Today in the world of globalization, there is a persuasive need to solve the challenges in an innovative way such as employee relations, technical competence, social corporate responsibility etc (Chapter 4 Organizational Justice, 2005). The organization realizes the importance of the human social relation as essential and integral part of the organization. Hence, organizations highlights the human resource department separately which are involved in satisfying the personal requirements and needs of the people they are managing. HR department of organizations state that justice is a fundamental to the human social interaction. Justice or fairness is the fundamental concept to manage the human social interaction such as the assignment of the task, promotion or appraisal design, allocation of awards and rewards etc. This interaction differs with the different perception of different employers and employee. Thus, employees' perception of fairness or justice in the framework of organizational settings is known as organizational Justice. The organization justice influences the attitude, perception and behavior of the employee which is consequently connected to their performance as well as organization's success.
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Greenberg in 1987 introduces the concept of the organizational justice as a conceptualized framework as a multidirectional construct. The organizational framework refers to the concept of fairness in context to the labor practices, employment opportunities, paying wages and salary (Chapter 4 Organizational Justice, 2005).
Organizational Justice is an important aspect to enhance the efficiency and productivity of the organization. Hence, it is important to research on the organizational justice and its impacts. The project is undertaken with an aim to analyze the Organizational Justice Framework as well as to determine its impact on productivity and efficiency of the organization. We have conducted research on ADNOC i.e. Abu Dhabi National Oil Company which is most prevalent oil and gas business organization of UAE and has played a very crucial role in the economic development of Abu Dhabi. The project would analyze the impact of organizational justice on the productivity of ADNOC.
Company Background: ADNOC-Abu Dhabi National Oil Company:
Abu Dhabi National Oil Corporation (ADNOC) has commenced its business operations in the year 1971. It deals mainly in all the operations pertaining to the oil and gas business in the region of Abu Dhabi and whole UAE. It includes different subsidiaries and business organizations which operate the business in the products and services associated with oil and gas and hence it gets success in expanding its business globally. The figures of oil production of ADNOC are approximately over 2.7 million barrels per day and it stand among the top 10 oil and gas companies globally (About ADNOC).
Over the last three decades, ADNOC has extended its business operations to various other joint venture and subsidiary companies. It has gained a renowned position in the oil and gas industry by executing the global level upstream and downstream management, marketing and distribution, supply chain management. The credit of success and sustainable growth and development of ADNOC is definitely goes to its dedicated and committed human resource team. The list of ADNOC group of companies and subsidiaries which assist it in conducting the global business operations are as follows:
Searching and production of Oil and Gas:
Abu Dhabi Company for Oil Operations (ADCO).
Abu Dhabi Marine Operating Company (ADMA-OPCO)
Zakum Development Company (ZADCO)
Searching and production Services:
National Drilling company (NDC)
Abu Dhabi Petroleum Ports Operating Company (IRSHAD)
Processing of Oil and Gas:
Chemicals and petrochemicals:
Refined Products Distribution:
Organizational Behavior and Organizational Justice:
Organizational Behavior and Organizational Justice are not completely different but have different roots. Organizational Justice is responsible to elicit the organizational citizenship behaviors which are considered as core of success in many organizations with high structured organizational justice. As shown in figure below, there are three types of organizational justice viz. Distributive Justice, Interpersonal Justice and Informal Justice which are found to be correlated. As all four are distinct aspects of organizational justice they have been shown to have independent effects (Rangriz, 2012).
Distributive Justice pursues three types of principles i.e. equity, need and equality. It is impossible to achieve all the criteria so it is important to make proper balance between all the three principles of distributive justice with the accordance of the situation (Chapter 4 Organizational Justice, 2005).
Always on Time
Marked to Standard
In Procedural Justice, manages have to ensure that the uses of procedures, policies and process in making decision are fair. The fairness of procedures is judged by two types namely amount of control that they have over the process and second is the amount of control they have over influencing the decision. Process and procedures are considered to be fair if they are without biasness, based on true information, moral and ethics and represent concerns in context to all recipients (Chapter 4 Organizational Justice, 2005).
An Interactional Justice refers to the interpersonal treatment which the employees receive during the time of organizational endorsement procedures. These procedures are consider as fair when it reveals respect toward employees, eliminate the chances of not followed, provide proper reasons and explanation as well as make provision for truthfulness (Chapter 4 Organizational Justice, 2005).
Employees can respond in different ways in order to perceive justice as either they can live it or can change it. However, the experience of injustice is never found to be fruitful. It always causes loss to individual as well as to the organization. Therefore, it is important to eliminate the causes and practices of injustice and create the organizational justice framework. Every company has different frame work for creating organizational injustice and procedure to implement it in the organization (Chapter 4 Organizational Justice, 2005).
Source: (Chapter 4 Organizational Justice, 2005)
The project report is undertaken in order to achieve the following objectives:
To analyze the organizational justice and its importance in the organization in order to enhance productivity and efficiency.
To analyze the organizational justice framework of ADNOC.
To determine the impact of the organizational justice framework on the productivity of ADNOC.
Significance of the Project:
The project report is found to be very significant in context to study frame work of organizational justice implemented in ADNOC. It would help to analyze the outcomes and drawbacks of the implementation of organizational justice in the organization.
Scope of the Project:
The project report has wide scope in order to explore the importance of the organizational justice as well as the framework of organizational justice adopted by the ADNOC in the UAE. It would also analyze impact of the organizational justice on the productivity of the ADNOC. The report would highlight the efficiency and drawback if any and would also recommend some factors which can implement in the organization to remove the drawback and enhance its productivity.
The report is considered to conduct ethically. Hence, the ethical considerations for this project are as follows:
In the primary research method, as the report is based on the response received by the respondents, all the respondents would be requested to provide their accurate response as well as consent prior to filling out the questionnaire.
The details of the respondents would be kept highly confidential to prevent any issues arising due to disclose of personal details of an individual.
All possible biasness would be eliminated as well as would prevent the collected and analyzed data to get affected from any type of biasness.
The information and data collected would be used only for the academic research purpose only.
The perception and expectations regarding the organizational justice and organizational productivity varies from respondents to respondents, hence concluding the precise findings is quite complex task.
Our research used only 100 samples for the survey which results in statistics errors like volatility.
Different respondents give different views which leads to data and result differentiation.
The Research study comprises of various statistical and research variables and it is not feasible to analyze all of them.
The disinterest of the respondents towards fulfilling questionnaire affects the research' authenticity.
Our questionnaire is restricted to only 15 (10 core + 5 demographic) questions which lead to ignore various important aspects of organizational justice and organizational productivity.
The random sampling method application leads to create various concomitant statistical errors.
Chapter: 2 Literature Review:
Review of Literatures of previous studies:
The study is undertaken in the area of organizational justice framework and its impacts on the productivity of organizations. Many researches have been undertaken for exploring the impacts of different organizational justice over the development of organizational performance and productivity.
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The study "Relationship between Organizational Justice and Employee Work Outcomes: A Cross-National Study" revealed the organizational relationship with the performance of employees and their satisfaction at workplace. The study explored that, the formulation of organizational policies and practices promoted fairness functioning at the workplace and also reveled that organizational justice influenced employees' performance and their job satisfaction and encouraged organizational productivity. As per the findings, individual and social differences may influence the relationship of organizational justice and employees' satisfaction but the formulation of organizational justice overcame all drawbacks and increased organizational productivity (Relationship between organizational justice and employee work outcomes:a cross-national study, 2002).
The study "Impact of Perceived Organizational Justice on Organizational Commitment of Faculty: Empirical Evidence from Pakistan" explored the impact of organizational justice on the organizational commitments, workforce behaviors and attitude at the work place. This study endeavors; the organizational justice has extensive influence over the management operations. The researcher explored various dimensions of organizational justice which foster the organizational commitments at the workplace. In the view of researcher, distributive and procedural organizational justices have significant role in the development of employees and organizational commitments. As per the findings, these dimensions of organizational justice encouraged employees' commitment towards their job responsibilities at the work place which in directly influenced the performance of organization and increased productivity of the organization (Dr. Muhammad Ehsan Mali, 2011).
The study "The Management of Organizational Justice" explored the potential of several dimension of organizational justice for the creation of powerful benefits in the organization. As per the researcher, organizational justice fosters the improved job performance, commitments and also influenced trust level. Along with these, the justice concept also promoted organizational behavior, customer satisfaction and reduced conflict at the work place. The findings of this study revealed that the organizational justice concept exhibited fairness building of managerial activities which comprises of performance appraisal, management of conflict, downsizing and reward system. As per the study, organizational justice provided business opportunities in this fast pace of life which encouraged organizational productivity at the work place (Russell Cropanzano).
The study "Organizational Justice as a Determinant of Organizational Commitment and Intention to Leave" explored the role of equity and justice in the employees' commitment to the enterprise. As per the views of researcher, distributive and procedural justice significantly fosters employees' commitments towards the organization. This study promotes the understanding of internal and external relationship with attitudinal and behavioral facets of the organizational commitments. Researcher tells that in the enhancement of organizational productivity, the performance and satisfaction of employees must be raised and this would be achieved by higher commitments towards their work and organization. This study reveled that the fairness perception in awarding promotions encouraged higher commitment towards the job responsibilities and enhanced organizational productivity (Hassan, 2002).
The study on "Relationship between organizational justices and humans resources productivity" reveals the correlation between the magnitude of organizational justice variables such as informational, procedural and distributives and also emphasized on human resource productivity in public organization. The study explored that procedural justices is the most relevant factor which affects the human resource productivity. The study also emphasizes on the relationship distributional justice, distributing the payments, promotion in the organizational context according to the responsibilities which resulted in the performance productivity. The study revels the fact the fair procedures which enhance the employee job satisfaction when the employee have the positive perception of performing the procedural justice and promotional standards. It also revealed that when the employee recognizes justice in the organization procedure results in positive performance in the organization. It gives more job satisfaction to employees will facilitates to increase the performance and contribute the enhancement of organizational justice in the context of human resource productivity (Relationship between organizational justice and human resource productivity in public organizations of Kurdistan province, 2011).
The study on the "Role of Organizational Justice on Job Satisfaction" explores the fact that how organizational justice played an imperative role in the job satisfaction. The study reveals the positive meaning correlation ship between the organizational justice and its dimensions on job satisfaction. The study explored the effects of variables in the distributive and interactional justice recognized to be effective in job satisfaction. All organizational justice has significant influence on the job satisfaction. The perception of unfairness can lead to in negative reactions to the organization, the author suggested the fairly rules and consistently to the people and rewarding them based on their performance and competencies. That may have meaningful influence on the job satisfaction. Study also emphasize on the influence of distributive justice in the context of job satisfaction. Most prominent and crucial capital of the organization is human resources (Dr Seyed Abbas Heidari, 2012).
In the context of the organizational justice, Study on "Investigating the relationship between organizational justice, psychological empowerment, job satisfaction, organizational commitment and organizational citizenship behavior" which reveals the fact that organizational justice directly affects psychological empowerment and job satisfaction. Psychological empowerment affects the job satisfaction on employee productivity. The empowered human resources build up the empowered organization and needs to attempt in the widespread conditions in which employee feel motivated and empowered. This will improve the productivity of the employees in the context of organizational commitment. Emphasize on the importance of organizational justice in the context of the job satisfaction and productivity. The findings of the study propose that organizational commitment have positive influence on the organizational behavior and employee productivity (Sajjad Najafi, 2011).
The study on "Does Organizational justice Influence Job Satisfaction and Self-Perceived Performance in Saudi Arabia Work Environment" explores the impact of organizational justice and perception over the performance and job satisfaction. The study explored that organizational justice influence the job satisfaction of employees. The study explored that organizational member who tends to illustrate the positive reaction including the procedural, distributive and interactional justice increase the higher level of job satisfaction. The study fostered the organizational justice and its influence on the job satisfaction which resulted in the employee productivity (Abdallah M. Elamin, 2011).
Chapter: 3 Research Methodology & Data Collection:
Our research adopts the methodology of the mixed type of research i.e. the data has been gathered with the help of both primary and secondary sources of data collection.
The Information pertaining to the Sources of Data Collection & their respective Research Instruments are as follows:
Information associated with Collection of Data & Research Instruments:
Methods of Data Collection
Details of the Analysis
Evaluation of the Organizational Justice framework and its impact on the Organizational Productivity of ADNOC.
Responses from various stakeholders of ADNOC i.e. employees, executives, managers, customers, suppliers, retailers, agents etc. would be utilized to collect the data of research survey in compliance with the questionnaire.
Books, Demographic Surveys, Government Publications, Journals, Magazines, News Papers, Reports, Scholar Journals, Previous Research Studies etc.
Statistical analysis of the data and evaluation of cross tabulation of the variables to check the reliability and validity of our research study.
The company's and industry's reports pertaining to the
Strategic framework associated with the Organizational Justice and its impact on Organizational Productivity with special reference to ADNOC.
Research Instrument: Questionnaire:
"The framework of the Organizational Justice at ADNOC and its impact on the Productivity of the Organization" has been evaluated and analyzed with the help of well prepared questionnaire including 10 questions pertaining to the concept of organizational justice, its implementation and impact on the productivity of ADNOC and additional 5 questions pertaining to the demographic information of respondents.
The questionnaire is based on the 5 points Likert scale for gathering the responses of the individuals so as to evaluate the framework and strategic impact of organizational justice and on the ADNOC's productivity respectively in a vibrant manner. The questionnaire comprises of questions which are based on various framework of organizational justice and its impact on the ADNOC's productivity as per the views of ADNOC's stakeholders. Please refer Appendix 1 for the Questionnaire.
Sample Size & Target Respondents:
In this research we select the sample size as 100 and stakeholders of the ADNOC are the targeted respondents for data collection. These stakeholders include employees, executives, managers, customers, suppliers, retailers, agents etc.
Sampling (Random Sampling):
Sampling may be defined as the process of collecting data from the targeted group of respondents in a statistical manner. The process of sampling comprises of systematic analysis of data along with the gathering of data with the help of primary and secondary sources.
The questionnaires are distributed among the respondents randomly and thus random sampling is used for the study. We have selected random sampling method for the collection of data from the respondents by distributing questionnaires. Random sampling methods comprise the steps pertaining to collection of data from a non-specific assortment of the target people in order to ensure the effectiveness of the data collection.
Chapter: 4 Data Analysis and Interpretation:
Methods of Data Analysis:
The data analysis is done with the help of Summary Statistics so as to analyze each and every response to each question more vibrantly. The data is collected through a well structured questionnaire which is analyzed on the basis of summary statistics method. The summary statistics is the method through which analysis is done with the help of statistical figures such as mean, percentage, graphs, charts etc. The analysis is done as follows: (Please refer to Appendix 2 for the list of responses for questions 6 - 15)
Q. 1. Gender:
No. of Respondents
The above graph shows that out of the total stakeholders of ADNOC, 38 % were females and
62 % were males.
Q. 2. Age:
No. of Respondents
39 Years and Above
From the above graph it can be inferred that, 21 % respondent lies between 18-24 years, while 53 % respondent lies between 25-38 years and 26 % respondent lies between 39 Years and above.
Q. 3. Nationality:
No. of Respondents
Other Arabian Countries
The graph shows that 58 % of the targeted population is from UAE, 23 % are from other Arabian Countries and 19 % from miscellaneous countries.
Q. 4. Educational Qualification:
No. of Respondents
Higher Secondary / Under Graduate
The above graph exhibits that out of the total population of the survey 10 % are higher secondary / under graduates, 23 % are graduates, 32 % are post graduates, 19 % are diploma holders, 16 % are Professionals. Thus we can conclude that the respondent of the research study are highly qualified with post graduate degrees. Thus we can say that our research study has been conducted more authentically.
Q. 5. Monthly Income:
No. of Respondents
AED 30001 -50000
Above AED 50000
The above graph shows that 7 % earns AED 5000-15000 per month, 10 % earns AED 15001-30000 per month, and 21 % earns AED 30001-50000 per month, while 62 % earns above AED 50,000 per month. Thus we can conclude that our research study has been conducted on the high income group people being the senior executives and managers of ADNOC, as they have accurate idea about the impact of Organizational Justice on Organizational Productivity.
Q. 6. Organizational Justice may result to the employee satisfaction in terms of productivity rewards which results to high organizational productivity.
The graph shows that 29 % of the population give their views by strongly agrees with the information that the Organizational Justice may result to the employee satisfaction in terms of productivity rewards which results to high organizational productivity however 45 % agrees on the fact. 10 %, 9 % and 7% were neutral, disagree and strongly disagree respectively. Hence we can extort from this that organizational justice helps in employee satisfaction and organizational productivity.
Q. 7. Organizational Justice may leads to effective managerial and employee's productivity which results to less crisis management.
The graph shows that 30 % of the population give their views by strongly agrees with the information that the Organizational Justice may leads to effective managerial and employee's productivity which results to less crisis management however 55 % agrees on the fact. 3 %, 7 % and 5 % were neutral, disagree and strongly disagree respectively. Hence we can extort from this that organizational justice ultimately helps in crisis management.
Q. 8. Organizational Justice improvises procedures which leads to effective organizational environment and helps in retaining effective employee performance.
The graph shows that 45 % of the population give their views by strongly agrees with the information that the Organizational Justice improvises procedures which leads to effective organizational environment and helps in retaining effective employee performance however 28 % agrees on the fact. 6 %, 11 % and 10 % were neutral, disagree and strongly disagree respectively. Hence we can extort from this that it ultimately helps in maintaining good organizational environment and performance.
Q. 9. Organizational Justice boosts up the team spirit and enhances the coordination which leads to effective productivity.
The graph shows that 26 % of the population give their views by strongly agrees with the information that the Organizational Justice boosts up the team spirit and enhances the coordination which leads to effective productivity however 58 % agrees on the fact. 3 %, 7 % and 6 % were neutral, disagree and strongly disagree respectively. Hence we can extort from this that it ultimately helps in team spirit and better coordination.
Q. 10. Organizational Justice brings down the equality and transparency which leads to employee satisfaction and organizational performance.
The graph shows that 54 % of the population give their views by strongly agrees with the information that the Organizational Justice brings down the equality and transparency which leads to employee satisfaction and organizational performance however 29 % agrees on the fact. 9 %, 6 % and 2 % were neutral, disagree and strongly disagree respectively. Hence we can extort from this that it ultimately helps in bringing equality and transparency which leads to employee satisfaction and productivity.
Q. 11. Procedural Justice results to ethical and moral conduct of procedures which results to effective performance.
The graph shows that 29 % of the population give their views by strongly agrees with the information that the Procedural Justice results to ethical and moral conduct of procedures which results to effective performance however 37 % agrees on the fact. 15 %, 12 % and 7 % were neutral, disagree and strongly disagree respectively. Hence we can extort from this that the Procedural Justice results to ethical and moral conduct of procedures.
Q. 12. The Distributive Justice helps to analyze the compensation with respect to the work and thus leads to satisfaction which enhances performance.
The graph shows that 23 % of the population give their views by strongly agrees with the information that the Distributive Justice helps to analyze the compensation with respect to the work and thus leads to satisfaction which enhances performance however 55 % agrees on the fact. 8 %, 9 % and 5 % were neutral, disagree and strongly disagree respectively. Hence we can extort from this that the Distributive Justice helps to analyze the compensation with respect to the work.
Q. 13. Organizational Justice results to the maintenance of dignity and respect of the employees which creates a better work culture environment within the organization.
The graph shows that 33 % of the population give their views by strongly agrees with the information that the Organizational Justice results to the maintenance of dignity and respect of the employees which creates a better work culture environment within the organization however 46 % agrees on the fact. 9 %, 8 % and 4 % were neutral, disagree and strongly disagree respectively. Hence we can extort from this that the Organizational Justice results to the maintenance of dignity and respect of the employees.
Q. 14. Organizational Justice helps in openness to change within the employees that results effective change management and thus results to performance enhancement.
The graph shows that 24 % of the population give their views by strongly agrees with the information that Organizational Justice helps in openness to change within the employees that results effective change management and thus results to performance enhancement however 47 % agrees on the fact. 18 %, 7 % and 4 % were neutral, disagree and strongly disagree respectively. Hence we can extort from this that the Organizational Justice helps in creating open environment towards change management.
Q. 15. Organizational Justice helps to manage the conflict resolution process within the organization and leads to performance enhancement.
The graph shows that 22 % of the population give their views by strongly agrees with the information that the Organizational Justice helps to manage the conflict resolution process within the organization and leads to performance enhancement however 32 % agrees on the fact. 20 %, 16 % and 10 % were neutral, disagree and strongly disagree respectively.
Chapter: 5 Results & Findings:
The findings of the study suggests that Organizational Justice within the ADNOC effectively contrite towards the organizational performance and productivity. Various stakeholders of ADNOC accept the fact that organizational justice leads to effective employee satisfaction, organizational commitment and the effective organizational performance which leads to high productivity. The result of the study totally supports the literature review and models of organizational justice as discussed previously which helps to compare the theoretical models and practical implementation of the organizational justice within ADNOC. The findings of the study reveals the following facts related with the organizational justice in ADNOC:
Organizational Justice results to employee satisfaction which ultimately enhances organizational productivity.
Organizational helps to manage and enhance the employee and managerial productivity which leads to effective retention of the employee, and decreases the labor turnover and also the need of crisis management.
Organizational Justice results to improving the organizational procedures and operations which enhance the operational efficiency and excellence.
Organizational Justice helps to boost up the team spirit which helps to enhance the efficiency and coordination within the organization leading to enhancement of productivity.
Organizational Justice helps to maintain the transparency and equality within the organization.
Procedural justice helps to operate the business based on moral standards and ethical values which helps to maintain the CSR.
The distributive Justice helps to compare the work and its worth with compensation provided which satisfies the employees.
Organizational Justice helps in openness to change which help to manage the change within the organization and thus able to take the competitive advantage of the global market.
It helps in conflict resolution process to manage and establish the effective work culture environment and organizational culture within the organization.
From the above findings and results, it is clear that models and theories discussed earlier in the project were not only included within the theories but also they practiced on the practical grounds. The Organizational Justice actually contributes a lot to the organizational productivity through employee satisfaction, organizational commitment and the efficient performance.
Chapter: 6 Conclusion and Recommendations:
Organizational Justice acts as the major factor in ensuring effectiveness and fulfillment of organizational goals. The main aim behind conducting such exploratory research study was to evaluate the influential impact of organizational justice on the organizational productivity with emphasizing on the organizational culture and behavior of ADNOC. The organizational culture and the organizational justice are the vital parts of organization behavior. The results of the study show that the organizational justice plays a very vital role in the employee satisfaction and the organizational performance which leads to the enhancement of the productivity of ADNOC. Organizational Justice within ADNOC leads to the employee satisfaction, organizational commitment, effective managerial productivity which leads to effectively manage without going for crisis management. Moreover organizational justice within ADNOC helps to improve the processes which results to effective organizational performance, boots up the team spirit, brings up the transparency within the work which leads to total employee satisfaction and ultimately results to organizational productivity. Within ADNOC, Organizational justice helps in change management and conflict resolution process which helps to take the competitive advantage of the global market. The organizational justice is very important for organizational productivity and is effectively being executed within ADNOC; however some of the recommendations are being suggested to the company so as to enhance the potential contribution of organizational justice towards the productivity. These recommendations are as follows:
The procedures and standards for all the organizational individuals related to the allocation of profit and salaries must be similar for all and the assessment related to the persons should be transparent without any partially or prejudices.
In order to have the fair processes, it should be noted that the process must have the constant effect which helps to maintain constancy among the employees without any biasness and partiality, flexibility, and employee involvement.
The organizational procedures should be based on the moral standards and ethical vision and values and such operations results to development of effective decision making skills among the individuals of the organization.
More attention should be paid on the cooperative management system which results to fulfillment of organizational objective with mutual benefits and coordination.
Employee engagement in the decision making and respecting their dignities within the organization.