalties against the home Commons and advised BP on accident prevention procedures.
Minimize environmental impact from activities
BP accepted the protection of the environment as a top priority. According to its president Dagger (2011) "We see the trend towards sustainable production and clean, and carries the same risks as a business opportunity that will not only generate large changes in the behavior of industry and consumers, but the most major technological challenges. Should realize that the pursuit of sustainability is a powerful incentive for innovation, and especially powerful incentive for creativity in our employees. Sustainability frameworks led BP to commit to bring their emissions global greenhouse gas emissions by 10% below 1990 levels by 2010, "according to the environment in BP engaged in protection activities.
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Policy and safety risks have objectives to prevent accidents and to avoid environmental risks and began to rebuild the business after an incident in the Gulf of Mexico. In addition, a plan designed to reward individual employees urge to act in time to avoid accidents. Regulation contractor direct the operations of BP in the third track to ensure the safety and accident-free environment and a concerted effort to maintain.
Although accident prevention in handling oil spill half of one of the main areas of concentration and positive results was invested in expanding and developing the reaction performed and response activities should include in their global operations. This includes an immediate action plan and the introduction of remotely operated vehicles incidents detected. They also have more action on behalf of "Clean Water Act clean" and legal requirements of the water pollution standards.
In order to limit CO2 emissions BP continuously improve efficiency and carbon pricing approved. In addition, support for low-carbon energy and invest in research.
As a long-term commitment to devote rout in developing renewable energy sources. In the period 2005 -2010 investments in the renewable energy sector is leading USD 5 billion and BP's market in the solar industry worldwide, with a market share of 30%.
In addition to this previous effort, BP is professional auditors and sizes covering both technical assistance and financial BP assessed on environment. (British Petroleum, 2010)
2.2 Measures employer act for health and safety
BP workforce of 100,000 spread over six continents and working in some dangerous environments, such as underwater, North Sea and oil prices. Highest number of employees who participated in the work at refineries and chemical laboratory safety at risk. The average annual mortality rate is about 10, which was increased to 14 due to an accident on the deep water horizon in the U.S. in 2010. (British Petroleum, 2010) However, the figure is far below reference by OGP lies committee for exploration and production activities.
Recordable injury frequency (RIF)
Injury Frequency (per 200,000 work hours) Source: Annual Report - British Petroleum, 2010
BP minimize employee exposure health measures introduced that amount. K working procedures were established health and safety standards that must be followed to avoid damage. It is a process called "Health Card" entered for each site on the risks of health-related identified.
Health and safety committee is responsible for the overall health of the company and reports directly to the board. The workforce of more than 35,000 in Europe covering the BP European Council proposed by the European Union safety standards. 20,000 U.S. workforce is mainly represented by the Union metal U.S. employees can raise concerns of safety Labour Committee that meets regularly.
Process safety committee is responsible for developing the process in an environment that will work better safety. Center for Chemical Process Safety Work with, Native American Petroleum Institute in design and process appropriate.
Oil spills, released material and transportation fuels and chemicals are the main areas related public safety. BP followed the guidelines of the American Petroleum Institute API-754 on chemical waste storage and maintenance of public safety. Transportation security covers transportation fuels and chemicals, air, soil and water. Number of serious traffic accidents remains under 0.14.
BP also maintains strict quality control to ensure good quality of the finished products to maintain security and prevent customer health risks.
2.3 responsibilities of BP for improving Workplace welfare
BP employs 100,000 employees in more than 80 countries. Some professional environments more dangerous chemicals and installation of gas and chemicals in different ways. As BP can be considered as an organization and as a result broadly diversified, equity and social work is fundamental for their personnel.
A code of conduct is integrity in place in order to comply with legal requirements and to maintain high ethical standards. Conduct includes obligations supervisory standards and ethics, procedures to increase anxiety, aims at the organization and compliance with ethics programs to send. (BP Code, 2007)
Baber (2004), the various steps that BP employees welfare. Mandatory minimum requirements for training five days in a year is a way to inform employees of BP and the elimination of racism in the workplace to improve and encourage multi-ethnic environment that works is one of the key features identified by him.
BP HR policy is the recognition of work-life balance and to meet these objectives, the various welfare measures. BP activities for the welfare of their employees are staff development and training, paid leave unbeatable combination marble statue, overruns recreational facilities, employee assistance and professional support for the Council.
Employees also believe that BP has a culture of open and relaxed atmosphere to work. (Personal insight, 2011) also have a performance-based culture and reward system for responsibility and strong work ethic connects. As a result of BP was named recruiter of graduates (energy sector) is the most popular in the United Kingdom in 2011 and was the 65th in the UKs top graduate recruiters. BP also ranked number 34 in Canfield University Women FTSE 100 and 15% of the directors represent women in New York.
But BPS culture was criticized for his attitude toward the Gulf of Mexico crisis during the first days after the accident. Obviously relaxed approach to safety and not directly to the impact of the disaster to minimize at an early stage that the lack of management and accounting.
2.4 Different BP approaches to manage diversity issues
BP has a melting pot of different since its inception. But it is only in recent decades that company the value of a diverse workforce to achieve. Now, thousands of diversity programs in organizations, to benefit from the strengths of each employee.
Most courses are four standard approaches to managing diversity in the workplace. Are listed in order of what I believe managing diversity would be held. In reading these descriptors to the extent to which the diversity of your company values ââ‚¬â€¹ââ‚¬â€¹in the workplace to determine.
Maximize performance of all employees