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Development Dimensions International, Inc. (DDI) offers a proven selection system called Targeted Selection that, when properly applied, can produce positive results in a wide range of areas of concern to organizations, from turnover to on-the-job success and return on investment. Targeted Selection incorporates the following concepts with the training necessary to apply them:
> Focus on job-related behavior.
> Use past behavior to predict future behavior.
> Assess both job fit and organization fit motivation.
> Organize selection elements into a comprehensive system.
Organize selection elements into a comprehensive system.
> Apply effective interviewing skills and techniques.
> Use data integration to make the best hiring decision.
> Make a positive impression on applicants; sell them on the job and the organization.
Advertising, making applications, sifting applications and even assessment can now be carried out electronically, which can make the whole process more quicker. People now talk of making 'same-day offers', whereas traditional approaches took weeks or even months to fill vacancies.
â€¢ More and more jobs are advertised on the Internet, through the employer's own website or through numerous recruitment sites.
â€¢ People seeking jobs can post their details on websites for potential employers to evaluate. This gives the job seeker an opportunity that did not exist before. Previously, people could make speculative applications to possible employers, but could not advertise themselves on a global scale.
â€¢ Many employers now use electronic application systems, eliminating the need for the conventional paper application form. This makes it easier both to use electronic sifting systems and to construct more sophisticated filtering systems. Half a dozen questions can screen out clearly unsuitable applicants, saving both employer and applicant time, before going on to collect more detailed information from the rest.
â€¢ Some employers are replacing their conventional paper application forms by short questionnaires that are completed over the Internet.
The new systems assess it more directly by a set of standard questions. This saves time that would otherwise be spent reading application forms, and could ensure more standardized assessment of core competences. In effect the conventional application form or CV has been replaced by a short personality questionnaire, which has been moved forward from its usual position at the short-list stage.
â€¢ Software has been developed that scans applications and CVs to check whether they match the job's requirements. This is much quicker than conventional sifting of paper applications by HR staff. Automated sifting systems can also eliminate bias based on ethnicity, disability or gender. Sifting software can scan paper applications, or its input can be electronic.
â€¢ Aptitude tests or assessments of personality can be completed over the Internet by the applicant. This saves both time and travel costs.
Reference checks are the most frequently used method, followed by structured interviews, drug tests, and then unstructured interviews. Bio data, assessment centers and psychological tests (of either personality or ability) are rarely used. New graduates are likely to be assessed by educational achievement or through a trial work period - methods that are not generally used for experienced applicants.
The role of the application form is to act as the first filter, choosing a relatively small number of applications to process further. This procedure is known as sifting.
Letter of reference
References work on the principle that the best way of finding out about someone is to ask someone who knows him or her well, such as a former employer or schoolteacher. The principle is sound - former employers may have valuable information.
Work sample tests
The purpose of this selection method is to find a way of reducing the number of accidents.
Background investigation (positive vetting)
The application form contains the information that the applicant chooses to provide about him- or herself. Some employers make their own checks on the applicant, covering criminal history, driving record, financial and credit history, education and employment history, and possibly even reputation and lifestyle.
Group exercises and assessment centers
1c. Contribute to the selection process.
Relevant experience: Requirement of relevant experience is a critical requirement in every profession and role.
Domain experience : Rare domains are those fields where companies' need only specialists but vacancies and opportunities are less as compared to general domains
Willingness to relocate
Education and mode of education: when one moves up in the organizational hierarchy, relevant education, type and mode of education and relevant certifications becomes critical in the selection process.
1d. Apply legal, regulatory and ethical considerations to the selection process.
Selection and fair employment law
Selectors must bear in mind fair employment and equal opportunities laws that must prohibited discrimination in employment on grounds of race, colour, religion, national origin or gender. Later laws in the USA also covered age and disability. Similar laws exist in the UK, namely the Race Relations Act (1976), the Sex Discrimination Act (1975) and the Disability Discrimination Act (1995).
Other developed countries, including the UK, have followed the same general model and adopted many of the key concepts. If selection excludes too many non-whites or women, it is said to create adverse impact. The employer can remove the adverse impact by quota hiring to 'get the numbers right'. Alternatively, the employer can argue that the adverse impact is justified because the selection test is job related or - in psychologists' terms - valid. The employer who succeeds in proving that the test is job related faces one last hurdle - proving that there is no alternative test that is equally valid but which does not create adverse impact. Note that adverse impact is not what the lay person thinks of as 'discrimination'.
Adverse impact does not mean turning away minorities in order to keep the job open for white males, or otherwise deliberately treating minorities differently. Adverse impact means that the selection method results in more majority persons getting through than minority persons. Adverse impact means that an employer can be proved guilty of discrimination by setting standards that make no reference to race or gender, and that may seem well-established, 'common-sense' practice. The important Griggs case in the
In the UK, some employers sift out applicants who have been unemployed for more than six months, on the grounds that they will have lost the habit of working. The Commission for Racial Equality (CRE) argues that this creates adverse impact because unemployment is higher among ethnic minorities. Adverse impact assesses the effect of the selection method, not the intentions of the people who devised it.
Adverse impact is a very serious matter for employers. It creates a presumption of discrimination, which the employer must disprove, possibly in court. This will cost a great deal of time and money, and may create damaging publicity. Selection methods that do not create adverse impact are therefore highly desirable, but unfortunately they are not always easy to find.
Task 2. Building winning teams (LO2)
2a. Identify the mix of knowledge, skills and experience necessary for a team to fulfil its functions.
To develop an effective team, they should be possessed knowledge, skills and experience.
Problem solving skill
Overall knowledge of the organization and industry.
â€¢ Ability to communicate effectively
â€¢ Leadership skills
â€¢ Team-building skills
â€¢ Listening skills
â€¢ Courtesy and diplomacy
â€¢ Self-discipline and Self-confidence
â€¢ Active listening
â€¢ Getting along with supervisors and co-superior
2b. Analyse dynamics within teams and stimulate and promote a team spirit which helps motivate and provides support to its members.
High Performance Team Essential Elements
All team members share and support a common vision that the team is working towards. Team members are highly focused on attaining objectives. High performance Teams have developed a vision that brings real meaning to the work that is being performed. The vision describes a future state that team members find personally appealing and exciting. Defensive visions such as "keep our jobs," or "retain market share" are not particularly inspiring. Teams need a winning vision. One that inspires team members to extraordinary efforts when such efforts are required. Developing an inspiring vision is an essential first step to achieving high performance.
The team operates under specific deadlines for achieving results. Teams that operate without deadlines will ultimately evolve into rap sessions. Focus shifts from what is to be done to endless discussions about what the real mission of the team is or to finding the best approach to solving the problem. Deadlines can be as much as nine months to a year away. Any longer and the team runs the very real risk of being overrun by larger events that affect the organisation: major shifts in organization direction, budget changes, new responsibilities, etc. 90 to 120 day or even shorter timeframes are more desirable and achievable by high performance teams.
The team makes extra-ordinary efforts to make certain everyone on the team understands the plan and progress towards its completion. A High Performance Team recognises this phenomenon and uses all communication vehicles available to get new information to every team member. Team members recognize that they have an equally strong obligation to keep themselves informed.
Zone of Concern
The work of the team is beyond the team's zone of comfort. It either doesn't know how to achieve the desired results, or it doesn't know how to accomplish them in the time allowed. At first glance this seems like a crazy notion. When a team operates in the concern zone, between its comfort zone and perhaps its terror zone, it is most likely to perform better and consequently bond better and become stronger when it does achieve results.
The team stops at appropriate times to check the quality of its recent work. This is done to determine where the process could be improved and what learning can be shared with other team members. It is this act of stopping to check quality, even in the anxiety zone, where the team internalises its learning and improves its collective performance.
Team members work to make certain that every member of the team is involved. Watchers and wonderers are mobilized to get behind the team's march toward achieving its vision. It is human nature to make judgments about the capabilities, intelligence, and motivation of our fellow team members. But when do so, limit the possible accomplishments of team. Every team member has a unique insight or contribution it can make towards team goal achievement. It may very well be true that every team member must contribute for the team to achieve full success. It is the responsibility of each and every High Performance Team member to search out and discover the capabilities of all the other team members.
High Performance Team Members are self-directed. If the team is to be managed, management must be careful to focus the team on "what" needs to be achieved. The "How the work is to be accomplished" must remain the sole purview of the team. When management goes to the point of telling a team how work is to be accomplished, the team becomes de-motivated and perhaps subconsciously says, "We'll see about that."
High Performance Teams take the time to celebrate small victories toward goal achievement. This activity builds a sense of team success as the work of the team progresses. Sometimes, the celebrations are over new team learning's or insights, other times the team celebrate the completion of a small task. Together these celebrations build-up the team's moral and increase the team's determination to achieve the ultimate goal. Celebrations make take the form of a team cheer or the simple matter of collectively shouting "YES!
2c. Clarify expectations of relationships.
To create cohesiveness of the team
To provide good service their customers.
To achieve high level of target
To create good relationship with external parties who deal with the organization.
To build good image for the organization.
* coordinate individuals' efforts as they tackle complex tasks
* make the most of the personal expertise and knowledge of everyone involved, which might otherwise remain untapped
* raise and sustain motivation and confidence as individual team members feel supported and involved
* encourage members to spark ideas off each other, to solve problems and find appropriate ways forward
* help break down communication barriers and avoid unhealthy competition, rivalry and point-scoring
* raise the level of individual and collective empowerment
* support approaches such as TQM, Just-in-Time management, customer care programmers, and Investors in People
* bring about commitment to and ownership of the task in hand.
2d. Encourage team members to develop roles during team assignments.
* Make a climate of trust--where mistakes and failures are viewed as learning experiences, not occasions for blame
* Training-in communication, interpersonal and negotiation skills, and to handle the tasks required and to adopt responsibility for them
* Time--for coordinating activities, developing thoughts and monitoring progress, and for regular meetings
* Objectives need to be clearly communicated to all team members. This is increasingly a case of involving team members in setting the objectives rather than dictating prescribed objectives to them
* Give feedback everybody to know how well they are doing and if and where improvements can be made, with a focus on the positive aspects and ways of dealing with the negative ones.
* Establish open and honest communication, so that everyone can say what they think and feel without fear, rancor or anger
* To listen to others, including minority or extreme views
* To agree which decision-making, reporting and other processes will be adopted for the life-span of the team.
Identify individuals' strengths: Carry out an audit of individuals' strengths so that the team as a whole can benefit from all the skills and expertise available. Consider bringing in someone with team building experience to help with the initial phases, especially if the team's task is major and important.
* To provide an opportunity to ask `how are we doing?'
* To review progress on the task
* To reflect on how the team is working.
If any gaps or problems arise from the review, plan and implement activity and corrective measures.
2e. Empower teams to develop their own ways of working independently and to rely on their own capabilities within pre-set boundaries.
Building Blocks For Effective Teamwork
Clear Objectives and Shared Goals - more than just the end results, with members having some ownership of them.
Openness and Confrontation - statement of differences of opinion without the fear of retaliation, or ridicule about their ideas or beliefs, allowing problems to be brought out into the open
Support and trust - without them the above two building blocks would not be supported. Three factors can adversely affect support and trust; differing backgrounds, values and expectations; competition for territory, and information; the imposition of, rather than the agreement of performance goals.
Co-operation and conflict - without openness and trust co-operation cannot exist, healthy co-operation needs a degree of conflict is seen as a necessary part of organizational life. The right amount stops the team becoming complacent and lazy. Positive conflict is intended to help individuals or the team improve through problems until understanding is reached.
Sound Procedures and Practices - the effective team thinks 'results first and methods second' but also realises that sound working methods and decision making lead to achievement of objectives. The decision making process must be agreed upon and committed to.
Appropriate Leadership - good teamwork demands management or leadership which is both flexible and appropriate.
Regular Review - this can improve performance by:
ensuring that adequate effort is directed into planning
Improving decision making
Increasing support, trust, openness and honesty
Clarifying objectives and ensuring that the team does not deviate from its objectives and keep its end results in perspective
Identifying development needs and opportunities
Increasing the effectiveness of team leadership
increasing the effectiveness of team leadership
Making people feel part of the team by keeping them a aware of their role within the team.
Increasing involvement and commitment
Decreasing the number of emergencies
Individual Development - effective teams pay attention to the development of individual skills, thus the effectiveness of the team is further enhanced
Sound Inter-group Relations - a group is rarely an Island, invariably it relies on interrelationships with other groups. In an effective organization structure each team can be thought of as an individual member of the organizational team.
Task 3. Leadership (LO3)
3a. Evaluate theories and styles of leadership.
The Quiet Leader
Leadership theories that attempt to identify the common traits possessed by successful leaders. These traits included:
Â·Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Adaptable to situations
Â·Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Alert to social environment
Â·Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Ambitious and achievement oriented
Â·Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Assertive
Â·Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Cooperative
Â·Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Decisive
Â·Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Dependable
Â·Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Dominant (desire to influence others)
Â·Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Energetic (high activity level)
Â·Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Persistent
Â·Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Self-confident
Â·Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Tolerant of stress
Â·Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Willing to assume responsibility
Great Man Theory
Great Man theory assumes that leaders are born and not made. The capacity of the leader is inherent and there is not much person can do about it.
"Leaders are what leaders do." Behavioural theories of leadership are based upon the belief that leaders are made, not born, so according to this theory, people can learn to become leaders through teaching and observation. This theory does not rely on the physical and mental traits.
This theory requires a commitment to significant self-improvement. The principle centered theory of leadership says that there are underlying values and principles that leaders should follow, and these values and principles can be the foundation upon which success can be built upon. Principle-centered theory also says that great leaders work on and follow these principles in all parts of their lives as well as business, relationships and family.
The trait theory says that some personal characteristics make a person more suitable as a leader. It can be qualities like being tall, strong, and intelligent or other qualities that we associate with leadership.
The contingency theory suggests that no leadership style is the best one at all times and in all situations. It depends upon the situation and other circumstances the leader is faced and from that they alter their behaviour to suit that circumstance in order to be more effective. In other words, one style of leadership that was effective in one situation may not be in another.
The situational theory is similar to the contingency theory because it also suggests that there is no simple or one-way-solution for every situation. This theory focuses more on what behaviour the leader should use.
The participative leadership theory suggests that the best leaders are the one that takes input from others into account. These leaders encourage involvement and contributions from the group. This is close to servant leadership.
Transactional Leadership (Management Theory)
Transactional Leadership theories are the most common leadership style used in business. The theory is basically a reward and punishment system that is if you do well I will reward you, if you fail, I will have to punish you or some other reprimand.
The relationship theory is about the relationship between leaders and followers.
Leadership style refers to a leader's behaviour. It is the result of the philosophy, personality and experience of the leader.
Autocratic or authoritarian style
Under the autocratic leadership style, all decision-making powers are centralized in the leader, as with dictator leaders.
They do not entertain any suggestions or initiatives from subordinates. The autocratic management has been successful as it provides strong motivation to the manager. It permits quick decision-making, as only one person decides for the whole group and keeps each decision to himself until he feels it is needed to be shared with the rest of the group.
Participative or democratic style
The democratic leadership style favors decision-making by the group as shown, such as leader gives instruction after consulting the group.
They can win the cooperation of their group and can motivate them effectively and positively. The decisions of the democratic leader are not unilateral as with the autocrat because they arise from consultation with the group members and participation by them.
Laissez-faire or free rein style
A free rein leader does not lead, but leaves the group entirely to itself as shown; such a leader allows maximum freedom to subordinates, i.e., they are given a free hand in deciding their own policies and methods.
Different situations call for different leadership styles. In an emergency when there is little time to converge on an agreement and where a designated authority has significantly more experience or expertise than the rest of the team, an autocratic leadership style may be most effective; however, in a highly motivated and aligned team with a homogeneous level of expertise, a more democratic or laissez-faire style may be more effective. The style adopted should be the one that most effectively achieves the objectives of the group while balancing the interests of its individual members.
3b. Effectively communicate visions, goals and values to colleagues and promote understanding of how delegated objectives support these.
Vision: Defines the desired or intended future state of an organization or enterprise in terms of its fundamental objective and/or strategic direction. Vision is a long term view, sometimes describing how the organization would like the world in which it operates to be. For example a charity working with the poor might have a vision statement which read "A world without poverty"
Mission: Defines the fundamental purpose of an organization or an enterprise, succinctly describing why it exists and what it does to achieve its Vision.
It is sometimes used to set out a 'picture' of the organization in the future. A mission statement provides details of what is done and answers the question: "What do we do?" For example, the charity might provide "job training for the homeless and unemployed"
Values: Beliefs that are shared among the stakeholders of an organization. Values drive an organization's culture and priorities and provide a framework in which decision are made. For example, "Knowledge and skills are the keys to success" or "give a man bread and feed him for a day, but teach him to farm and feed him for life". These example values may set the priorities of self sufficiency over shelter.
Goals, objectives and targets
Strategic planning is a very important business activity. It is also important in the public sector areas such as education. It is practiced widely informally and formally. Strategic planning and decision processes should end with objectives and a roadmap of ways to achieve them.
One of the core goals when drafting a strategic plan is to develop it in a way that is easily translatable into action plans. Most strategic plans address high level initiatives and over-arching goals, but don't get articulated (translated) into day-to-day projects and tasks that will be required to achieve the plan. Terminology or word choice, as well as the level a plan is written, are both examples of easy ways to fail at translating your strategic plan in a way that makes sense and is executable to others. Often, plans are filled with conceptual terms which don't tie into day-to-day realities for the staff expected to carry out the plan.
The following terms have been used in strategic planning: desired end states, plans, policies, goals, objectives, strategies, tactics and actions. Definitions vary, overlap and fail to achieve clarity. The most common of these concepts are specific, time bound statements of intended future results and general and continuing statements of intended future results, which most models refer to as either goals or objectives (sometimes interchangeably).
3c. Enthuse and motivate colleagues to achieve objectives.
1. Communicate goals. Communication cannot be overemphasized, particularly in down times. Positive communication should indicate where the companies are going, and begin to align employee performance goals with the changing objectives of your organization.
2. Make employees part of the solution. Employees need to be involved in decision making, because their buy-in is critical for motivation and performance. They should be involved in even the most difficult decisions.
3. Offer alternatives. In uncertain times, employees need more, not less, structure and focus. Reviewing goals frequently is a critical element in keeping people on track. While there may be no increases in pay available, there may be training programs, career development, cross training, flexible work schedules and other steps that can be taken within budgetary constraints. Ask your team to develop goals for professional or skills development that will help them achieve the team's contribution to the whole.
4. Measure. Make sure employees can measure their own performance against the key performance factors of the business. This is a key element of employee motivation because if they cannot measure their progress, it is unlikely their progress will improve.
5. Reward. It is especially important that employees feel a sense of accomplishment in their work. By setting up the proper recognition and rewards, they can feel a sense of team work and be acknowledged for their efforts during these difficult times. If rewards are structured properly, team will appreciate their involvement and stay motivated, even in the absence of monetary rewards or stock options.
3d. Promote confidence among colleagues to engage with change.
1. Host informal "coffee talks" :Pull an entire work team together to
openly talk about what's going on in the world and how it affects business.
Encourage employees to ask questions. This decreases negative rumors
and also gets employees focused on work rather than on griping.
2. Offer "distress" activities: Give opportunity to participate distinctive and fun way to convey, that organization recognizes the rough times and cares about staff's well-being.
3. Form "new business attack teams": The goal of these employee teams is to investigate new business development options. By encouraging team to focus on the future, motivation can rise quickly.
4. Support community involvement: Provide company time for teams of employees to serve dinner at a local shelter, help build houses, adopt a family for a holiday, or collect money for a common charity. It not only serves as a motivator in that people feel they are doing something with a purpose, but also creates a positive public image.
5. Develop "individualized" motivation plans: Talk with key team members about the types of projects, training, experiences or mentors they would like to have.
3e. Empower colleagues to present their own ideas, develop their own ways of working within agreed boundaries and to provide a lead in their own areas of expertise.
___ Communicate effectively
___ Set priorities and action plans
___ Learn and improve procedures
___ See how your responsibility relates to the big picture
___ Analyze problems and make sound decisions
___ Adapt to changing conditions, influences and environments
___ Accept risk and take on difficult assignments
___ Inspire excellence and commitment in others
___ Stand up when under fire
___ Learn from your mistakes
___ Exhibit strong social and interpersonal skills
___ Focus on the end product
___ Demonstrate a high tolerance for stress and pressure
Task 4. Work and development needs of individuals - Performance monitoring and assessment (LO4)
4a. Plan or analyse work activities using appropriate objective-setting techniques and processes.
4b. Negotiate assignments with colleagues using suitable delegation techniques to motivate and enable colleagues.
Beginning the Discussion
Successful employee development depends upon conversations held in an atmosphere of trust and collaboration. To engender such an environment:
Find a private, comfortable spot for the discussions
Allow plenty of time - a rushed sense will not help build rapport
Make sure you listen as you establish a two-way conversation
Ensure that any goals set are clear and attainable
Outline the next steps and responsibilities for each step
4c. Review development needs and activities and evaluate the effectiveness of activities.
Individual Development Plans
When working with an employee, it's helpful to work together to put together an Individual Development Plan (IDP). This tool can help to plan an employee's development. It translates goals into concrete action steps, and helps the employee to stay on track to achieve the stated goals.
The IDP should include:
Reasonable, Achievable Goals
The employee should identify 1-3 areas, based on priorities, and commit to 1-3 goals during this phase.
Goals should be concrete enough to guide behavior change and growth. For example, rather than "I want to improve my communication skills," which is vague, say "I want to have the skills to clearly present and organize information in groups" or "I want to polish my writing skills to more clearly and effectively communicate information."
The IDP should be action oriented, outlining the steps needed to realize the short- and long-term goals.
Identify as many action steps as needed to reach the goals. First, try brainstorming many possible activities, then sort through and specify which action steps make the most sense. Again, be concrete.
From formal classes to self-directed activities to on-the-job experiences, determine which learning formats are most effective for the employee, given the employee's learning style.
The employee should think through what they want to be different as a result of the development efforts, and how those changes will be measured.
4d. Use suitable methods, with clearly defined and relevant criteria and objectives, to assess the performance of colleagues.
1. Critical incident method
The critical incidents for performance appraisal is a method in which the manager writes down positive and negative performance behavior of employees throughout the performance period
2. Weighted checklist method
This method describe a performance appraisal method where rater familiar with the jobs being evaluated prepared a large list of descriptive statements about effective and ineffective behavior on jobs
3. Paired comparison analysis
Paired comparison analysis is a good way of weighing up the relative importance of options. A range of plausible options is listed. Each option is compared against each of the other options. The results are tallied and the option with the highest score is the preferred option.
4. Graphic rating scales
The Rating Scale is a form on which the manager simply checks off the employee's level of performance. This is the oldest and most widely method used for performance appraisal.
5. Essay Evaluation method
This method asked managers / supervisors to describe strengths and weaknesses of an employee's behavior. Essay evaluation is a non-quantitative technique. This method usually use with the graphic rating scale method.
6. Behaviorally anchored rating scales
This method used to describe a performance rating that focused on specific behaviors or sets as indicators of effective or ineffective performance.
It is a combination of the rating scale and critical incident techniques of employee performance evaluation.
7. Performance ranking method
Ranking is a performance appraisal method that is used to evaluate employee performance from best to worst. Manager will compare an employee to another employee, rather than comparing each one to a standard measurement.
8. Management By Objectives (MBO) method
MBO is a process in which managers / employees set objectives for the employee, periodically evaluate the performance, and reward according to the result. MBO focuses attention on what must be accomplished (goals) rather than how it is to be accomplished (methods)
9. 360 degree performance appraisal
360 Degree Feedback is a system or process in which employees receive confidential, anonymous feedback from the people who work around them
10. Forced ranking (forced distribution)
Forced ranking is a method of performance appraisal to rank employee but in order of forced distribution.
11. Behavioral Observation Scales
Behavioral Observation Scales is frequency rating of critical incidents that worker has performed.
Shares information willingly
Accepts constructive criticism without defensiveness
Gives equal weight to others' ideas
Direct and open in expressing differences of opinion
Resolves differences using facts and data
Treats others with forthrightness and respect
Use of Knowledge
Social skills and personal engagement
Effectively aligns responsibility, accountability, and authority
Sets high standards for self, as well as for others
Employs institutional goals in measuring unit effectiveness
Supports useful debate and disagreement
Admits mistakes and moves on
Accepts responsibility rather than blaming others
Fosters respect for facts, data, and objective analysis
Objectives of PE
To review the performance of the employees over a given period of time.
To judge the gap between the actual and the desired performance.
To help the management in exercising organizational control.
Helps to strengthen the relationship and communication between superior - subordinates and management - employees.
To diagnose the strengths and weaknesses of the individuals so as to identify the training and development needs of the future.
To provide feedback to the employees regarding their past performance.
Provide information to assist in the other personal decisions in the organization.
Provide clarity of the expectations and responsibilities of the functions to be performed by the employees.
To judge the effectiveness of the other human resource functions of the organization such as recruitment, selection, training and development.
To reduce the grievances of the employees.
4e. Identify factors affecting the quality of performance and use these to provide clear and constructive feedback on performance to colleagues.
Character traits, skills and knowledge which are used in the performance
It is always present and will not vary widely over short periods of time.
The amount of manual or mental energy, which a person is prepared to expend on a job to reach a certain level of performance. It can vary according to incentive and motivation.
Many people who are not motivated keep their performance to an acceptable level by expending only 20-30% of their ability. Managers who know how to motivate their employees can achieve 80-90% ability levels and consequently higher levels of performance.
Basic needs - food clothing
Safety needs - security, avoidance of risk/harm
Social needs - friendship, acceptance, group
Esteem needs - responsibility, recognition
Self realisation - independence, creativity
Equity & Expectation
Basically, people expect to be treated equally, within the company and as others are in similar companies; they expect to get a certain reward for a certain effort; and they expect to get promoted if they undergo training. All these factors are inter-related and affect the amount of effort people are prepared to put in.
Task, or role, perception
The direction in which, the person wishes to channel his or her effort and ability.
It varies according to such factors as
whether or not the job is seen to be important or of value
to the organisation,
to the individual
whether or not there is an end in sight
Is what I do simply lose in the larger organisation?
Can I see it as a finished entity in its own right, no matter how small?
Those factors, over which an individual has no control, e.g.:
The job may have been completed under severe time constraints, with a lack of adequate resources, or by using obsolete equipment;
There may have been conflicting priorities or information overload, such that the individual was confused and under stress;
Other staff and departments may have been less than cooperative;
The restrictive policies of the organization may have prevented the individual from using her initiative and imagination to the extent that she wished;
The quality of the supervision exercised may have been defective - some people need encouragement and support, whereas others like to be left to get on with the job.