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Cross section of individuals to form a task force to advice the senior management team on proposed strategies for making this transition transparent, inclusive and as smooth as possible.
You have been chosen as the leader of this task force. You will be responsible for making a presentation to the entire senior management team on their strategic roles and responsibilities in leading this organizational change. You will also need to help them understand where they are likely to encounter resistance. You recognise that several members of the senior management team are not particularly excited about a task force coming together to advise them on executive decision, particularly a group that is comprised of the line management staff. Some of which might be affected by the final decision. However, the Country director has given you this responsibility and has promised to support you recommendations for the viability of the country office.
What do you consider to be the strengths and weaknesses of bureaucratic organisation? What relevance is it in today organisations?
The mainÂ demeritÂ of bureaucratic organizations includes lack of innovation. All the processes and tasks are so much fixed that the innovation process is almost eliminated in bureaucratic organizations. Employees get de-motivated because of lesserÂ employeeÂ participation and involvement. HR can't be utilized in the fullest mannerÂ by optimizing creativity which is the prime disadvantage in bureaucratic structure of the organizations.Â
Advantages include the increased control and monitoring of upper levelÂ management. TheÂ successÂ of the organizations depends upon the wise decisions of top management. If the top management is good, then results can be favourable and if the top management is not good then it can result in disaster.
These days most of big organisation is private and they are not thought about end user (lower end people) they think about profit. And top management have all right to make decision, who will decide it's a wise decision or not and end result more job are loss every day and end result people are going more and more poor and they not enjoy their life as they suppose to enjoy couple of year earlier.
I like to talk about banks these banks make our financial sector like hell because they have full control and top management had and might have no checks and balance what they want and they think it's good for them to earn bounces they are trying to do and defiantly its create problem to low end mean people who have less money or working on minimum wages.
Compare and contrast different form of organisational change development by producing a brief report with contemporary example from known organisations.
Major Types of Organizational Change
Typically, the phrase "organizational change" is about a significant change in the organization, such as reorganization or adding a major new product or service. This is in contrast to smaller changes, such as adopting a new computer procedure. Organizational change can seem like such a vague phenomena that it is helpful if you can think of change in terms of various dimensions as described below.
Organization-wide Versus Subsystem Change
Examples of organization-wide change might be a major restructuring, collaboration or "rightsizing."
Usually, organizations must undertake organization-wide change to evolve to a different level in their life cycle, for example, going from a highly reactive, entrepreneurial organization to one that has a more stable and planned development. Experts assert that successful organizational change requires a change in culture - cultural change is another example of organization-wide change.
Examples of a change in a subsystem might include addition or removal of a product or service, reorganization of a certain department, or implementation of a new process to deliver products or services.
Transformational Versus Incremental Change
An example of transformational (or radical, fundamental) change might be changing an organization's structure and culture from the traditional top-down, hierarchical structure to a large amount of self-directing teams. Another example might be Business Process Re-engineering, which tries to take apart (at least on paper, at first) the major parts and processes of the organization and then put them back together in a more optimal fashion. Transformational change is sometimes referred to as quantum change.
Examples of incremental change might include continuous improvement as a quality management process or implementation of new computer system to increase efficiencies. Many times, organizations experience incremental change and its leaders do not recognize the change as such.
Remedial Versus Developmental Change
Change can be intended to remedy current situations, for example, to improve the poor performance of a product or the entire organization, reduce burnout in the workplace, help the organization to become much more proactive and less reactive, or address large budget deficits. Remedial projects often seem more focused and urgent because they are addressing a current, major problem. It is often easier to determine the success of these projects because the problem is solved or not.
Change can also be developmental - to make a successful situation even more successful, for example, expand the amount of customers served, or duplicate successful products or services.
Developmental projects can seem more general and vague than remedial, depending on how specific goals are and how important it is for members of the organization to achieve those goals.
Unplanned Versus Planned Change
Unplanned change usually occurs because of a major, sudden surprise to the organization, which causes its members to respond in a highly reactive and disorganized fashion. Unplanned change might occur when the Chief Executive Officer suddenly leaves the organization, significant public relations problems occur, poor product performance quickly results in loss of customers, or other disruptive situations arise.
Note that planned change, even though based on a proactive and well-done plan, often does not occur in a highly organized fashion. Instead, planned change tends to occur in more of a chaotic and disruptive fashion than expected by participants.
The most important issue of M&S is to build upon the company's already existing strengths and try to overcome the threats of the change. One of the major benefits claimed for organizational learning is that it enables organizations to manage change in a timely and effective manner. The organizational learning and individual development movement was largely a response to the need for organizations to seek to sustain competitiveness and survival in a discontinuous environment. Management practice today is still largely driven by a closed systems view that relies on planning, on a consensual, top-down implementation of change interventions. M&S's change requires time and energy for learning new approaches, but it is necessary to develop new skills and capacities. M&S has a long history of change management and HRM excellence, but even for them, resolving their present tensions and changes represent a considerable challenge.
It is a common knowledge that people are resistant to change. Indentify the various stakeholders that are necessary for consideration in the process of introducing change in an organization that is well known to you. What is the impact of each category of stake holder identified?
Multiple stakeholders create multiple groups of internal stakeholders
Upper management: This key group can include many different sub-groups depending on the nature of the organisation involved. Certainly, it must include the people that project managers in each partner organisation report to, the heads of units whose work could be affected by project results and the decision-makers who will be able to approve the adoption of new measures. Some organisations may also be ultimately responsible to supervising bodies in ministries/regional administrations etc. and these groups must also be kept involved.
Project sponsor: Those who provide funding for the project obviously have a keen interest in its progress. The organisation situation is again complex because each project will have multiple providers of funding (including those who provide in-kind contributions). ALSO SUB-PARTNERS + HOW HIGH UP ORGANISATION, NCPs
Other groups in the organisation: The finance unit is the most obvious example but organisations may also need to call on legal, human resources, communication etc. skills. Ensure therefore that such groups are aware of the project, its requirements and the timescales involved.
Team members: if the stake holder also involve in team member of any project it will be more beneficial.
Consultants: Many organisation projects make use of consultants and other external experts.
Project partners: It is essential for the effective implementation of the project that partners communicate regularly and not just at formal partnership meetings/conferences etc.
The external stakeholders can be considered as anyone outside the implementing organisations who could be affected by the project's results. STAKEHOLDER INVOLVEMENT
Moving beyond stakeholder groups
It is not sufficient to identify the relevant groups. Named individuals need to be identified within each group and more than one person may be required for any organisation or department. The selection of these individuals will depend on the role that they are to play in the project and the requirements in terms of knowledge, authority and level of involvement that this creates.
What process or measure should be put in place by an organisation to effectively involve stakeholder and achieve desired result from introducing change?
The Lewis model is too well-known to require formal elaboration here. Recall that the turning point comes through two possible mechanisms. One concerns the marginal physical product of labour in the rural (or agricultural, or informal) sector. As labour leaves this sector, so the ratio of land and natural resources to labour eventually improves sufficiently for the marginal product of labour to rise. The second mechanism is the possible improvement in the terms of trade between agriculture and industry as the supply of marketed food falls or the demand for it rises, or both, causing the value of the marginal product of labour in agriculture to rise.
However, as a description of the development process of currently poor economies, the Lewis model requires several qualifications or amendments.
First, there is unlikely to be clear-cut distinction between the classical and the neo-classical stages, for two reasons: spatial heterogeneity and imperfect labour mobility mean that some areas experience labour scarcity before others; and the supply price of rural labour is more likely to rise gently than to jump sharply, so that the supply curve to the urban sector will curve upwards gradually.
The second qualification is that in many cases it is not possible to equate the agricultural sector with the rural sector or the informal sector, nor industry with urban or formal. Rural industry can be an important source of employment, and the urban informal sector can be an important store of surplus labour.
Thirdly, there can be capital accumulation and technical progress in the rural sector, which raises the average product and hence the supply price of rural labour before the labour outflow itself has its effect on the supply curve.
Fourthly, the formal sector real wage may be determined by non-market forces at a level that is above the market-clearing wage. The efficiency wage, labour turnover, and profit-sharing theories of wages, as well as institutional or bargained wage determination, are all contenders. This wage may either be set independently of the market-determined wage or bear some positive relationship to it.
Fifthly, the development of the urban, or industrial, or formal sector can itself lead to the creation of pressure groups and swing the balance of power towards those in that sector, to the detriment of those remaining outside it. This urban bias in economic policies can harm the rural sector and thus delay its benefiting from the fruits of economic growth (Knight and Lenta, 1980; Knight , Liand Song, 2006).
Sixthly, the growth rate of the urban, or industrial, or formal demand for labour may be inadequate in relation to the growth rate of the labour force. If the difference between the labour force and formal sector employment increases, the economy moves away from the turning point instead of towards it.
Identify the key indicators of change within the organisational design dimension of structure, process and boundaries.
Organizational Design: The process of constructing and adjusting an organization's structure to achieve its goals.
Manager's goal orientation
Formality of structure
Those examples that mentioned in assignment is showing that like country manager, team leader and senior management, line management.
Organization's structure: The linking of departments and jobs within an organization.
Above example country office make a change like 20 member loss their job and also he hire a team leader who is responsible and also promised support the feasibility report to recommend from those person.
Every organisation have different process to reached their target like above example Country Director told you need to chose team leader , need to help him regarding their strategic roles and responsibility, help him to recognise where is resistance will come.
Organizational boundaries are a central phenomenon, yet despite their significance, research is dominated by transaction cost economics and related exchange-efficiency perspectives
Different kind of boundaries like they hire leader and they need to meet the requirement of the company and come over the company for that tragic loss.
Describe any two models that support the organisational design dimension
Setting the Stage - If you have done a thorough job in the "Getting Started" phase, setting the stage for the process to officially begin-in the eyes of the organization-becomes much easier. Here you need to communicate where the organization is headed long-term to all employees.
Communicate widely and prolifically the vision, long-term strategies, competitive climate, and customer needs.
Communicate the values and culture you desire and do so in a way that demonstrates those values.
Design the data-gathering process and declare to all that you will be looking at the organization and how it needs to change.
Discuss the benefits and difficulties involved in the change process.
Establish the initial design and data-gathering teams.
Determine the information you need, who possesses that information, and how the information will be used.
Gathering the Data-Internal Assessment-using a combination of survey and group interview techniques, gather information on the effectiveness of the current organization. Solidify the scope of the data-gathering process-will you gather information from all employees? Data required usually includes but is not limited to the following: core processes and their effectiveness, additional customer data, critical tasks or key activities, work load, roles and responsibilities, decision-making authority, qualitative data on management practices, and internal issues and suggestions for improvement.
Designing the Organizational Transformation-Based on your gap analysis, determine the criteria for success for your design goals. Explore the pros and cons of various models or approaches. (It is at this stage that the consultant's design expertise is especially beneficial).
Several decision points emerge-how far down the management hierarchy should the team "draft" the structure? Should staffing selections at the strategy level be made prior to going any further in the design process? Our experience suggests that filling the senior positions in the new structure and including any new leaders in the remaining design effort is a more effective process. This requires that senior positions be developed more fully prior to moving forward.
After selections are made, providing support for those who may no longer hold a position at the senior level is also essential. (Assessing any potential "fall-out," new resources/people required, or overall impact of the proposed change now becomes a regular part of the process). Remember to communicate where you are in the organizational design process to all employees. Based on the organizational design model chosen, continue to build an organizational chart that describes, in general, the overall structure.
Implement and Evaluate-Job design and talent choices are the most critical part of this stage. How have the jobs in the new organization changed? To what degree have they changed? Are there incumbents who would see the jobs in the new organization as "the same" as the old ones? Critical to effective selection is an accurate assessment of the degree to which positions have changed. More often than not, the current practice for selection is to have employees interview for the new or changed jobs for all positions below senior management. Although this minimizes employee relations issues, this approach may not be the most effective process. Our experience suggests that "placing" people in the new or changed positions has a great deal of merit; to do so usually requires due diligence in assessing employees' experience, skill, knowledge, and potential.
Organizational design, when done well, has a flow. It begins with a general view and gradually tests that view by creating more and more specific descriptions of what will go on in the new organization.
People -Because design changes impact so many people and can make them feel powerless, we encourage you to take great care in managing the design flow. The process must value the contribution of all those impacted. We also caution you that the process is not linear or mechanical. It cannot be forced. It is more like a puzzle. If you know and have all the pieces, careful consideration of each one will help you create a picture that is rewarding to all involved.