International marketing management deals with promoting the products and services in more than one countries or regions in order to increase business. Marketing is a medium used to attract customers with appropriate strategies and techniques. This unit describes the importance and practical approaches of the international marketing. Marketing is crucial in making the profits and persuading customers and non-customers to but the products and use services the firm offers through that marketing mediums. Marketing domestically and internationally either ways is equally significant and leadership must focus on implementing the most suitable and applicable methods into marketing.
INTRODUCTION OF THE ORGANISATION: Toyota Motor Corporation is one of the best automobile manufacturers in the world abbreviated as TMC. Toyota is a Japanese multinational automaker headquartered in Toyota Aichi, Japan. Toyota employed almost 300,734 people globally in 2010 and became the largest automobile manufacturer in the world in 2011 after the General Motors and Volkswagen AG and in terms of revenue generation TMC is the eleventh largest company in the world and TMC manufactured its 200 millionth vehicle which shows the production and sales ratios around the globe.
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TMC was founded by Kiichiro Toyota in 1937 was taken off by his father's company Toyota Industries which created first Type A engine in 1934 and in the first passenger car was built in 1936 called the Toyota AA. Different brands do represent Toyota's entity such as Lexus, Daihatsu and Hino Motors and Toyota is a part of Toyota Group. Fujio Cho is the president of TMC from 2006 till date.
TASK 1.1: DOMESTIC AND INTERNATIONAL MARKETING:
Strategic marketing is the important and significant aspect in the business world. Multinational companies put their maximum efforts to promote their products and services through effective marketing throughout the world. The word marketing alone does not give the real image of the whole idea but the word strategic makes it more authentic and reliable tool of promoting the business in the whole world. If the marketing is not launched with the strategies then it will dead, so the strategic marketing makes it perfect to promote the business in the better and ongoing progressive methods.
Mark and Araujo (1999) opine the strategic marketing is the method of satisfying the customers for their needs and demands and wants as well. Although there should be the transparency and authenticity in the marketing but the competition is also present surely everywhere in the organisations. All this happens in the marketplace so it is not the simple but surely the progressive and impressive way of introducing the products with the best logic and strategies to beat the competitors and meet the goals in the superb and professional method.
Domestic marketing deals with national boundaries but in the other hand, international marketing provides the global outreach in inspiring and attracting international community to buy their products and utilize their services in meeting the organisational goals and objectives. International marketing enables leadership to break the boundaries and expand their business around the corners of the world and maximize the profits in the firm they work for. Marketing department in the TMC is efficient and innovative and introduces latest and creative ideas in order to market its products.
TASK 1.2: GROWING GLOBAL MARKET:
The globalization has changed the business and transformed it completely with new dimensions and features. International brand recognition is the most challenging part of the globalization which compels the leadership and management to introduce innovative strategies and products that may break the ice and penetrate in the market. Growing global market has challenged the organisations to not even sustain but expand globally in order to compete other organisations in the same industry.
Marketing is the tool to be globalized and expand business by breaking the boundaries of national business to the international economic growth (Hatton, 2000). Globalization has turned the business in another way to be dealt in tremendously innovative and creative manner which promotes the productivity in the management of the organisations in order to achieve their targets.
TASK 1.3: MARKETING CROSS CULTURAL IMPLICATIONS:
Cultural changes are inevitable and cannot be ignored in any circumstances. Companies with systematic approaches do contribute in minimizing the cultural influence on the business but there culture does affect the business suggested by Ackerman, 1997. Strategic leadership which is also the top management is entitled to make appropriate strategies and innovative methods in the organisations that could defend business form cultural risks.
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After the strategic leadership conveys policies and strategies, managerial and operational level management needs to implement the chosen strategies as they are directly involved with the customers and stakeholders. When it comes to face the challenge it affects the operational management so TMC is determined to make such strategies which may facilitate the leadership in all levels to tackle problems and overcome risks in order to promote business in any cultures and environments. Management of TMC focuses on the marketing according to the cultural differences which attracts the customers with catchy and impressive marketing ads.
TASK 1.4: CHANGES IN THE MARKETING CULTURE AND ENVIRONMENT:
Cultural and environmental changes do contribute in maximization of the challenges the companies have in a dramatic manner. Cultural different are always there when move from one place to another and of this is country and continent then these are unbelievable and unpredictable. The only way to manage cultural and environmental changes is the learning new cultural behaviors and attributes in order to tackle and manage them appropriately. Learning organisations are the progressing organisations in any era of business in the history.
Mark and Araujo (1999) describe the learning organization was there for the decades but in the 1990 it became very popular and the interest of the scholars and the organisations increased in this year and after that it just flourished in the industries and became common in the organizational success. TMC is the organization that highly recommends the learning in all the departments because this is the result oriented company that believes in the constant success and reliability of the trained and developed staff and leaders everywhere in the organisations.
TMC arranges the training program quarter a year and provides the environment in which the staff can gain the knowledge and wisdom to deal with the challenges and the obstacles. TMC focuses on the staff building and the trained leader development in every department and in every store around the globe. Secondly, Mintzberg (1989) opines the Strategy is one of the implications of the change which is the systematic approach in order to handle the obstacles and tackle the challenges come from internal or external bodies. TMC does have the suitable and working reliable systematic and strong strategies in order to get the tasks done and these strategies are always with the alternatives and options. Incase if some particular strategies do not work then there can be the next steps to be taken by the authorities for the better growth and success of the companies. So TMC is the developed and well established organization marching towards the destination to be the number one in the whole world.
TASK 2.1: MANAGEMENT TECHNIQES AND MARKETING:
PLANNING PRINCIPLES OF MARKETING STRATEGIES:
Marketing and its management planning both go parallel in promoting business. Strategic planning (Brassington and Pettit, 2002) can be said like the effort to create the feasible decisions and actions which position and lead the organization in terms of the business of the collective efforts in making the difference in the business. It gives the guidelines to the authorities where the organization is poisoned and where it has to be after the marketing strategies which they are going to launch in the specific time for the organization.
Christopher et al (2001) opine the Systematic Approach is the fundamental planning principle in the marketing strategies in the corporate settings. If the companies get the true picture of the planning according to the systematic approach then it covers the following areas for the advanced and professional decisions in the organization for growing in all dimensions. First of all the companies must plan the approach with what they are going to implement the new marketing strategy. Then this is very important that there should be the clear idea what the company wants from each stakeholder.
Without knowing the real goal and target it becomes impossible to meet or get that. So the companies must aware of the goals. The main theme which is also known as the message when marketing (Pritchard 1992), is done by the related staff must be clear and transparent for the customers. The communication between the organization and the customers is also known as the marketing. So the communication should be effective and reliable.
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Brassington and Pettit (2002) state the Resource Requirements are the basics of the marketing because the marketing depends upon the resources which must be provided for the purpose of marketing of the products in the companies. So the resources are always welcomed and appreciated for the better publicity of the products of the companies. Apple Inc., spent hundreds of thousands for the marketing of the new inventions and TMC is also focusing on marketing to attract the customer most effectively.
The world after knowing its products become the fan and it demanded by the public or customers in a massive quantity around the world. This is called the true marketing which is only possible with the sufficient funds and resources of the particular organization. So although there should be the quality, brand, availability, innovativeness and invention but the significant factor that enriches all the aspects is the resource requirements (Mark and Araujo, 1999).
Companies do their best to promote their business with the resources they have and the more they sow in the marketing the more they reap in the form of the profit after the sales and revenues. TMC is determined to evaluate the marketing strategies and then promote and innovate new strategies in order to promote its products and services.
TASK 2.2: STAGES OF INTERNATIONAL MARKETING:
Various stages of international marketing are significant in terms of their need, results and situations and few of those are explained hereafter. Ethnocentric is the stage of marketing in which the strategy is expressed as there are self-loving viewers and if they are convinced they do not change their views every now and then so the company's focus is always on the ethnocentric stage where the viewers do love themselves and their favorite products and they stuck to their views stated by Hatton, 2000.
Second stage is Domestic marketing which is the selling and promotion of the products and services in the same country and same cultural environment which refers to the national marketing which captures the domestic audiences and inspires them to buy their products. Third one is polycentric marketing which is purely the international marketing which goes beyond the boundaries and attract the international community and cross-cultural audiences to boost the business globally. The last stage is Geocentric which is to portray as the center of the business world and hub in proving the needs and meeting the demands of the customers throughout the world as the world center.
TASK 2.3: MARKETING RESEARCHH PROCESS:
Research process starts with the research question known as hypotheses which is none other than a question that demands research in order to come to the conclusion with effective and impressive research based on the facts and figures. Research process takes primary which is the direct data and secondary which refers to the printed data in the qualitative and quantitative manners to analyze the real position and then applying the marketing strategies to promote business internationally.
TASK 2.4: COUNTRY-MARKET CHOICE AND MARKET ENTRY STRATEGY:
Country's market choice refers to the demands and expectations of the domestic audiences by which people's trend to have latest and desirable products and services in their hands which is actually their choice. These demands are particularly in the certain geographical areas, size, growth history and customers in the specific areas and there is the competition factor always there challenging the organisations. Organisations have their choices in terms of introducing their products first and stay there for certain time period.
Competitors in some areas and regions cannot beat some well-known and well-established companies as that region is the country market choice where leadership believes that their products are the best like in ethnocentric marketing in which people love their products and they do not change their minds. These areas are the ideal for the companies to start and introduce new products with market entry in order to increase revenues and build and maintain the customer's trust. TMC is focused on its headquarter in Japan where the country-market choice is very high for the company which facilitates the leadership to trust on.
TASK 2.5: COST LEADERSHIP AND DIFFERNTIATION: Cost leadership is a significant tool to minimize costs and manage prices in affordable and approachable manner for the customers to buy products and use services offered by any firm stated by Christopher et al, 2001. Differentiation deals with the brand recognition and unique quality of the brand that attracts the customers without considering the prices and costs and TMC has applied both cost leadership and differentiation strategies because TMC vehicles are economical and the same time, world's most recognized brand as well.
TASK 3.1: INTERNATIONAL PRODUCT STRATEGIES:
There are various significant international strategies which hold tremendous value in promoting and managing businesses across the borders. Few of these strategies are given below to analyze the holistic approaches regarding international marketing.
STRANDARDISATION VERSUS ADAPTATION:
Standardization is the condition in which the uniformity and standard must be successfully established and maintained throughout the production and designing procedures stated by McDonald (2002). Standardization promotes the worldwide uniformity which becomes the brand's uniqueness in inspiring customers who love their brand and its style. TMC has a special standardization in terms of its designs and quality in order to compel customers for their vehicles to be well-recognized and customers have no compromise and tolerance on quality and long-lasting parts of the vehicles Toyota manufactures.
Adaptation encourages to change and modify designs and styles with the demand and requirement of the time and situations according to the cultural changes and geographical impacts described by Anthony and Lisa, 1998. In adaptation, management recognizes the needs and demands of the customers and develop modifications in the designs and colors according to desired market choice. Adaptation promotes changes and allows management to adapt new strategies in different localities and countries such as American culture demands the big and massive card but in the other hand Japan, Germany and China desire for small vehicles which is the biggest and most appropriate example of adaptation and TMC focuses on standardization and adaption according to the needs and demands of the market in order to maximize the profits and win customer's satisfaction. Similarly, extension is the edification and prolonging issues but innovation is to introduce and discover new and creative strategies or products and TMC promotes both but more importantly TMC focuses on innovating brand new models and designs.
TASK 3.2: PRICING STRATEGIES: CLASSIFICATION AND IMPORTANCE OF THE PRICING STRATEGY:
Costing or pricing in the organisations are important features in any organization around the globe. The progressing and growing organizations do their best to manage their cost system and they struggle to maintain their prices to be in the affordability of the customers so that there should not be any kind of uncertainty and the hindrance in the pace of the success. There are different classes of the costing in the business world. The nature of the objectives is very important in this because of the financial status of the companies. The functions are also the same as the objectives as they are performed after the targets of the companies.
Then the product is the significant feature which is the utmost need of the customers and the product is the one that represents the company's reputation and standard. So the product also plays its role in standardization of the costing system (Hatton, 2000) in the organisations. All these steps and factors are mentioned in order to change the behaviour of the customers towards the products and services of the companies. Now the classification of the costing system in the organisations describes the different classes of the costing like opportunity cost, process cost, contract costing, batch casting, recording and analyzing costs and job costing. McDonald (2002) states that the opportunity cost are the cost of an alternative that must be received and achieved in order to pursue a certain action. In other words we can say that the advantages we get while focusing on something else that is called the opportunity cost.
The second one is Process Costing which is the method of determining the total cost including all the processes in the production or any other department. There are different stages in the production and the marketing and the sales level but the processes including in the whole system is called the process costing in the organisations. These classifications are very important and TMC has all these costing classes because all these are equally beneficial of the organization.
TASK 3.3: TARGETS AND OBJECTIVES OF INTERNATIONAL COMMUNICATION:
International communication plays an important role in the development of the organisations especially in marketing the products and making sure the availability of products at the right place at the right time. Strategic leadership formulates effective strategies to make the international communications effective and clear so that the commands are penetrated in the globalized business structure without delaying and waiting for the message to be received by the recipients. International communication is performed by various efficient manners which contribute in the productivity and profitability of the firms in a significant way. Various methods such as email, fax, post letters, telephones, social media and many more in which technology has facilitated human race to convey their messages within a blink of an eye form one corner of the world to the another corner just by clicking with the fingertips in order to operate businesses and TMC also utilized these strategies to convey messages and data.
TASK 3.4: MARKETING MIX IN INTERNATIONAL MARKETING:
Marketing Mix is the arranged mix of different factors in order to set the goals and objectives of the companies and this mix is normally seen in the form of 7P's which represents different areas that should be in the consideration to manage the goals and objectives (Christopher et al, 2001). The first P is for Product which has to be very transparent and clear for the companies to do the effective marketing on. Secondly the Price should be affordable and reasonable for the target group which may accelerate the sales in the organisations.
The third P stands for Place in which the products are being marketed should be approachable in terms of accessing for the market or the customers. Then the Promotions should be given to the customers for attracting the customers in the process of sales and marketing. The next factor is People which mean the leadership and the employees must do their best to motivate and satisfy the customers to have the products. Then the Process to buy the products should be simple and clear to the customers even if that is the online sale but it should be easy to use. The Physical evidence (Mintzberg, 1989) should be there as some people want to see, touch and feel the product and then they buy that.
The products should be there in the shops or the stores for the physical evidence. TMC strongly recommends the Marketing Mix and its 7P's significant areas. These areas should be covered while making the objectives and targets. These strategies are very important and Toyota implements these strategies every time it makes the new goals and objectives.
TASK 3.5: E-SERVICES AND ITS PROVISION:
E-Services are actually the electronic services in which technology is used to fulfill the needs and demands of business. E-Services is based on the Information Technology to communicate nationally or internationally by internet, telephone, call centers, mobile phones and television are the major factors used in e-services. Companies utilize the e-services as the quickest and the most convenient method of conveying information and communicating globally without any hassle and long waiting periods.
TMC take full advantage of using e-services to communicate internationally as the priority because of its quickest and easiest methods and cheap prices. Information technology has dramatically changed the perspectives of the humanity as there were times when people used to wait for letters by post which were taking many days to get to the recipient's address but Information Technology has made it just the click of the finger tips to send information around the globe instantly.
TASK 4.1: MARKETING PLANNING MODELS:
To produce the marketing plan there are certain tools and techniques which are always considered while making these decisions in any organization of the business world? The first tool which is used in the marketing of the organisations is the BCG Model. Anthony and Lisa (1998) state BCG model has four specific aspects in which this model can be completely described. BCG matrix is based on the product life cycle theory and is used to determine the priorities to be given to the strategic business units.
To ensure long term growth a company should have products with high growth and low growth with high market share. It will ensure the availability of cash that would fund other strategic business units. BCG matrix (Mintzberg, 1989) has quadrants namely Dog, Question mark, Cash cow and Star which rank the products on the basis of their performance in the product portfolio. In this model question mark describes the initial position of the business and the next one is the star which is all about the high rate of market growth but less rate in the market shares and then the cash cow comes in the screen which helps the organization to know the continues profit with the sustainability in the organization which gives the regular profit from the investment and then the last one is dog which shows the ending point of the business. This is known as the BCG Model of marketing. The second one is the SWOT analysis. Hatton (2000) states it is a tool used to audit an organisation and its environment. The acronym SWOT stands for Strength, Weakness Opportunity and Threats of a company. The strengths and weaknesses are factors internal to the company and Opportunities and Threats are external factors. TMC FOCUSES to have SWOT analysis in making plan for the marketing because this is the tool of marketing for competitive advantages.
TASK 4.2: COMPETITIVE STRATEGIES (COMPARISONS)
A: BCG MODEL AND PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE (COMPARE AND CONTRAST):
Christopher et al (2001) suggest the BCG has four different stages in the whole process of marketing of the product. It is a tool used to audit an organisation and its environment. The acronym SWOT stands for Strength, Weakness Opportunity and Threats of a company. The strengths and weaknesses are factors internal to the company and Opportunities and Threats are external factors.
Brassington and Pettit (2002) suggest the Product Life Cycle is the process in which a new product goes through the different stages like introduction, growth, maturity and the decline. It determines the product value in the marketing through different stages in the product life cycle. This gives the very common pattern of the sales which helps to know the life cycle of the product of any company. Now if we compare and contrast the BCG and the Product life cycle then we come to know that the BCG gives the stages of the organization from the very initial stage to the very ending point.
The four beautiful stages have been considered in this model which is all about the general information of the organization but if we look towards the PLC then we understand that this is more concerned about the precision because to give the exact life period of the product is almost impossible and unpredictable and the sales level is also in the realm of imagination.
So the BCG (Pritchard, 1992) gives the very close position of the company than the PLC. Secondly, the BCG covers all the products but in the PLC, some products do not follow the usual shape of the PLC. In the similarities or compare there are four almost common stages in both of these models. The question mark to the introduction, the star to the growth, the cash cow to the maturity and then at last the dogs to the decline. These are the similarities of both of these models and both are significant in the Toyota Motor Corporation and are taken to consideration while planning marketing strategies.
B: COMPARE AND CONTRAST OF PORTER'S FIVE FORCES AND SWOT ANALYSIS:
In the tools and techniques for strategic marketing there is an important and significant model which is known as Porter's Five Forces Model. Mintzberg, (1989) opines that this tool is used to analyse if the product or service has the potential to be profitable. The factors taken into account are Bargaining power of the Suppliers, Bargaining power of the customers, Threats of new entrants, threats of substitute products and Competitive rivalry within an industry. These five forces determine competitive power in the business position in an industry. While the SWOT analysis according to the McDonalds (2002), it is a tool used to audit an organisation and its environment. The acronym SWOT stands for Strength, Weakness Opportunity and Threats of a company.
The strengths and weaknesses (Anthony and Lisa, 1998) are factors internal to the company and Opportunities and Threats are external factors. Both of these models have many similarities, the first one is the strength of the swot has resemblance with the bargaining power of the customers and then the threats from the swot has closeness with the threat of the new entrants and it is not an injustice to say that these both are the same factors. But the opportunities in the swot are not mentioned in the porter's model so this is the only contrast in both of these models.
TASK 5.1: HUMAN RESOURCE TRAINING AND INTERNATIONAL COMMITMENT:
Human resource management is simply a business-led approach to train and develop people within strategic framework in which there is the provision of each and every single need of the individuals. In HRM, people are the most important assets of the organization. HRM is constituted by planned interventions in organization and individual processes. As this is a realistic approach that people are not born with all the skills and abilities but people use to learn from others in terms of trainings, mentoring, seminars and conferences. The purpose of the HRM (Human Resource Management) is to provide people such an environment in which they willingly adapt new skills from other's experience in order to magnify their own abilities and qualities towards success and accomplishments. HRM plays a significant role in the betterment of the organization.
The significant aspect of the HRM activities is training management in which the training is essential part of the whole process. Training the staff is the need of the time with the passage of time in this everyday changing modern and postmodern world. As training is a instructor- led and information-based intervention leading to desired and expected changes in behavior of the employees or staff. Hatton (2000) opined that training management enhances the competency and capabilities of the employees to achieve the pre-set and expected goals. So this comes under the duty of the effective and dynamic leadership of HRM to arrange such type of meetings and trainings in which employees may get the knowledge and wisdom to overcome the obstacles in the pace of the success. The first step towards the effective training is to analyze the situation, needs and identify the goals of the trainings. In this stage, the need means when the training should hold and what is the target group of people who is going to attend the training program. The second stage is to design a training system which is suitable for the trainees in terms of learner's objectives. The third stage is to develop a training package of all the resources and materials like developing audio-visuals, graphics and manuals, so this factor shows the inputs of the trainings.
The forth one is implement the training package like delivery of the trainings, support group feed-back, type of training material to be used, the final evaluation and billings. These are all the factors which fall under the implementation of the training process. The last one is to evaluate the training which is concluding before, during and after the training to quantify the effectiveness of the training on the whole. Mintzberg (1989) also opined the training management in very simple words which says that training is the process of learning and adapting new and needy things for the trainees.
In TMC, leadership develops the system in action and whenever the steps which are given in this process of training are implemented there have been seen significant achievements after training the staff and equipping them with appropriate knowledge and data to put their best input for competitive outputs and advantages.
TASK 5.2: PROCESSES OF SETTING UP, MANAGING AND RUNNING OVERSEES OPERATIONS:
A: JOINT VENTURE:
Joint venture refers to the association of two or more individuals and companies involved in the same business for profit without actual partnership and incorporation also known as the joint adventure. Joint venture is the contractual agreement between two or more parties to work together for better results and share the advantages equally. Partnership and joint has a key difference which is the partnership possesses the long-term ongoing relationship whereas the joint venture is based on the single transaction in order to share strengths, minimize risks and maximize the profitability and is used to develop a new entity for the businesses.
There are various examples such as union ban with standard chartered, HP with Compaq, Nokia with Siemens and many more like these are the significant illustrations of the joint ventures. Toyota is a company with strong position in the market and does not need to have any joint ventures but if needed the leadership would definitely focus and perform in this area with brilliance.
B: STRATEGIC ALLIANCE: The strategic alliance is the arrangement among companies who share their resources to start some agreed and mutually benefited projects which this is less efficient then the joint venture which promotes the business. Strategic alliance allows companies to make more effective process, expand into new market and develop the advantages over a competitor in the market and reduce the risks and challenges faced by both the organisations.
C: MARKETING OFFICES AND BRANCHES:
Marketing is one of the most significant departments of the organisations in which leadership makes appropriate strategies and advertisements to market their products and services the company offers in order to satisfy the customer's with their needs and expectations to have competitive advantages and results. Marketing department must have access to the locations where the stores and brands availability is approachable so that their influence may increase the profitability and sales in the companies.
Marketing offices and branches must be facilitated with the required resources and funds so that the department may work properly without any hassles on implementing effective marketing strategies and innovative methods of attracting people to buy their products and use services the firm offers. TMC does provide the enough resources and time to marketing department in order to make productive methods by which the profitability could by increased and focuses on marketing department for better results.
TASK 5.3: METHODS OF FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES:
The finance department deals with various sorts of financial transactions in the business organisations to facilitate other departments with timely availability of funds and resources needs for completing tasks. Resources of funds in the organisations such as capital, revenues, investments, shares revenues, banks (loans, debentures, overdrafts, mortgages), insurance companies and many more and cash flow, financial statements (income statement, balance sheet, equity, cash flow) and many other methods are utilized by TMC to invest, international trading, and payments.