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This report will propose several methods that will fill Dofasco's entry-level leadership positions. The methods proposed in this report will identify leadership potential at the selection stage and it will assess a candidate's potential to quickly acquire knowledge and skills. Each method detailed in this report will appear in the order it will be applied and with its corresponding weights.
Since Dofasco must select from a large pool of job applicants, screening procedures must be computerized to screen applicants quickly and efficiently. This is why weighted application blanks (WABs) and telephone interviews will be used to screen candidates. Online WABs are easy, economical, non-intrusive, and standardized applications which differentiate successful from unsuccessful workers on a criterion measurement (Catano et al., 2010). All the applicants must fill the same blank sections with information that is used to screen out unfit candidates. Ghiselli suggests that WABs can predict training success, overall job proficiency and improved selection; all useful to Dofasco (Catano et al., 2010). Scoring keys must be generated when assessing education, work experience, and skills needed by weighing these blanks higher than others. The assigned weights within the WAB will be added together to produce an overall weight of 40% of the overall process, screening out large quantities of the candidates. This is useful because it will decrease the amount of applicants that advance to costlier procedures.
After a WAB, a computerized telephone interview that incorporates interactive voice-recognition technology should be used to screen out candidates that may not have related experience or a fitting schedule. This system will provide close ended questions with different outcomes depending on how the questions are answered and it will weigh 15% of the overall process. Costs of implementing an IVR system will outweigh time consuming individual face-to-face interviews, facility costs and other resources.
Dofasco must acquire statistical data from standardized personality tests in combination with cognitive and a situational judgment tests. Applicants must complete these tests on-site in order to comply with informed consent standards, and they must be aware of the impact of the tests in the selection process and reasons for administration. Even though applicants are tested early in the process, Dofasco will not make pass or fail decisions based on test scores until they are reviewed during the selection interview. Also, candidates must be accommodated with pen-paper based tests, computer based tests or spoken versions to avoid human rights or equity problems.
Personality tests used, like the Big Five, will be weighed higher than the other tests (4%) because it has the ability to assess Dofasco's need of leadership, communication, and conscientiousness. Conscientiousness and emotional stability must be given heavier weights than the other elements within the test because they determine which candidates possess leadership attributes like loyalty, acceptance of organization policies, punctuality, emotionally controlled responses, and attention to detail. Broader personality traits have higher predictive validity which is why conscientiousness relates positively to job performance for candidates with high emotional stability. Conscientiousness and extroversion (which has moderate weighting) must also be used in order to predict a manager's job performance. Since personality measures have minimal adverse impact on protected groups, adding a personality measure to a cognitive test will decrease adverse impact while improving the accuracy of predicting job performance by 18% (Catano et al., 2010).
A cognitive test, like general mental ability (GMA), assesses a candidate's ability to acquire knowledge and skills quickly and efficiently. A GMA is connected to successful job performance, is cost-effective, and it determines how easily candidates can be (Catano et al., 2010). GMA will weigh 3% of the final score because it is among the most powerful predictors of success in training and job performance (with an average validity coefficient of 0.50) but it produces an adverse impact in human rights and employment equity. Ultimately, these adverse impacts will likely reduce when the personality test is added.
Situational judgment tests (SJTs) will also be used because they measure an applicant's workplace judgment in leadership situations by using situational questions and it will help assess how quickly applicants acquire knowledge and skills from given situations. The SJT is weighed at 3% of the overall score because it measures an individual difference attribute that is distinct from cognitive ability and personality. STJs are very good predictors of job performance because of their positive correlations between cognitive ability, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and extroversion (Catano et al., 2010). One of the situational exercises that Dofasco should use is the leaderless group discussion which assesses candidates for managerial positions. This is done by observing how the candidates respond to different situations while being assessed by a panel of judges that evaluate communication, organizational and interpersonal skills, and leadership behaviour. This test is more costly to develop and administer but Dofasco can benefit from recruiting several levels of leadership employees (team leaders, supervisors, and managers) at a time. Adverse effects are minimal, allowing candidates from different gender and ethnic groups to perceive them as fair.
Dofasco must use methods that provide the greatest predictive ability at the lowest cost. Research has found that SJTs can measure other characteristics of performance not measured by cognitive and personality tests, therefore adding incrementally to these tests (Landy & Conte, 2007). McDaniel et al. (2007), found that SJTs provides 3% to 5% incremental validity over cognitive ability, 6% to 7% over personality and 1% to 2% over both personality and cognitive ability. These percentage increases in predictive validity are significant because they represent improvements in the accuracy of candidate selection (Boudreau, 1984). Lastly, observed validities of SJTs compare well with those of cognitive ability and personality tests, and when combined they significantly lower adverse impact (Fertig, 2009).
After testing, Dofasco must use a structured on-site interview which will assess organizational fit and it will weigh responses to behavioural and situational questions. The interview will be weighed heavily at 30% of the overall score because it will determine if candidates fit within Dofasco's values of quality, leadership and sustainability. Interviews should be left until the end of the process once unqualified applicants are screened out because it is such a costly method to apply. Although interviews can be used to assess job knowledge and cognitive ability, Dofasco must use interviews to assess non-cognitive characteristics such as interpersonal skills, dependability, teamwork, leadership skills, adaptability, flexibility, organizational citizenship behaviour, and organizational fit. Research has shown that structured interviews have higher reliability, predictive validity, and average validity (of .34) than unstructured interviews (Catano et al., 2010). Dofasco must derive standardized interview questions from a job analysis which will be rated using behaviourally anchored scoring guides tailored to each question to effectively remove bias. Not only are structured interviews less vulnerable to bias than unstructured interviews, but applicants perceive them as more job related and fairer. Detailed notes must be taken during the interview in order to reduce litigation problems. Panel interviews can also be included to reduce bias and adverse effects while increasing accuracy. This can be done by having one member interviewing while the other takes notes. Research has found that panel interviews are more reliable, have greater validity than individual interviews, and contribute to perceptions of fairness (Catano et al., 2010). The interview will include fewer situational questions than behavior description questions (BDIs) due to the previous use of SJTs. This combination will allow applicants who have difficulty answering BDI questions to be asked a corresponding SI question, and vice versa, if they do not have relevant experience. Sample answers to each question will be based on previous effective and ineffective behaviours experienced at Dofasco. In order to maintain standardized measures for BDIs, probes written in advance should be used to guide the applicant's responses.
Lastly, a telephone reference check must be administered along with a criminal check (both accumulating 5% weighting of the overall process) to prevent negligent hiring and false positives. Job applicants must provide contact information of past supervisors who will be asked to verify information and comment on the candidate's traits and behaviours. This will gather qualitative information about the candidate's performance, skills, strengths and weaknesses from objective and behaviour-based information. This step is the last in the process because it is expensive. Dofasco must secure authorization, in writing, when contacting references, and in order to reduce negligent hiring, applicants must also consent to employment rejection or termination if they provide false information. Criminal checks must be done at the end because they are more invasive methods, but they must be done in order to verify that candidates are stable and able to work in stressful manufacturing environments with large and possibly life-threatening machines. Dofasco must document what was asked during reference checks in order to maintain legally defensible records and they must take into consideration employment and human rights legislation when formulating standardized questions.
Finally, Dofasco should use the multiple hurdle model (MHM) in combination with the profiling match model (PMM) and the banding approach when selecting decision methods. MHM are easy and sequential models which requires applicants to pass minimum cut-offs for each predictor before moving on to the next predictor. This is useful because earlier hurdles, which are heavily weighted, will screen out inappropriate applicants early, reducing costs while saving expensive procedures to be used on incrementally smaller pools of candidates who meet minimum qualifications. PMMs should also be used because it uses effective traits and behaviours from current employees when hiring external employees. This allows Dofasco to select candidates who match existing company leaders. The D2 method should be used with PMM because calculations provide a standardized and legally defensible system if ever questioned.
In order to accomplish employment equity standards, Dofasco must use the banding approach to select suitable candidates. Dofasco should base bands depending on the diversity needed when hiring females, males, minorities, and employment equity groups. This needs to be done in order to have diverse representation within Dofasco. Using a sliding band will increase the likelihood of selecting minority applicants (achieving employment equity objectives). Dofasco should contribute to the hiring of a greater proportion of minority applicants, provided minority status is used as the criterion of selection within bands. This can be done by using minority status as a tie-breaker among individuals with the same scores since there is no legislation prohibiting preferential selection of minorities in Canada.
In order to determine if assessments have adverse impacts on minorities, Dofasco must audit the entire process to make sure that minority applicants are not unfairly screened out. This can be done during or after each hurdle in order to see which method is removing large quantities of minority applicants. Detailed records must also be kept in order to carefully assess the different methods used and its effects. Dofasco should modify the assessment procedures causing adverse impact by making sure tools are job-related, valid, and not biased or unfair to any group of people. They must use an alternative procedure that causes little or no adverse impact, train staff conducting selection process, re-evaluate KSAOs, evaluate the job posting and recruitment methods, and combine suitable assessments that reduce adverse impacts.
Determining Success of Selection System
In order for Dofasco to determine whether this selection system is working, they must use the lead and lag approach. Dofasco must keep detailed accounts of the entire selection process as well as post-selection by assessing how many applicants came through the process that they thought wouldn't, if the correct amount of people were screened out, and if candidates accepted the offer of employment. Dofasco must periodically audit the process to identify areas needing improvement and to find out if they are getting quality hires, how many candidates went through probation to managerial positions. They must also note promotions, disciplinary actions, terminations, demotions, training, service length, effective and ineffective applicants, comparisons to existent selection methods, performance management, retention and turnover rates, performance reviews, and feedback from internal employees about the fairness of the process.