This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.
Primark Stores Ltd is one of the leading retail groups in the value sector and subsidiary of Associated British Foods (ABF) and voted as the Best Value High Street Fashion. In June 1969, in Dublin, the first Penneys store was opened in Marry Street. Four more stores were added in the greater Dublin area. Primark owns a total of 187 stores across Ireland, Holland, Spain and the U.K. It employs more than 27,500 people. (www.primark.co.uk)
The reason behind the success of Primark is its economical pricing strategy, market locations, and focus on target market. Primark has developed its dynamic corporate culture which is 'customer focused', which can be seen in its product offerings. Its main target is young fashion conscious under the age of 35 and offers high quality fashion basics at value for money (www.primark.co.uk)
The HR policies mainly focus on raising the company profile and its reputation which makes Primark an attractive place to work. They do this by tying up links with local communities , job centers, colleges, universities and designing jobs that are flexible, so as to meet the needs of individuals and its company operations. Applicants are selected on the basis of their nature to adapt to fast moving business, knowledge of fashion and who can contribute to the business and have some potential to grow within the organization. Selected applicants undergo an induction and are given training before the opening of a store. This helps to build an energetic and enthusiastic store team who will perform to the high standards of Primark (www.primark.co.uk)
Primark has always been fair and honest in its relationship with customers and provides standard of product which it has agreed with a price which is value for money. Primark ensures that the goods or services they provide meet the safety and quality standards.
Being a member of Ethical Trading Initiative (E.T.I.), Primark strictly follows the Ethical strategy which aims to promote respect for the rights of people in factories and farms worldwide. It has committed to keep regular checks and gradually improving working conditions in the factories that supply Primark's goods. It has also implemented an extensive audit program which is undertaken by independent specialists, which is been backed up by Primark's Ethical trading Managers who are based in the main producing regions (www.primark.co.uk)
Experience within the company
Researcher have been employed with Primark for around 15 months as a Retail Assistant. During this period research realized that motivation was required at that level as the stress level at the work place is very high and employees constantly needs to be motivated to perform best so that customers are satisfied. After discussing with my Human resource Manager, researcher decided to conduct a research to test the motivational aspects of the employees.
RESEARCH AIM AND OBJECTIVES
Aim of this research paper is to explore the motivational factors of employees and to investigate whether employees are demotivated or there is a need of more motivation In staff to improve productivity and retention of staff at different levels in the Primark Stores Ltd. As Researcher currently working at Primark, Researcher feel the employees could perform better than what they are at current scenario. To discover this, in this research I will conduct a review of literatures on different motivational theories and concepts, in order to develop the research theory. Carry out primary research in the Primark Stores (Wembley Branch) in order to find out if hygiene factors of motivation affects the motivational level of employees. Approval has been gained from the organization to carry out the research.
This research is all about employee motivation in retail market and to evaluate the retail business process and planning to keep employee motivation at high for high productivity. Also to providing with up to date evidence of how company deal with all those issue and to do so for employee to keep motivated. Based on the findings, the study aimed to propose a framework for effective process and planning to keep employee motivation level high. The research objectives of this study are:
Review the literature in deep in order to find and understand the concepts of level of motivation in employee at work place.
Undertake the literature review in order to understand the basic principles and effective ways of increasing level of motivation in employee
This research will aim to investigate the need for different motivational approaches in the Primark depending on the position of the employees.
Identify the factors affecting the employee low level of motivation at primark and test the conceptual framework through a combination of various finding include primary and secondary research.
Redefine the concepts of motivation level among employee at work based on primary research findings
Propose a model for increasing level of motivation among employee.
This literature review will focus on the motivational level of the employees working in retail environment. This will focus on theory relate to it and their approach to the motivation. There are many different factors associated with the level of motivation to an individual which are their age, gender, culture, social and organizational structure.
Among all the employees in the company some do better job and other not so this give a hint and raise a question that what would be the reason behind these differences in their performances. Answer land up to many reason that some individual performance depend on the career experience and their ability and experience gain. To increase level of motivation in employees organization spending lots of money and building strategies. The most well developed and well know is training which provide a basic and all the technical skill need for workers selection of workers for a particular job who have necessary skills and talents to perform etc. The differences in the performance of each individual doing similar jobs reflects differences in their motivational levels. Increasing the motivation of person who has got ability to perform a job will give better results than person with low ability(Victor H. Vroom and Edward L. Deci,1988)
There are various approaches and idea to motivate employees in the organization. The main approach is to give them a job satisfaction, which give them a decision to decided whether to work or not in organizations. Another approach of motivation is put forward by taylor (2001) is reward and penalties which directly related to their performance,thus rewards are conditional rather than unconditional. The challenge of motivating employees is as old as any other organizational activity but the last half century has seen the use of scientific methods to reach the solution(Victor H. Vroom and Edward L. Deci,1988)
Definition of Motivation
Motivation is defined as the process which accounts for individuals intensity, direction and persistence of effort towards attaining a goal (T.R. Mitchell,1997). Motivation is indirectly a goal toward their effort and performance. The three elements associated with employees performance is described in this definition is intensity, direction and persistence. Intensity is something when individual do a amount of hard work to get their job done and show their effort. High intensity is something which leads to positive results until individual get succeed in their tasks which benefits the organization. Both quality and intensity are to be considered. According to Mitchell (2006) that the third element is persistence which means the duration of an individual to stay motivated. Motivated Individuals are the one those who stay with their tasks until they succeed and benefits the organization and achieve their personal goal as well. According to Landy and Becker (1987), motivation has atleast one of the following features of behavior : initiation, direction , persistence, intensity or termination of a particular action. This definition is explains that work motivation cannot be approached by any one feature because it is a multifocal phenomenon.
OBJECTIVES & INCENTIVES
Process of motivation. (Gorman, 2007)
Intrinsic and extrinsic Motivation(Kohn, 1993)
Intrinsic motivation is "The desire to engage in an activity for its own sake - that is, just because of the satisfaction it provides." (Kohn, 1993)
Intrinsic motivation give individual an own satisfaction by getting their job done. This kind of individual is the self motivated and have a good control over their own success and failure. They working for them self and benefits the organization
Extrinsic motivation is something when any individual are driven by any external sources. Although they do good job and benefit their organization but they are driven by either incentives or any rewards.
One of the gap at primark is that there is no indication of external motivation. This theory help analyzing employees motivation level whether they are motivated by external or internal rewards. Also the manager at work need to find out that what are the factors which rides its employees to do good at work and smile at the customer rather than simply to tell and follow the other and to smile at the customer as proposed by Freemantel (2001)
Content theories of motivation explain the internal factors of an individual employee that how and why each individual motivated differently in different environment. The examples of this theory are the need-based theories. The theories of Maslow (1954), Alderfer (1969), or McClelland (1965) assumes that each human being may have a natural or acquired tendency and some to seek or avoid certain stimuli. Other widely accepted theories without any objection which have obtained empirical support and accept the work content done by an individual. HerzbergÂ´s theory and Hackman are the best example of such theory and Oldham which explain that some features and sets of factors of job which motivates or demotivates an employee at their work place. The main factor in content theories are the self respect of the person which give them a value like who they are and their values. Shamir (1991) argues that if any employee good jobs does not lead to any kind of reward but it still motivates them if there values are taken in to consideration.
Maslow's Theory (1954)
Abraham H. Maslow theory, also known as the hierarchy of needs theory in 1954.According to Maslow, The main motivator that drives a human are person's
needs.These needs are :
1)Physiological : physiological is the basic needs of the individual in their life which includes hunger,thirst,shelter,sex, and other bodily needs
2)Safety : This is associated with the security of the individual and also about their job security also protection from physical and emotional harm
3)Social : Includes affection, belongingness, acceptance, and friendship
4)Esteem : This includes self respect when working in the orgnization ,autonomy, achievement and external esteem factors like status in the company among everybody, recognition and attention when required.
5)Self-actualization : includes growth depend on their experience or on their performance, achieving ones potential, and self-fulfillment.
All these needs are one the reason of the employees motivation depend on their needs. So According to Maslow(1954) that when motivating any individual keep their need in to mind should focus on satisfying those needs or the one above that level.
Another gap is the basic need of the employees at primark.
Maslow has divided their need of hierarchy in to two major order of higher an lower level of needs. Physiological and safety needs fall in the lower-ordered category and social, esteem and self actualization fall under higher-ordered needs. The difference between both the orders is that, the lower- order needs are satisfied externally and the higher-order needs are satisfied internally within a person.
Later, Clayton Alderferd (1969), revised Maslow's need hierarchy and labeled it as ERG theory .He argued that there are three groups of core needs i.e. Existence (which is the physiological and safety needs in Maslow's hierarchy), Relatedness (i.e. social and status needs),and growth (i.e. Maslow's self esteem needs and self-actualization)
ERG theory does not assume that one need should be satisfied in order to move on the upper hierarchy.ERG argues that person can concentrate on any of the either needs or all of the needs together. He also added that individual could get frustrated if the higher level needs leads to regression of lower need.
Later Davis and Filley (1963, p. 61) in his study argue on the basis of 'Executive Leadership' that leaders have to consider the fact that human beings prioritize their needs in which they seek to satisfy on the job and off which is based on psychological research by Maslow. They further commented that order of priority varies between person to person and Maslow's hierarchy represents the normal order of priority for most of the people. Keith Davis (1957) and Ralph Davis (Davis and Filley, 1963) refer to "self actualization" and believes it is not the highest order need.
On the other hand, William James (1892/1962) and Mathes (1981) proposed three levels of human needs. i.e. Levels of material needs (which includes -physiological, safety), Levels of Social needs (which includes - belongingness, esteem) and Levels of spiritual needs whereas Mathes proposed the three levels i.e. Physiological, Belongings, and Self-actualization.Mathes considered security and self esteem as unjustifiable. I am of the opinion that William or Davis and Filley have mentioned regarding the level of needs but if observed closely it is seen that, they are of very much in align with Maslow's hierarchical theory.
McClellands Theory of needs(1965)
McClellands theory of motivation is closely associated with learning concepts .His theory explains that when a persons need is strong the effect of that need motivates the person to behave in a way which in turn leads to satisfaction of that need .He also proposed that needs are learned through copping with ones environment.
Rewarded behavior tends to recur at higher frequency since needs are learned(Gibson, Ivancevich and Donnelly, 1979, 111-112)
Developed by McClellands(1965) and his associates, this theory focuses on three needs.i.e.
1)Need for achievement - It's a need to strive to succeed
2) Need for power- The need of power mean to dominant other in organization or control over them and behave in a way that they would not behave otherwise.
3) Need for affiliation - This is a need or desire for interpersonal relationships.
McClelland assumptions explains that one seeks goals which have not achieved yet and the affects on one's behaviour are the expectation of the goal of what could happen.McClelland studied people's goals through studying what they imagined.
According to McClelland theories, is that all the individual in the organization have different motives and personalities which results in one is suited more or less to different roles. Also each individual have their some strong part in them and some week and tendency of individual is that guides itself towards those situation in which he or she can do its best.
McClelland theory help to find out the need of employees to get motivated in organization, whether they are hungry for achievement, or need power at work place or just believe in good relation at work.
Frederick Herzberg Theory(1959) : Two - factor Theory
Frederick Herzberg proposed the two-factor theory which is also known as "motivation -hygiene theory" According to Herzberg(1959) that there are two factor which are associated with motivation of an individual and their de-motivation in an organization. Motivation as the job enrichment factor while hygiene factors lead to de-motivation of an individual. Job enrichment factors includes achievement in the organization among others, more recognition in organization, more responsibility to gain some more knowledge, freedom to do their job by their working styles, and advancement. Hygiene factors which includes good working condition in organization which suit their style and living standard, policies, administrative efficiency, style of supervision, and relationship between employees.
According to Herzberg (1959), hygiene factors demotivate the employees. They demotivate employees at the work place in different situations.
The factors that lead to job satisfaction (the motivators) are achievement, recognition, work itself, responsibility and advancement while company policy and various rules and regulation with restrict person to do their job and freedom, administration system, working conditions , supervision, interpersonal relations among employee and with management, money, status and security.
Fredrick Herzberg's (1966) had conducted numerous interviews of professionals at many places and at different level in each organization to find out the key factors which motivate person at workplace. He found out in his study that major job satisfaction was achievement at work palce when employees were provided incentives in term of motivation and reward. Such incentives increased motivation level of an employee which leads to their higher job satisfaction and efficiency of the employee. However the basic assumptions by Herzberg(1966) were the satisfaction and motivational level of the employees at work which contributes little to job satisfaction and that all the employees need to grow psychologically and the dissatisfaction is caused by interpersonal relations rather than satisfaction. There were arguments regarding Herzberg's theory that he relied too much on the single and biased research methodology in support of his theory (e.g., Ewen, Smith, Hulin, & Locke, 1966; Vroom, 1964). This was argued by Bellott and Tutor (1990), that Herzberg theory occurred in 1959 which is too long to be applicable.
Process theory explains about the individual own motivational and how to maintain and balance his own motivation it explain about the individual who take their own initiatives and get their work done more efficiently. Adams equity theory assumes that the contribution made by an individual and the outcome they obtain from it should be balanced. Process theories compare explain and compare their condition and situation with other similar situations of others. If there is any partiality or inequity or injustice, individual reduce this kind of culture at their work place by adapting to culture and behavior. Folger(1985) and his colleagues proposed an extension to the equity theory which is called the procedural justice theory which takes in to consideration the justice of the decision process. According to the studies it is been shown that people react against their organization when they perceive injustice which is both distributive and procedural. While Vroom(1964) underlined and developed the expectancy theory, which move around the motivational process of an individual. There are three factors which are considered by people:
1) Expectancy which is something about the individual confidence that the employees in organization and hard work which produce a certain level of performance
2) Instrumentality id reverse from the expectancy, confidence that the individual has that his/her will produce particular outcomes, and
3) Valence: valence is the value that the individual assigns to those specific outcomes.
Further Locke(1968) has contributed to the process theory of motivation with his goal-setting theory. Two recent theories are the social learning or social cognitive theory which is based on the process theories. Employees at their working place meet with environment which lead to a learning process which is based on his/her direct experience.
Another gap of motivation at primark is that employees are not motivated enough on their work performance or neither it's balanced.
Adams.S (1963) proposed that any individual is demotivated when an they sees them self under warded, which creates tension and anger in them. while over rewarded, and it creates guilt. This negative state of tension gives motivation to do something to correct it.
According to Adams.S (1963) there are four referent comparisons that an employee can use:
1) Self-inside - Employees experiences in the current organization in a different position
2) Self-outside - Employees experiences outside the current organization in a position
3) Other-inside - Another individual or group of individuals inside employee's organization
4) Other-outside - Another individual or group of individuals outside employee's organization
Equity theory says that employee might compare themselves with their friends, colleagues in organization, neighbors, and coworkers or compare their present job with their past job. The choice of referent chosen by the employee depends on the information he has about the referents as well as the attractiveness of the referent.
Vroom's Expectancy Theory (1964)
Vroom expecntancy theory is based on the works of Victor Vroom(1964) and Porter and Edward Lawler(1988). The expectancy theory of motivation explain that the individual motivation are based on his perceptions and about his strength and weakness to perform a given task,also reward they might get after their successful job or completion of the task and the value she/he places on the reward. Every individual has their own motivation level in term of reward and their expectation. For example, at same place one is working for his own job satisfaction while another is working for any rewards which either be money, or place or advancement. Therefore it is important to understand the value of reward for each individuals.
Expectancy theory explains that the perception will be stronger if the reward is equally attractive.Employees expectation rises because that the extra efforts will lead to reward.
Non-financial rewards :
"Financial incentives are important, and the problem of low salaries must be addressed, especially in situations where income is insufficient to meet even the most basic needs of health professionals and their families. But the evidence suggests that increased salaries are by no means sufficient to solve the problem of low motivation. More money does not automatically imply higher motivation." (Mathauer & Imhoff, 2006) Its a common misconception by many that most of the times employees can be only motivated using financial incentives. But that is not the case as employees are even motivated using non financial incentives or rewards such as an appreciation letter or a "pat on the back". "Financial rewards are often unavailable, but with non-financial rewards you literally can create your own supply. It is possible to give recognition, performance feedback, greater responsibility, or opportunity to participate in decision making to one individual; they give the same thing to someone else or to the same person next week. All employees are typically eligible for these rewards but, if desired; more can be given to high performers than to anyone else. There are usually no constrains upon making them visible, and they are also irreversible; that is if you inadvertently give someone more freedom, challenge or recognition than he or she can deal with, you can take it back. You can be bold and creative with the nonfinancial rewards because the consequences of these rewards don't have to be permanent" (Kerr, 1997)
Cross cultural perspective influence on motivation
Erez.M (1997), states that culture is often represented by its value system. Motivational goals are expressed by its values and the meaning of some specific values varies across cultures. Hofstede (1980) has developed five core values in work context, two values that is appropriate to assess the motivational practices based on the cultural context are: collectivism versus individualism and high versus low power distance. Employee's involvement is increased by the means of motivational practices. Four of the most important motivational practices are:
1) Reward allocation
2) Participation in decision making and goal setting,
3) Job enrichment, and
4) Quality management.
Individual who comes from the same cultural environment use similar ways of assessing the contribution to a particular behavior to their development of their sense of self-worth. These ways vary across cultures because of the differences in the cultural values which lead to the formation of different meaning of self-worth. For example, Western culture have their own individual values where as far-east cultures have a group orientation self which means they are interdependent.
The theory of Perez Lopez, J.A (1991) is combination of the four motives that is extrinsic, intrinsic, transcendent and relational. Individual's cultural values are related to each of the four types of motives which are given more preference.
Motivation and Communication
"Communication is usually defined as involving a sender encoding meaning into symbols that are sent along a channel to a receiver, who decodes the symbols and extracts the meaning." (Blanck, 1993) When an individual tries to communicated with other he uses various means such as gestures, symbols, graphs, words etc to convey his message. In an organization it becomes vital for people to communicate properly. If there is any sort of mis-communication, it will result in heavy losses in terms of money, customers and even employees. Hence it is very vital to have effective communication within an organization.
Managers have to deal with their junior staff everyday and give all kind of instructions to get a job done. The communication doesn't end over here as the managers would also be in interested on getting feedbacks from employees. The problem the staffs are facing or if they find an easier way to execute a similar job, they can communicate back to their manager. The different ways in which the manager can communicate with his staff is through telephone, email, letter etc. Many times there are barriers in communication which shall be properly tackled so as to maintain a free flow of communication at both the ends,
Especially now in the time of recession, it becomes necessary for the managers to maintain a close communication with their staff. Communication plays a vital role here as employees may always keep the fear in their mind about getting sacked. If this fear keeps on rising, the employees will be force to search for different job. This will have a negative effect on an organization like Tesco in two ways. First they will lose an employee who has been trained to do his work and secondly the recruitment and the re-training cost of the new staff will be too high.
In addition to this if there is no proper communication and the manager fails to contact the employee, the employee might feel left out and hence there are high chances that the employee will get de-motivated.
Research is defined as something that is undertaken by people to find out things in a systematic way which also increases their knowledge (Walliman, 2005).The two important aspects that is important in this definition are "systematic way" and "to find out things".The term "systematic" over here means that the research is based on logical relationships and not beliefs (Ghauri and Gronhaug 2005).Research should take in to consideration the methods that is used for the collection of the data and make it meaniginful. "To find out things" over here means that there are more than one possible purposes of the research which includes describing, explaining, understanding, criticizing and analyzing (Ghauri and Gronhaug 2005).Researcher should have a clear purpose or set of things which are to be found out such as answer to number of questions.
There are two types of approaches in research, they are deductive or inductive research. In deductive approach method the researcher develops a theory and hypothesis and designs a strategy to test the hypothesis where as in inductive approach,the researcher collects the data and develops a theory as a result of data analysis (Saunders, et al. 2003).The primary objective of this research is to check the motivational aspect of the Primark employees and whether there is need of motivators which could increase their performance. This research will be based on Frederick Herzberg Theory(1959) : Two - factor Theory. As this research will draw conclusions based on the findings and will test the applicability of Frederick Herzberg Theory(1959) : Two - factor Theory, therefore this research will take a deductive approach.
A research strategy is a general plan on how the researcher will answer the research questions that has been set. It contains clear objectives, derived from the questions, specifying the sources for collection of data and to consider the constraints. There different types of strategies which can be employed. Some of these belongs to the deductive approach method and others to inductive methods. The thing that matters most in a particular strategy is not the label attached to it but whether it is appropriate for the research questions and objectives. The different types of strategy that could be considered are experiment, survey, case study, grounded theory, ethnography, action research, cross-sectional and longitudinal studies, exploratory, descriptive and explanatory studies.
This research following the case study strategy as my research is mainly associated with the deductive approach. Robson defines case study as strategy which use a empirical investigation of contemporary phenomenon with real life incident using many source and evidence. This strategy is used to gain a rich understanding of the context of the research and process being enacted (Morris and wood 1991). This research study strategy will get the answers of questions like why, what. When and how type of questions. This strategy is mainly used for explanatory research. Although there are many way of data collection techniques like interview, observation, documentary analysis and working with questionnaires but if the case study strategy is used it is likely to be use and gather more than one source and evidence of data.
As Primark has a large number of staff in over more than 100 branches in UK, it is impracticable to collect data from the entire population, so researcher will need to collect a sample size .In this research the minimum sample size to be studied is 40 staff of Primark (Wembley branch) along with 5 managers in different departments. The reason for using 40 staff and 5 manager is to find more from staff about their motivational level and their condition. In this research sampling will be used because it enables to answer the research question and meet the objectives. This type of sampling is used when the working with small sample size such as in case study research (Neuman 2005).
Before conducting the actual questionnaires in Primark, it will be pilot tested to check the effectiveness of the questionnaire.10 questionnaires will be pilot tested.
Before using the questionnaire, a test is supposed to be done, which refines the questionnaire so that the respondents do not have any problem in answering the questions and the data recording will be done easily. This test is called as the Pilot test.
Bell's (2005:147) advises that,' however pressed for time you are, do your best to give the questionnaire a trial run',as,without a trial run, you have no way of knowing your questionnaire will succeed.
The number of pilot test conducted are dependent on the number of the research questions , objectives, size of the research project, time and money resources available and how well the design of questionnaire is done.
For smaller scale questionnaires it is very unlikely to have enough finance or time, if the trial is to be done on large scale. It is still advised to pilot test the questionnaire. The number of people chosen for the pilot test should be enough to include any variations in the population that are likely to affect the responses. A Minimum number of questionnaires for student means that there number of pilot is 10(Fink, 2003b) and if a large survey is conducted it should be between 100 -200 responses (Dillman, 2000). It is recommend to pilot test the questionnaire within friend circle or family if not all. This will give us a idea if the questionnaire makes sense. It is very important to ensure that respondents have understood the questionnaire properly and have no difficulties answering any questions and have followed all the instructions properly (Fink, 2003 b)
Bell (2005) suggests that a short questionnaire should be used in order to find out the additional information about the problems faced by respondents while answering the questions. The following should be used to find out:
How long did the questionnaire take to complete
How clear were the instructions
Any questions not understood or ambiguous
Any questions the respondents felt uneasy about answering
Whether the layout was clear and attractive
Were there any omissions?
Any other comments
Once we have completed the pilot testing we should thank our respondents for their help
Face to face interview to be conducted with the department heads, Assistant Managers, Senior Managers and the Store manager of Primark Store to find out what they are doing in order to motivate their staff. And also interview 5-10 interview will take from the shop floor staff to find out what kind of motivation they are getting and their expectation. This interview will demonstrate their knowledge of motivation. The reason for using this method and strategy is to collect more information by arguing and asking more questions.
Few of the questions for the interview are as follows:
Does the Staff give their full effort in performing their duties?
What are the ways by which do you motivate your staff?
What motivational tools do you intend to use to motivate the staff?
Quantitative data needs to be processed to make them useful and turn them in to a meaningful information. There are many quantitative analysis techniques such as graphs, charts and statistics which allows to analyze the data and help us to explore and describe relationships and trends within our data (Saunders et al, 2009).
A questionnaire will be prepared with the questions which will be directed towards motivational factors that would motivate the employees to perform better.Questions would be based on rewards, bonuses, incentives, promotions, traning, hygine factors,holidays etc. The questionnaire will be distributed to the to employees and the managers across the organization. The questionnaire will be use to gather information from more shop floor staff by asking set of question to know their motivational level and their expectation
Primark Stores Ltd is one of the leading retail groups in uk and in the value sector and subsidiary of Associated British Foods (ABF) and voted as the Best Value High Street Fashion. In June 1969, in Dublin, the first Penneys store was opened in Marry Street. Four more stores were added in the greater Dublin area. Primark owns a total of 187 stores across Ireland, Holland, Spain and the U.K. It employs more than 27,500 people. (www.primark.co.uk). The reason behind the success of Primark is its economical pricing strategy, market locations, and focus on target market. Primark has developed its dynamic corporate culture which is 'customer focused', which can be seen in its product offerings. Its main target is young fashion conscious under the age of 35 and offers high quality fashion basics at value for money (www.primark.co.uk)
The human resource policies of primark is mainly focus on improving and raising the company profile and its reputation which makes Primark an attractive place to work in retail industry. They do this by tying up links with local communities , job centers, colleges, universities and designing jobs that are flexible, so as to meet the needs of individuals and its company operations. Applicants are selected on the basis of their nature to adapt to fast moving business, knowledge of fashion and who can contribute to the business and have some potential to grow within the organization. Selected applicants undergo an induction and are given training before the opening of a store. This helps to build an energetic and enthusiastic store team who will perform to the high standards of Primark
Adams, J. S. 1963. "Toward an understanding of inequity". Journal of Abnormal and
Social Psychology, 67: 422-436.
A.Maslow, Motivation and Personality (New York: Harper & Row, 1954).
Armstrong, M. And Murlis H., (2007) , Reward Management : a handbook of remÄ±neration strategy and practise, Kogan Page : London
Baumeister, R & Leary, M. R. 1995. "The need to belong: Desire for interpersonal
attachments as a fundamental human motivation". Psychological Bulletin, 117:497-529.
Beardwell I, Holden, L. and Claydon T. (2004) Human resource management: A
contemporary approach, Essex: Prentice Hall.
D.C McClelland, The Achieving Society (New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold,1961)
Dillman, D.A (2000) Mail and Internet surveys : The Tailore Design Method (2nd edn), New York, Wiley.
Easterby-Smith, M., Lyles, M. A. and Tsang, E. W. K. (2008). "Inter-Organizational Knowledge Transfer: Current Themes and Future Prospects." Journal of Management Studies 45: 677-690.
Erez, M. "A Culture-Based Model of Work Motivation", chapter 8, in Earley, P. C.,
and Erez, M. (Eds) 1997. New Perspectives on International Industrial/Organizational
Psychology, The New Lexington Press.
Folger, R. , & Greenberg, J. 1985. "Procedural justice: An interpretive analysis of
personnel systems", in Rowland, K. & Ferris, G. (Eds.), Research in Personnel and
Human Resources Management, Vol. 3. Greenwich, Connecticut: JAI Press.
Fink, A. (2003b) The survey Handbook (2nd edn), Thousand Oaks, CA,Sage
F.Herzberg, B. Mausner, and B. Snyderman, The Motivation to Work (New York:Wiley,1959)
Graham, M.D, and Manas, T. M, (2002), Creatinga total rewards strategy: a toolkit for designing a business-based plans, American Management : New York
Ghauri, P. and Gronhaug, K . (2005) Research Methods in business Studies: A Practical Guide (3rd edn). Harlow :Financial Times Prentice Hall
Gibson, James L.,John M. Ivancevich, James H. Donnelly, Organizations; Behavior, Structure, Process, Dallas, Texas: Business Publications, Inc., 1979.
Hackman, J. R., & Oldham, G. R. 1975. "Development of the job diagnostic survey". Journal of Applied Psychology, 60: 159-170.
Hofstede, G. 1980. CultureÂ´s consequences: International differences in work-related
values. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage
Halepota, Hassan Ali. Cost Engineering, Mar2005, Vol. 47 Issue 3, p41-41
Kohn, A. (1993). Punished by rewards: The trouble with gold stars, incentive plans, A's, praise and other bribes. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company
Lawler, E. E. (1995), The new pay : Strategic Approach , Compensation and Benefits Review, November
Locke, E. A. 1968. Toward a theory of task motivation and incentives. Organizational
L. L. & Staw, B. M. (Eds.), Research in Organizational Behavior, Vol. 9: 1-38.
Greenwich, Connecticut: JAI Press Inc
Morris,T and Wood, S(1991) 'Testing the survey method: continuity and change in British industrial relations',Work Employment and Society, Vol.5, no2, pp. 259-82.
Neuman, W.L. (2005) Social Research Methods(6th edn.). Lonon:Pearson.
Robbins, P. S., Judge, T. A (2007) Organisational Behavior, 12th Edition. New Jersey : Pearson Prentice Hall.
Rousseau, D. M. (2000) Psychological Contract Inventory: Technical Report, Heinz
School of Public Policy and Graduate Industrial Administration, Carnegie Mellon
Shamir, B. 1991. "Meaning, self and motivation in organizations". Organization Studies, 12(3): 405-424.
S.Ronen, April 1986, "Equity Perception in Multiple Comparisions:A field Study,"Human Relations,pp.333-46;
Saunders.M,Lewis.P,and Thornhill.A,2009,Research Methods for Business Students, FT Prentice Hall,3rd Ed.
T.R. Mitchell,1997 "Matching Motivational Strategies with Organizational Contexts", Research in Organizational Behavior, vol. 19, pp 60-62
Victor H. Vroom and Edward L.,(1988) Deci,,Management and Motivation
Walliman,N.(2005) Your Research Project.A step by guide for the first-time Researcher (2nd edn).London: Sage.