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Requirement is related to the human resource department (HR). Where as any company must require and need proper requirements of recruitment & decrement process to fulfill the objective and aims to the company successfully. Because if the hiring or recruitment process of the company will good enough it means that the people of HR department is hiring a good professionals that can managed and enhance the productivity of the organization. The hiring or recruitment process includes short listing the candidates, screening the CVs & detail of the candidates, to conduct the interviews, and to select the proper and competent person for the job that can enhance the efficiency the organization (Principles of management (2011) viewed on 15th May 20, 2011). And some times the organization outsource the recruitment to the different agencies e.g
It is one of the type of recruitment agency this type of agency is also known as " employment agency". The person goes to the local branch of the company for small interview before hiring and going to the concern organization. The recruiters that are available in the local office conduct all these things and after that they recommend these persons for a final interview (Principles of management (2011) viewed on 15th May 20, 2011).
This type of agency takes place when the struggles of the company's clients had failed. These headhunters are also called "third party recruiters". These people have enough knowledge about the hiring and have sufficient experience about all this process. These headhunters used advanced tactics to hire the people (Principles of management (2011) viewed on 15th May 20, 2011).
These people don't have the maximum experience in all type of recruitment process they have only limited knowledge because they have knowledge about the one step of the whole process. They also have limited skills (Principles of management (2011) viewed on 15th May 20, 2011).
The alternatives to agencies
This option is used by the organizations when they don't have enough budgets. And the organizations are fed up by the working of these types of agencies because of mis guidance and mis managing the work of these agencies. In this step the organizations use employee reference system and if the organizations find a competent man for the work than the organizations give the awards to the employs who gave the reference (Principles of management (2011) viewed on 15th May 20, 2011).
To reduce the cost of the recruitment process both the small and large organizations use in house recruitment to select the candidates by using their own resources and competencies.
Legal requirement of the employer
Employer is legally bound to fulfill the legal requirements and the legal requirements of the employers are:
According to the wage Act 1991 it is obligation of the employer that he pays the slips of the pay to all the employees that contains all the detail about the salaries of the employees and the deduction detail as well (Principles of management (2011) viewed on 15th May 20, 2011).
According to Act. of working timing parameter 2001 employer is bound to keep the record of the timings of the employees like how much hours in a day employees do work? Detail about the casual leaves of the employees during the whole month ext (Principles of management (2011) viewed on 15th May 20, 2011).
The term of employment act. 2004 act contains the detail about the name of the employees and as well as employer. The place where the office/company/business is located. How will employer calculate the remuneration packages of the collegiums ext (Principles of management (2011) viewed on 15th May 20, 2011).
According to the national minimum wage rate 2000 the employer is bound to pay at least the minimum wage that is determined in this act (Principles of management (2011) viewed on 15th May 20, 2011).
According to the travel & subsistence act the employer is bound to re-pay the expenses of the employees that they incurred during the performing of their duties. Employees also can claim the subsistence allowance but before claiming this allowance the employees must have to give the proper reason to the employer like (Principles of management (2011) viewed on 15th May 20, 2011):
Time period and date of absent.
Proper and acid reason for his absent period.
1.2 Develop a programme of professional development and training for a large organization
Training and development are the programs which are planned to support new workers adjust to the workstation effectively. Furthermore, they contain the official ongoing struggles of organizations and other establishments to improve the performance of their workers through a variation of procedures and programs (Training and development (2011) viewed on 14th of May 2011).
It is one of the common and least expensive training program is the on the job training. OJT means the process of wisdom assistances while working where workers-particularly new staffs-obtain the awareness and skills they need to complete their jobs through a methodical training program (Training and development (2011) viewed on 14th of May 2011).
On the job training contains the following 5 steps
1) Analyzing the jobs and abilities to be learned;
(2) Choosing, preparation, and managing instructors
(3) Preparing teaching resources;
(4) Showing an OJT program;
(5) Appraising the program and making any essential developments or alterations.
Mentor are the persons who are expert in their field and when there is any problems is there, they will ask to them (Training and development (2011) viewed on 14th of May 2011).
TYPES OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS
Companies uses different training and development programs to enhance the specific and general skills, including technical training, sales training, clerical training, computer training, communications training, organizational development, career development, supervisory development, and management development (Training and development (2011) viewed on 14th of May 2011).
DESIGNING TRAINING PROGRAMS
The main aim of the design of training programs is the planning and formation of training and development programs. Both training and development programs become a profession and it involve different skills. Instructional systems design comprises of the systematic project and expansion of instructional methods and resources to ease the procedure of training and development and confirm that training programs are essential, legal, and effective. Though the instructional design procedure can take on diversity of arrangements, the procedure must comprise the group of data on the tasks or skills to be educated or enhanced, the investigation of these services and tasks, the expansion of methods and resources, transfer of the package, and finally the assessment of the training's efficiency (Training and development (2011) viewed on 14th of May 2011).
Training and development programs frequently depend on the values and concepts of numerous behavioral sciences such as psychology and sociology. The behavioral sciences deliver valuable theories on single behavior, incentives, organizational changing aspects, and personal dealings, which the developers of training programs can pull on when creating their programs (Training and development (2011) viewed on 14th of May 2011).
2 Be able to evaluate the significance of employee motivation and appraisal programmes in a business
â€¢ 2.1 Evaluate the Human Relations School of Management in relation to the motivation of staff
There are different views to motivate employees. The commonly used theories used to motivate workers are (Motivation, Motivational Factors, and Incentives Theories of Motivation (2011) viewed on 16 May 20, 2011):
Frederick Winslow Taylor gives the idea that employees are motivated by salary. His Scientific Management Theory says that Employees do not obviously enjoy job and so it is necessary that close regulation and control; the managers should split down manufacture into a sequence of little tasks; employees should then be given good training and tools so they can do as professionally as possible (Motivation, Motivational Factors, and Incentives Theories of Motivation (2011) viewed on 16 May 20, 2011).
Employees are then remunerated according to the number of items they manufacture in a period of time that is piece-rate pay. So workers are encouraged to work hard and increase their output (Motivation, Motivational Factors, and Incentives Theories of Motivation (2011) viewed on 16 May 20, 2011).
These methods were widely accepted as company saw the reimbursement of improved productivity level and the unit cost is lowed. The most particularly promoter was Henry Ford who used them to plan the first ever manufacture line, manufacture Ford cars. From there mass production starts (Motivation, Motivational Factors, and Incentives Theories of Motivation (2011) viewed on 16 May 20, 2011).
Elton Mayo (1880 - 1949) theory is to motivate by social facilities not only the monitory advantages (something that Taylor ignored). He set up the Human Relation School of thought, which paying attention on administrator taking more of an attention in the employees, delighting them as human being who has valuable suggestions and realizing that employees take pleasure in work together (Motivation, Motivational Factors, and Incentives Theories of Motivation (2011) viewed on 16 May 20, 2011).
We can say that workers are best motivated
If there is better communication between employees and the managers
If manager involved in the personal matters of the workers and try to solve their problems
If workers work in groups
Abraham Maslow (1908 - 1970) and Frederick Herzberg (1923-) had introduced the Neo-Human Relations School in the 1950's, it is focused on the mental needs of workforce. Maslow give a theory that human needs levels are five which workers need to have fulfilled at job (Maslow theory (2011) viewed on 14th May 20, 2011).
A company should recommend different motivation steps to workers to help them complete each want in turn and development up the hierarchy (see below). Administrator should also be aware of the fact that workers are not motivated as other motivated. So they should offer different type of incentive to offer (Maslow theory (2011) viewed on 14th May 20, 2011) .
Frederick Herzberg (1923-) has present two factor motivation theory. He said that there were definite factors that a company could bring in that would directly inspire workforce to work harder (Motivators). In addition to it there are other factors also that would de-motivate an worker if not there but would not in themselves in fact motivate workers to work harder (Hygiene factors). Herzberg thought that company should inspire workers by accept a independent approach to administration and by civilizing the nature and content of the actual job from side to side certain technique. Some of the techniques administrator could use to attain this are (Style of management (2011) viewed on 14th May 20, 2011):
Job enlargement - worker are given different tasks to perform (it is not necessary that they are challenging) which make the work attractive.
Job enrichment - workers are given multifaceted, attractive and difficult tasks in a complete unit of work. It will help to achieve great sense of achievement..
Empowerment means hand over more authority to workers to make their own judgments on different matters.
â€¢ 2.2 Develop a programme of motivational factors for a small to medium sized business
The motivational factor program are (Motivation, Motivational Factors, and Incentives Theories of Motivation (2011) viewed on 16 May 20, 2011):
1.Â Believe onÂ your employees' strengths!
It is the thinking of most managers that whatever work done by their workers is wrong. This thinking should be avoided and you must believe on your worker's capabilities and strength.
2.Â Don't use motivation methods that don't work.
It mostly happens thatÂ you are constantly saying your employees what to do and how to do? But you are not satisfied whatever they do. You must try to prevent such supervisory behavior and don't try to implement the methods that don't work.
3.Â Â Re-calibrate your motivation scale.
It happens that we want motivation while doing any work but it should also be remembered thatÂ everyone has his own capibilities of high motivational level so while doing any work, we should re-calibrate our motivational scale.
4.Â Teach employees to measure their own success.
Any manager should not impose their procedures to the employees relating to any work like how it should be done and what steps one must take? Instead of this motivate your employees to do the work in their own way and they should create their own scoreboards to measure their own success.
5.Â Â Measure and track motivation levels.
As for any work to do it is necessary to get motivated and for this you must measure your motivation levelÂ and learn how to get it managed.
6.Â Ask employees what they want.
Every employee has different aims and desires. You must ask each employee about their goals and what motivates them.
7Â Â Learn to recognize and eliminate threats.
This thinking of managers to motivate employees by threatening them is often taken in a wrong way by the employees. You must be using this in a positive way but employeesÂ feel it as a threat and it is harmful to their motivational levels.
Â 8Â Stop Distracting Employees.
You should not distract the employees from their task. What they want in their work is to do it with a peaceful mind so avoid criticizing them and distracting from their targets.
9.Â Â Communicate!
You should maintain a friendly environment with your employees and communicate openly with them.Â You should tell all the information, pros and cons to motivate them.
10.Â Â Ask employees for information about their performance.
Managers must offer a feedback so employees must have an idea about their performance.
11. Explain your reward systems.
Instead of threatening and warning your employees you must appreciate their work and show them respect.
12.Â Carry an idea notebook.
Most managers are unaware of what their employees feel and think about them and they don't even bother to know as they don't have courage to ask them.
3.Know the different 'schools' of management thought that have been developed over the last century
â€¢ 3.1 Compare and contrast the classical and scientific schools of management developed during the 20th century
THE CLASSICAL SCHOOL
This is the first school of management thought "classical school of management". And this school of thought introduced when the problems were being complicated regarding to company structure. And at that time most of the organizations don't know how to train the workers. So this theory finds the good and efficient way to train & to do the job work of the employees (Style of management (2011) viewed on 14th May 20, 2011). This thought was basically developed to find out the way of best and efficient working so that employees can enhance the productivity & efficiency of the organization. Main focus was that to critically examine the work stages and to analyze the skills of the management. In the development of this theory many of the great persons plays a vital role e.g. Frederick Taylor, Henry Gantt, and Frank and Lillian Gilbreth (Style of management (2011) viewed on 14th May 20, 2011).
Behavioral Management Theory
The inquiry of unknown was initially started in the 20th century, so the questions aeries that how can the management improve and motivate the employees with in the organization? But the classical school of though totally unobserved the workers enthusiasm and the activities (Style of management (2011) viewed on 14th May 20, 2011).
After Second World War some people were combined to resolve the issues of the military. The people that combined to resolve the issues included mathematicians, physicists, and other scientists. This school of thought was the inquiry to unknown in between the Second World War. This theory includes quantitative techniques, like statistics, information models, and computer simulations, for the research purpose. The Scientific theory includes (Style of management (2011) viewed on 14th May 20, 2011).
Contingency School of Management
Simply this theory says that "it all depends". It means that all the workings and actions of the management depend upon the circumstances. If the executives of the company have the contingency thought than they will use a lithe approach to resolve the specific problem. Like they will use their experience, use many other options to resolve the matter. The person that works on this approach says that there is no one best way to resolve the specific problem. They use different techniques and tools and their shared experience to resolve the issue (Style of management (2011) viewed on 14th May 20, 2011).
Quality School of Management
This school of thought says that to give the quality product and services to the consumers and they focus on the operation process of the manufacturing and focus on the leadership qualities means how well they can manage all the system and operations. And this school of thought focus on the continuous improves the activities through emphasizing on the wants of the stakeholders (Style of management (2011) viewed on 14th May 20, 2011).
Management in the Future
This thought says that all the people are different from each other and they did not match with any other person like in needs, wants, cultural background and in thinking's. This modern theory says that all the theories have some limitations so the best managers are those who have all these things and limitations in his mind while solving a problem. So successful managers must use and are aware of all these limitations because of today's dynamic environment (Style of management (2011) viewed on 14th May 20, 2011).
â€¢ 3.2 Evaluate the relevance of Maslow's theory in today's work force
The above diagram of the Maslow's Hierarchy shows the five stages and theses five stages explains and relates the best work force in the present scenario of the work. This theory says that to give the first priority to the biological needs that includes food, shelter, clothes and sex. Because for the human being these are the necessities of the life and without these necessities no one survive. So these biological needs are very necessary for the recent situation of the work environment (Maslow theory (2011) viewed on 14th May 20, 2011).
The second step is safety need and that is very important in the work environment and in the current situation of the dynamic business environment as well. Because now-a-days every one wants and needs to secure himself in the work place and the job security as well and basically it is also the right of the employee. The safety need includes protection, security of health and job, security of law, security of limits and security of stability as well (Maslow theory (2011) viewed on 14th May 20, 2011).
The third step is love and belongingness needs in this 20th century every one requires and wants belongingness needs because he wants to take care of his family. Belongingness includes social contacts, group, family, relatives. And that is the right of every one to make this type of relation for the survival of the life and to do love and affections for his own satisfaction. Because now in 20th century every one is tensed about his social life and the job problems so these type of relations are necessary to make life happy (Maslow theory (2011) viewed on 14th May 20, 2011).
The fourth step is self esteem need and every one wants that people give respect to him. Esteem includes achievement, status, responsibility and reputation. So if the employer and other co workers give respect to the other employees so in response they also give respect to those people. Every one has its own status so do not disturb his status of life and work and in the work force environment it is necessary and the employer must give some reward on the achievement of the individuals (Maslow theory (2011) viewed on 14th May 20, 2011).
The last but not least fifth step is actualization. It includes the personal growth and fulfillment. In today's work force environment every one wants his personal growth for the improvement of himself. Hence we can say that Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs is plays a vital role in today's work and dynamic environment. Because in today's work environment every one wants security of his life and work and he wants to full fill his basic necessities of the life for his existence and he also desires love & affection in his life (Maslow theory (2011) viewed on 14th May 20, 2011).
4 Understand the problems of introducing and implementing change in today's workforce
â€¢ 4.1 Evaluate the autocratic and democratic ways of implementing change within an organization
Autocratic leadership can be alleged to be different to dictatorship where there can be only one person has the power over the workers or individuals. The decision of the autocratic is taken as golden rule and that rule can never be questioned. The rule is planned by the autocratic and orders are given to subordinate and thus orders are abide by the subordinate levels. To sum up, we can say that autocratic leader has full power to give orders to the individuals and treat them as he want to treat them (Style of management (2011) viewed on 14th May 20, 2011).
Advantages of Autocratic Leadership Style
Autocratic leadership style is dictatorial; it is resourceful during certain situations and in some conditions. Autocratic leadership works optimistically during crisis and tense situations. When such situations occur in a company or organization, most people are baffled and cannot reach a common solution. By having one autocratic person in a command, the individuals can face difficult situation, and sometimes it lead to success. Other situation when the autocratic leadership proves suitable is in group projects. Many group projects lean to fail because group members depend on each other to make decisions. In such situations demand the need of an authoritative leader who can make decisions for the group. In this case the leader should determine the ways in which the project can be done; he must divide the job among the group members, and also put a check on completion of the timed project (Style of management (2011) viewed on 14th May 20, 2011).
Disadvantages of Autocratic Leadership Style
Autocratic leadership style promote a one sided discussion and because of this the artistic and leadership skills of the employees become restraining. The leader would have all the power; then there is a chance that he may exploit his employees. An autocratic leader hinders the workplace leadership. It is vital to have a pleasant work environment, where everyone is friendly. Sometimes it increases to disagreements and conflicts between the individuals (Style of management (2011) viewed on 14th May 20, 2011).
Democratic Leadership is the leadership style that encourages the distribution of responsibility, the implement of designation and repetitive discussion. The Democratic Leadership style has the following characteristics: 1. Manager seeks consultation on all important issues and decisions. 2. Manager effectively allots tasks to subordinates and give them full control and responsibility for those tasks. 3. Manager encourages feedback on the results of initiatives and the working environment. 4. Manager therefore encourages other individuals to become leaders (Style of management (2011) viewed on 14th May 20, 2011).
Benefits Of The Democratic Leadership Style
The democratic leadership gives a positive work environment. It promotes a culture where junior employees are given the fair amount of responsibility and are allowed to face the challenges themselves. The Successful initiatives are also done in the democratic leadership. The process of discussion and feedback results in better decision making and more effective operation. Companies that are running under the democratic leadership tend to make fewer mistakes. The individuals are free to give their opinion if the leader makes any wrong move. Employees are encouraged on given the suggestion. Creative thinking is also a benefit of democratic leadership. The flow of ideas and positive working environment is the perfect vehicle for creative thinking. There is a reduction of office politics in a democratic leadership style. By permitting the subordinates to use their ideas, the employees generate resourceful ideas with their manager. There is a reduction in an employee turnover. When employees feel empowered through leadership development, company faces lower rates of employee turnover which has plentiful benefits (Style of management (2011) viewed on 14th May 20, 2011).
Disadvantages of the Democratic Leadership Style
The democratic leadership style is a time consuming decision making process. In this leadership style there is a long discussion on every aspects that can lead in to a slower process. Which causes certain opportunities to be missed, or hazards. There is also a danger of artificial participation by the managers. Many managers simply act as if they are working a lot for the organization. However employees are rapid to realize when their ideas aren't actually valued, and the manager is just following procedure in asking for suggestions, but in actual they are not implementing the decisions (Style of management (2011) viewed on 14th May 20, 2011).
â€¢ 4.2 Propose ways in which management styles are linked to motivational programmes
Generally there are seven ways in which a manager can create a working environment that will foster and give influence to the employee motivation - quickly.
Firstly in the management style there is a way that Communicate responsibly and effectively in the organization any information that is used by the employees to perform their jobs most effectively. Employees are the part of the organization that want to know that what is happening in their surroundings , from which circumstances the organization is going through. The information relevant to their job, they want the information necessary to do their jobs. The purpose of information gathering by the employees is to make good decisions in work (Style of management (2011) viewed on 14th May 20, 2011).
The management must meet with employees to update them about the company information that may impact with their work. The detail must be given about the changing due dates, the customer feedback, training opportunities, product improvements, and updates on new departmental reporting and all details that are important to employees (Style of management (2011) viewed on 14th May 20, 2011).
The detail communication must be done by the management with such employees who are getting some problem in their field .the management must make sure that the employee have a clear view about the job description, organizations mission and vision , and must have a positive relationship with the whole organization. The communication must be done on daily basis and report Performa of the employee must be check so that everyday day the employee performance can be evaluated. Engage the employees in a healthy and interactive environment daily is also a key of employee motivation towards their works. A weekly one to one meeting must be done by all the employees and listen their recommendation and problem as well associated with their work. Encourage the staff on their work performance, give suggestion to the employees who have a weaker performance, advice the staff to come up with the new ideas that motivated the organization to grow in near future, make a healthy and comfortable schedule of the employees and keep on checking the schedule on weekly basis just to reduce the trouble and dissatisfaction of employees regarding their working hours (Style of management (2011) viewed on 14th May 20, 2011).
The Employees feels a healthy interaction when their seniors give them attention , motivate them regarding their work , commutation gap between the upper management level and the subordinate level can only be eliminate when a healthy interaction takes place between these two levels (Style of management (2011) viewed on 14th May 20, 2011).
The interaction can only give result positively when there is an open, honest and frequently interaction between the levels. The executives must hold the staff meetings from time to time, they must be present at department meetings regularly, and communicate with the staff by going around the working areas and show interest in the work field (Style of management (2011) viewed on 14th May 20, 2011).
Praise the staff regarding their personal and working events, give them summer off once a year, and ask them about their perception about the organization. From all this above motivational techniques the motivation of employees and working of firm can be increase (Style of management (2011) viewed on 14th May 20, 2011).