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What is motivation? Motivation is what makes you do certain things. Motivation exists in our daily lives. The act of eating is motivated by hunger, education is motivated by the desire to increase your knowledge, but when it comes to motivation people in the workplace it is a whole different matter. In management motivating people is the hardest thing to do. Mainly because people are not available to managers 24/7, they require rest, they won't always do what they are told and that is where motivating comes in handy. The thing that makes you a really good manager is your ability to motivate and lead your employees. There are a lot of different ways and theories how to motivate your workers. Here are some of them:
Motivating without raising your employees salary.
Motivating during chaos.
Motivating using their psychological needs.
Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory of Motivation.
McClelland's Theory of Needs.
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory.
Expectancy Theory of Motivation.
Goal Setting Theory of Motivation.
Motivating without raising your employees salary
Money can actually be a motivator. But is it the best one? The answer is no. The fact that there is no limit to people's greed and that they will always want more proves that this system is a waste of money (literally). Thinking in this old fashion way can not only demotivate but it can result in losing your employees, it can cost you a lot of valuable time and it can have a negative effect on your business. Some of the best ways to motivate will actually cost you nothing.
1. Recognition. Most employees like the fact that someone appreciates their achievement. Whenever there is a reason to praise your employees you should do it and it has to be on-the-spot, never put it off. Your greatest weapon is executive recognition. The fact that an executive has come to great you and praise you for a job well done can motivate you to do an even greater job.
2. Career Path. Employees like to know where their job is taking them. What is there to look for in the future and what are the possibilities for growth.
3. Job Titles. When you are thinking up job titles you should bear in mind that you are dealing with the self-esteem of people. Employees shouldn't be embarrassed from their job description. When they are proud of their job that boost their attitude and moral towards their job and that is very important for continuing success.
4. Good Work Environment. Working conditions are very important to the way employees feel about where they work. It is important to have a nice looking office. Having pictures on the walls, plants, comfortable chairs and big rooms among other things can make people feel good about their environment.
5. Social Gatherings. Outside of work gatherings, such as Halloween costume parties can be a great way to create bonding, which can boost team spirit and help create a positive work environment.
Motivating during chaos
Motivation in the work place is changing. Change has become the norm and it can have a negative effect on productivity. Here are ten techniques for motivating your employees to succeed:
1. Take Care of the Little Things. Employers should set an example for their employees. They should arrive early to work, they should say "good morning" and "thank you" and answer to e-mails and phone calls in a timely fashion. Showing that kind of respect to your employees can have a very good effect on productivity during chaotic times.
2. Be an Active Listener. It is not enough just to listen to your employees but you have e to actually care about them. You can ask them what are their dreams, goals and what their concerns about the chaotic time are. As a manager you should respect the thought and opinions of your employees, because sometimes they have the best solutions for achieving goals during chaos.
3. Reward. Rewarding should be done in the most public way possible. The employee should be rewarded right after his achievement and it should be made clear why he or she is getting a reward. When you give rewards your people will try harder so that they can receive this kind of special treatment.
Motivating using their psychological needs
Motivating can be done in a lot of different ways. One of them is to satisfy the need of your employees. Just by giving them what they want you can improve productivity. Some of the needs that employees ca have are:
1. Challenging work. People with this kind of need should be provided with meaningful and challenging work, which can help them improve even more. Employers should allow their employees to learn from their mistakes. After the failure they should ask what happened, was the timing wrong and what can be learned from this for the future. If management can react in such a way they will have a great motivator that can increase productivity.
2. Predictability. People with this kind of need work most effectively when there is job security. They also require steady income, health benefits and a non-hostile working environment.
3. Fairness. Employees want to be respected and to be equal to their co-workers. Favoritism can be a great de-motivator and it can lower productivity.
Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory of Motivation
Frederick Herzberg, a behavioral scientist, explains how hygiene factors and motivational factor affect the work place.
1. Hygiene factors. These factors are very important for the existence of motivation at the workplace. The hygiene factor describes the work environment. The needs that are shown by this factor is what employees want and expect to be fulfilled. Hygiene factors include:
Payment - it should be the same as other people in the same kind of work
Company policies - they should be fair and clear. Employees should have flexible working hours and vacations.
Fringe benefit - employees should be offered health care plans.
Working conditions - the work place should be clean and the equipment should be updated.
Job security - it should be provided.
2. Motivational factors. In Herzberg opinion the hygiene factors can be considered as motivators. The motivational factors make employees improve their performance. Motivational factors include:
Promotional opportunities - there should be growth so that the employee can be motivated to perform well.
Meaningful work - the work should interesting and meaningful.
The Two-Factor Theory shows managers that they have to create a nice environment for their employees and they have to give them interesting and challenging work so that they are motivated to work harder and better. Another thing they should consider is that motivational factors can improve the work quality.
McClelland's Theory of Needs
David McClelland's theory shows that human behavior is affected by three needs - Need for Power, Achievement and Affiliation. The need for power is the desire to have control over people and to be influential. The need for achievement is the desire to be successful. The need for affiliation is the need to belong to a team and to be understood.
People who have the need for power are very good leaders. The way to motivate them is to give them the chance to lead. Generally they are very loyal to the company they work for. The need for power shouldn't be considered as something negative. Such people can help achieve goal faster.
People who have the need for achievement are very competitive. They look for promotions in their work. They like to be praised for their work and like to be rewarded for it. These kind of people think of innovative ways to do their job. They consider the achievement as a reward and value it more than a financial reward.
People who have the need for affiliation need a nice and calm environment. They are most effective in team work. They can't be leaders.
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory
Abraham Maslow's theory describes the classical human motivation. The theory is based on the idea that there is a hierarchy of five needs in each one of us. The five needs are:
1. Physiological needs - the needs of having basic comforts in life.
2. Safety needs - the need for job security, financial security, family security, health security and etc.
3. Social needs - the need for love, affection, care and friendship.
4. Esteem needs - the need for confidence, freedom, self-respect, power, status and attention.
5. Self-actualization needs - the need for growth and the desire for gaining more knowledge, creativity and etc.
According to Maslow people are motivated by needs that they can't normally satisfy. When one need is satisfied it makes another one to emerge. Normally the safety and physiological needs are significantly met.
Expectancy Theory of Motivation
Victor Vroom's expectancy theory focuses on the outcome and not about the need like Maslow and Herzberg. The theory states that in order for the employee to perform in a certain way he has to have expectations that his performance will have a define outcome and that outcome has to be appealing.
The Expectation Theory states that the employee's motivation is driven by how badly he wants a reward and that if he acts in the expected way it will lead to getting a reward.
To take advantage of this situation managers should set defined outcomes for aimed performance levels. The performance levels should be possible for employees to reach. The employees who do great at their job should be rewarded and the reward system should be fair and equal for everyone. Another thing that can improve motivation is giving your employees interesting, challenging and dynamic work.
Goal Setting Theory of Motivation
Edwin Locke's Goal Setting Theory states that specific and challenging goals with appropriate recognition can lead to higher and better task performance. The features of goal setting theory are:
1. Clear, particular and difficult are a great motivator.
2. Specific and clear goals lead to better performance.
3. Appropriate feedback.
4. Self-efficiency - the higher the self-efficiency the greater the effort will be put by the employee.
Goal setting theory is a technique used to increase the employee's efficiency and effectiveness. Goal setting and improved feedback leads to better performance.