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One can define leadership as a quality in a person that gives a sense of direction, provides vision and is a source of inspiration to the others. Leaders lead their teams towards a successful goal. They never follow one approach or style. They styles switch based on situations.
Few leadership styles are discussed hereunder
Autocratic leadership is one form of transactional leadership. The leader has absolute control and power on his team. There is no room for providing/giving any suggestions. The workforce usually does not feel comfortable under such leaders. When subject to autocratic leadership, there absenteeism is high. This kind of style can be used for routine taks and jobs that do not require a very high skill set.
Bureaucratic leaders follow governance tactics by the book. They expect their staff to d exactly the same. This style will click in an environment where a lot of procedures and grave security issues exist. Example - Cash departments in organisations or the CCTV depatment where security check is done to the point of precession.
A charismatic leader infuses a lot of energy and enthusiasm in the team.But such a leader has more confidence in himself rather than the team. The risk involved in project handling will very high because most of the efforts will be of the leader. This is also a very serious situation for the entire organisation if such a leader quits the organisation. Organisations need long term commitments fro such people as they shoulder great responsibilities
Democratic Leadership or Participative Leadership
Such a leader will consider the views of the team members while formulating a plan. However, the final decision will be that of the leader .This has a very good impact on the organisations because it enhances job satisfaction as the employees are considered as valuable assets. The only drawback here is that decision making process will be time consuming because many people are involved. But on a larger scale this is a very effective practice as it harbours quality work and enhanced production
Laissez-faire in French is "leave it be". It is used to describe a trait of leadership wherein the leader is not necessarily interested in how the work is done as long it is delivered on time appropriately. This style works well with a skilled set of work force where their comprehension levels are good and the employees pick fast. However, such a style may call for very less control of a leader over his team
Using the Right Style - Situational Leadership
One can never follow a set standard approach to tackle all situations. In order to choose the most appropriate style, one has to take in to account.
The experience and the skill set of the team
Type of tasks being executed
How is the environment of an organisation( Is it constantly subject to change, is it a very conservative setting etc)
One's own comfort level in guiding a team.
An effective leader switches styles instinctively based on the situation, people and nature of work demanded .This is usually referred to a "Situational leadership". However while adopting the various approaches it equally essential that they ( in this case managers ) use certain motivational styles. (Anon)Six Emotional Leadership Styles
Leadership and motivation - A business success
To become a successful leader it is essential to know what the key driving force is for employees. It very important to know the needs and requirements of the team, co worker and also what the boss demands. Monetary satisfaction is the primary requisite apart from this an individual also has certain social needs. If the job does not give any satisfaction, they the individual will not be able to work effectively. Once an individual's needs are understood, it will be very easy for a leader to motivate and run the show
Once a direction is given the workforce becomes goal oriented. They respond positively to the deadlines set. However as manager one of the key responsibly will be to make sure that the goals set are easily attainable. All this will prove to a good impetus for the business. The reverse will have an adverse effect on an employee's morale and in turn a slack in the performance.
Motivation is providing enthusiasm in various forms to achieve a set objective.There is two types intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Usually it is attributed to humans however, it can also be used to analyse and decipher behaviour of animals. Many theories propose that motivation can be narrowed down to human wants or needs. It says it is all about reducing the pain or trouble and enhancing satisfaction. It also encircles areas like relaxing, eating, perusing hobbies , a particular state of mind or it can be linked with a few elements like being selfish, morality, etc. In plain terms its usually about telling on self or being told that one can do the job well.
Many theories have been proposed on motivation. Only two major ones will be discussed in this paper.
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs.
According to him, once a small priority need is satisfied, the next level demands more attention and the efforts of an individual are all bent upon full filling that and this want for more can never be satisfied. According to him a human being is addressed as "perpetually wanting animal" and says that it is this need in an individual that pushes him to satisfy it and want more. As ones needs keep changing there is also a psychological change but this is not necessarily on a positive high in conjunction with his priorities. He also says that though the less important need exists, or ceases to exist, humans usually go back to the previously satisfied need. Though Maslow's theory had a great impact on organisations it was also criticised in the same volume. This was primarily due to the theory not being flexible and also that individual priorities across are not the same.2.
Frederick Herzberg's Two Factors Theory
His talks about satisfaction and un happiness in the professional sphere for both accountants and engineers. Hertzberg's study revealed that their positive statements were mostly related to professional satisfaction. If their professional field looked good ( pomotions, pay hikes etc) then they seemed more content. It was also observed that most dissatisfactions were a result of un pleasant working conditions. These included issues related to salary, policy of organisation's working conditions etc. Hertzberg says that contentment in a human being is a result of professional satisfaction which can be inculcated through motivation. Many critics say that Hertzberg's conclusions were based on deductions.( Leslie Radford, Motivation)
Motivation can be injected into an organisation through the following means Employee motivation is enhanced most when organizations creatively and appropriately employ a multitude of motivators. We've profiled 10 areas that powerfully impact motivation.
Money is a fundamental motivator. The base salary stays as th biggest part of the total saalary , the incentives given along with increase periodically and are a cause and source of inspiration. Bonuses, cash incentives, or equivalent rewards, etc all fall under the category of the reward system. A few organizations offer incentive plans in the the nature of Stock based plans. Once this was a facility only for the management, it now is available for the employees too. Due to these rewards, organizations have seen as boom in employee retention, increased quality of work and implementation of new ideas. They have a psychological impact on the employees as well
Formal, Psychic Rewards
These are symbolic in nature. They are given to commemorate an employee's good performance or instances of continuous outstanding performances by respective teams.This encourages an individual an organization will remember one for years
Informal Psychic Rewards
A manager's optimistic feedback, good words from peers and encouragement from subordinates will be a good boost for an employee morally. They have a very strong sense of reinforcement. Individuals usually seek such feedback to feel good about and serve as an impetus. They feel that their skill set is being put to the right use
Opportunity to Grow
The very thought to improve oneself is a sign of motivation. When organizations offer such opportunities it serves as a win- win situation for both parties - organization and employee. An organization builds and creates employees with a very good skill set to develop them as competitive plus points for an organization. This way the employee benefits as well
Leaders encourage work force by word of mouth and through their actions. By demonstrating clear cut goals, giving a vision to strive for, encouraging them, leaders possess the keen tactical skills to infuse, determination with a new hope and enthusiasm for excellence.
Goals are very strong motivators. Peoples approach towards work is streamlined, they take uo challenges positively and with determination. Goals become a clear distinguishing factor for individual performance.
The free will to make decisions, work on one's own without interference are one of the key factors that people most value in the their professional arena. Anatomy is extremely essential for feeling a sense of pride in one's self. This is an extremely important factor that binds individuals to organizations for a long time.
A work place devoid of any form of fun is a deterrent to an organisations image and an employee's professional life. Fun is needed break free from the hassles of work pressure, Also one gets to know his peers well. If fun and work are aptly mixed then the atmosphere at work will prove to be very healthy and which in turn enables an employee to contribute more .Ultimately this will benefit the employee (Rotary International, Leadership D e v e l o p m e n t)
Corporate Culture and Employee performance
An industry is embrace with organizational culture which also can be termed as "normative glue" (Tichy, 1982). Forehand and Gilmer (1964) proposed that a group of features which depict an organization is a culture which may differ from the other organizations. Culture was stated as the standards and behaviours are the factors through which success can be attained and also will be taught to the new persons and it was stated by Schein (1990). In order to get some quality attentiveness an organization should maintain a culture that encourages the enhancement, and also which motivates the employees to work hard. An organization should be capable of identifying the various cultures and be should be flexible in order to achieve success (Deter, Schroeder, and Mauriel, 2000). The organizational culture locates few terms in an organization such as actions, thoughts and interpretations of the associates in the organization (Hallett, 2003). As long as the group is developing from time to time the organization come across two common challenges like incorporating the employees in order to attain success and customizing very successfully to the external environment in order to endure. According to Morgan (1997) culture is a process where the people or the community living in the world create and recreates the world again and again.
The organizational culture outcome is somehow based on its strength. Corporate culture strength means that how broadly and intensely the company workers keep up the industry's principal standards and postulations. Many employees in an organization will hold the principal standards when the organizational culture is very much strong. Some strong organizational cultures are said to be there for a long-term. In comparison the organizations consisting short-term the principal standards are considered as pathetic culture and only some members from the higher management will be involved here. Three important functions are carried out if a culture is very strong:
Control System: Organizational culture is intensely laid in a structure of the communal control that also persuades the employee's judgement and performance. Culture is persistent and also it functions involuntarily.
Social Glue: The organizational culture is also called as social glue as it combines the individuals and they consider themselves as a part of the organization. The social personality of the employee is developed as they are encouraged to the organization's principal culture. This social glue plays an important and crucial role in organizational culture as it is used to lure the workers and also to hold the top performers in the organization.
Sense Making: The sense making methodology is supported by the organizational culture. By this methodology the employees get knowledge about what is the process carried out in a company and why it is necessary. The employees often come to know very easily what the job requires from them with the help of the corporate culture and also they mingle with their co-employees who are familiar with culture.
The individuals are bounded by the culture as it plays a major role in our lives. Organizational culture gives out a method through which we can handle the performance by persuading how we append the sense in our world and how well we understand these cases. So in any organization's success there is the great contribution of its employees. So, as one individual behaviour or performance can reflect the thought process and working nature of the other individual. Organization Impact provides consulting services and educational workshops in the areas of leadership, development and human resources. Few small and large settings are made to spread the knowledge about some fundamental topics like pertaining success values and the transformation of the organization.
Corporate Ethics and Business Sustainability
Business principles tackle a question that is "how an individual can do good by doing well?" It initiates with the basic concern that the higher management desires to do something with their lives and examines how this thing can be done completely through business. .A businessman's final goal is to make the world perfect and better, so here it has been noticed how is this possible? A basic opinion is that making large money in a shorter period of time. The perfect businessman is who tries to make lot of profits in the industry and leading the organization towards success. Economist Milton Friedman stated in an essay, "the social responsibility of business is to maximize the profits", which is very famous among the business students. According to him the business officials may not have any problem in encouraging some social activities like recruiting the unemployed people in order to decrease the poverty or also decreasing the pollution which may exceed more than it is mentioned in the law. Their main job is to increase the profits of an organization. The principles, values, tolerance and morals have become much more complex in this contemporary society where generalization is accepted. The future employment and jobs are influenced because the as the values are changing in the contemporary society it is also influencing the managers in Human Resource. Hence in a business it v\is very clearly stated that a business should not be concerned with the principles and ethics which is a very structured policy.
Looking towards the good profits on any investments is the basic and fundamental apprehension of any industry. The finely balanced system may get disturbed due to any divergence. A long term business always depends on the principles which should be claimed but a short term business objectives can be approached either by hook or crook. A business that contains moral standards will provide a good growth, development and eliminates the trader/consumer schemes, poverty, indiscipline acts which further leads to the success of a business in a society for a very long period. (Olu Oju,Impact Assessment Of Corporate Culture On Employee Job Performance).
Analysis of Leadership Skills
The case of Davy Jones Locker is under review. The case pertains to a real life situation which took place at a Recruit Training Centre in Sri Lanka. The names of places and characters have been suitably disguised for reasons of anonymity. The case vividly brings out the importance of right leadership style, motivation and commitment that is required by a leader which brings about vital aspects for any organization to be effective.
The new Commandant of Sri Lanka Naval Ship "Nipuna" was Capt R Fernando. He has an experience of 2 years and has took over 3 weeks ago on March 1st . He used to maintain dicipline strictly and was a master in tasks. He also likes the sports on water very much and his training Commander (TC) was S Dias. He serverd on a Fast Attact Craft once and his performance was extremely good. With the directions of the Naval Head Quarters he left for a duty temporarily to train the trainers on a workshop. Capt Fernando on March 21st has come to the office and he saw Lieutenant Commander Niel. He was followed by the Acting TC. He was in panic and was sweaty. He saluted and wished "Good Morning Sir there is a small problem 34 recruits of the 161st . Just in 10 mins he has summoned LCdr and Neil and had an enquire again as" Why do you think they stayed behind, What made them hate Navy?". "Sir, I asked the same question from the recruit who reported yesterday and what he said was that he finds swimming difficult." But sir, this story is very usualâ€¦ Collect the addresses of the recrits and to each and every house send the divisional teams and ask them to report back immediately. The Motor Transport vehicles will be directed to coordinate with the vehicles. Separate those residing close to our naval camps; I will Intake, who were due to report after leave last Saturday, have not reported. I immediately sent messages to their Next Of Kin but only one returned yesterday. Capt Fernando's immediate response was "Did you brief them before they went on leave? " Actually I don't know sir, I just returned after leave and it was TC who was here at that time. Capt Fernando was initially disturbed but soon calmed himself. "You may leave now I will tell you what to do". LCdr Neil stood silent for a while, saluted and walked away. Capt Fernando was naturally worried. Nearly 10% of the senior most Intake of the centre is absent which was rather unusual. At a time when the Navy was at its best to get numbers in, this situation was disastrous. Intake, who were due to report after leave last Saturday, have not reported. I immediately sent messages to their Next Of Kin but only one returned yesterday. Capt Fernando's immediate response was "Did you brief them before they went on leave? " Actually I don't know sir, I just returned after leave and it was TC who was here at that time. Capt Fernando was initially disturbed but soon calmed himself. "You may leave now I will tell you what to do". LCdr Neil stood silent for a while, saluted and walked away. 4. Capt Fernando was naturally worried. Nearly 10% of the senior most Intake of the centre is absent which was rather unusual. At a time when the Navy was at its best to get numbers in, this situation was disastrous.
The only hint found by was absenteeism by Capt Fernando. From some Instructor Senior Non Commissioned Officers who often use to feel that due to the extra swimming class at night and the physical training timings, the trainees fall asleep easily. Later he called few of them who were recruited from the same batch and asked their views particularly on swimming. Those people conveyed same thing that the swimming class at night will consume their free timings. By weekend on March 25th many more recrits are arrested or voluntarily surrendered who ever wer absent. With an experience of 25 years in his service, Capt Fernando has quickly decided what has to be done.
Change in Plan of action
On March 26th, the defaulters at swimming pool were summon to Acting TC for addressing them. As the recruits who were in the swimming attire, Capt Fernando was also in the same attire. Few months ago, it was your decision to join the military which is one of the promising field. Joining Navy is one of the most prestigious decision you made in your entire life. It is better if you reliaze that swimming is food for this force. This is the unique skill. This will not only help you in this career but also save your life from drowning with the encounters by the terrerists in the past. Will all of you wish to end in the Davy Jones locker? Everyone replied "No Sir". Do you all wish to be as "recruit" in all your career? Everyone replied "No Sir". Rest of your batch mates have passed in swimming because they have learned swimming before.
The below mentioned PT instructions will act as a guide to achieve it. Swimming is very difficult during the initial stages of training.Everybody cannot become a great sailor within a period of one month.It requires luxury pools and efficient trainer to become an expert in swimming. The trainer suggested that he needs to spend much time in practising and that in future he cannot spare more time.SO, this should be taken as the best opportunity and asked him to take the help of his seniors so that he can reschedule his timings. When the trainer asked if he could make it before passing out parade, he answered with a big confident yes. Some of the professionals in swimming watched their commandment jump into the pool for about a period of 20 days. On the same day, he met his incharge and admired their efforts that they have put in training and that the trainees should be put into groups accorsing to their levels of expertise. He also informed that there will be no night classes for swimming and swimming is taught only in the evening hours.Also, the trainess should be kept in pool while training. He also congratulated their parents for giving them an opportunity to bring out a great sailor in their child. On April 26, he spoke these words and gave a smile filled with pride, when thee commandment delivered his speech.
Learning s from this case
This case clearly tells about the importance of the style in leadership, motivating others, and having proper commitment which is need by the leader in the military. This helps making any organization more effective in any vital aspect. The new commandant has implemted new systems in the training when the institution was in entire crisis. The twist in the situation was striking and resulted in achieving the direct reflection of the comitment, motivation, and leadership of the commandant.