Definitions Of Internal Marketing Commerce Essay


This chapter contains a review of literature on the concept of internal marketing in the hotel industry and as well the employees' turnover intention. Through the course of this section the definitions, phases of evolution, objectives and dimensions of the internal marketing practices will be highlighted.

Many authors have been focusing on the term internal marketing. These writers have each brought forward their views and their definitions of the concept. The perspective is that IM turns around employees. The latter is considered as a main source of competitive advantage and as well the most flexible. Further to this statement, IM has showed its capabilities in customer satisfaction and as well the achievement of corporate goals. ''To have satisfied customers, the firm must have satisfied employees'' (George, 1997).

Service organizations which rely on the interaction between its front-line employees and consumers have invested a lot in this ''moment of truth''. Thus the use IM function can be regarded as a crucial component in the success of service organizations. Furthermore through IM, good practices could be sold to employees.

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However, on the other hand, authors like Bansal, Morris, & Basu, (2001) have made calls for research to develop a single clear understanding of internal marketing, a suitable instrument to measure it, and a serious empirical fieldwork to assess its impact.

The dimensions that could be used to understand the research outcome will be outlined as previously cited and will be analyzed at a later stage.

2.1 Definitions of internal marketing

In the early 1970s internal marketing concept has make its appearance in literature in the early Yang, (2010), Rafiq and Ahmed, (2004). Authors Varey and Lewis (2000) support the idea that internal marketing was developed from services marketing. Despite the fact that IM has emerged for almost thirty years, managers have not widely adopted this concept, even the potential advantages are poorly neglected.

In brief, prior studies in the context of possible application of internal marketing may be viewed by the means of four key aspects:

Treatment of employees as internal customers. Berry, (1981) and Green, (1994)

Development of employees' orientation towards internal and external customers Piercy and Morgan, (1991)

Orientation of internal marketing towards human resource management, Hwang, Chi, (2005)

Development of internal exchange, Bak, (1994)

In the second half of the 1990s, marketing experts have formerly paid more attention on internal market, specifically knowing the need to balance internal and external marketing as a prerequisite of successful performance Grönroos, (1990), Janicic, (1990), McDonald and Payne, (1997), Piercy and Morgan, (1991), DoÅ¡en, Prebežac, (2000). A few authors have put forward that successful marketing approach is possible merely if internal and external marketing are implemented into company as a joint and mutually dependent system Caruana, Calleya, (1998).

As per American Marketing Association (AMA), internal marketing is oriented towards company employees and it enables employees to efficiently perform their tasks Kotler, (2000). Internal marketing is actually a border between internal organisation and external markets Gummesson, (2000). Basic activities of internal marketing are internal informing of employees, internal training of employees, creating togetherness, teamwork atmosphere and motivation Jarvi, (2009). Došen and Prebežac (2000) suggest that internal marketing acts as an approach of total management of numerous levels in the company. It works in two manners.

Firstly, employees at all levels including the management are secured. Furthermore, understanding and experiencing company business operations and all activities in the light of the environment that raise the awareness of the importance of customers.

Secondly, it puts forward that all employees are motivated and prepared for customer oriented behaviour. A priori principle of internal marketing is that internal exchange between the groups of its employees and the company and has to function adequately as a prerequisite of successful business activities in the external market.

According to Rafiq and Ahmed (2000), internal marketing is a planned effort used by marketing as an approach to move on organisational resistance to changes. Its purpose is to motivate, organise, inter-functionally co-ordinate and integrate employees towards the efficient integration of corporate and functional strategies through a process of creating customer oriented and motivated staffs to achieve consumer satisfaction. In addition to the previously mentioned, Mornay (2010) holds the same point of view by stating IM is an excellent tool that helps in the effectuation of strategic plans.

2.2 Phases in the development and evolution of the internal marketing concept

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In spite the confusion previously mentioned, an apprehensive review of the literature over the last 20 years shows the existence of three separate yet closely associated filament of theoretical evolution of the IM approach, namely an employee satisfaction phase, a customer orientation phase, and a strategy implementation/change management phase; Mohammed Rafiq, Pervaiz K. Ahmed, (2000).

We discuss the evolution of these phases below.

2.2.1 Phase 1: Employee motivation and satisfaction

Most of the literature on internal marketing during the developmental phase laid emphasis upon the issue of employee motivation and satisfaction according to Rafiq (2000). The point behind this was the fact that the internal marketing concept was deep rooted in the efforts to enhance service quality. Moreover since individuals are not automatons, they display inconsistencies in the performance of service tasks and as a result cause variability in the level of delivered service quality. The issue of ''variability'' centered organizational efforts on getting employees to deliver consistently high quality service. The overall outcome of what has been previously mentioned was to bring ahead the concern of employee motivation and satisfaction. From this beginning, the significance of employee satisfaction as an important framework impacting upon customer satisfaction was considered Mohammed Rafiq, Pervaiz K. Ahmed, (2000).

2.2.1(i) Viewing employees as internal customers

The term internal marketing has been noted to be firstly used by Berry et al. (1976) and later by George (1977) and Thompson et al. (1978) and Murray (1979). In spite of, the term internal marketing was not precisely mentioned by them, the concept was also found in Sasser and Arbeit's (1976) article. Anyhow, it was after the publication of Berry's (1981) article in which he defined internal marketing as "viewing employees as internal customers, viewing jobs as internal products that satisfy the needs and wants of these internal customers while addressing the objectives of the organization" that the concept was popularly discoursed.

Sasser and Arbeit (1976) argued that personnel are the most important market of a service firm. The implementation of marketing techniques in the employees area is also denoted by Sasser and Arbeit by their description of jobs as products and employees as customers: "Viewing their job offerings as products and their employees as customer forces managers to devote the same care to their jobs as they devote to the purchasers of their services" Sasser and Arbeit, (1976).

2.2.1(ii) Focus on employee satisfaction

Centering on employee satisfaction with regards to the new advent of employee management can largely be attributed to the evidence that in the marketing services much of the customers purchasing is labour, or human acts of performance. As a consequence, retaining, motivating and attracting the best of personnel becomes of calumniatory importance Thompson et al. 1978), Sasser and Arbeit, (1976). Further to what have previously, retention, motivation and attraction of high quality personnel is particularly critical in circumstances where the only real differentiating factors between competitors is quality of service. In the hotel industry where customers are highly demanding on employees, this kind of situation is more frequent. On the other hand the employees have high expectation of their jobs as sources of self-actualization and self-development in their working place. With regards to these conditions, it was thought that applying the effect of an IM approach would be to create more satisfied staffs that appreciate clearly the good sense and take advantage of courteous, empathetic behaviours when dealing with clients and thus lead to greater customer satisfaction. According to this logic, the challenge of customer satisfaction and creating satisfied employees has received a driving motivation. Treating employees as customers in the approach of IM concept in achieving customer satisfaction has become a basic tool. Berry and Parasuraman (1991) state in the same manner the following:

"Internal marketing is attracting, developing, motivating and retaining qualified employees through job-products that satisfy their needs. Internal marketing is the philosophy of treating employees as customers . . . and it is the strategy of shaping job-products to fit human needs."

Berry and Parasuraman, (1991)

2.2.1(iii) Employees as customers

However, following the philosophy treating employees as customers that derives much of the logic of the first phase, Rafiq and Ahmed (1993) lay forward a number of potential with the IM approach.

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First of all, not like external marketing situation, the "products" that the employees are selling may be unwanted in fact or of not great utility. Secondly, unlike the external situation, employees are outside chance to have a choice in the "products" that they can choose. Third, due to the contractual nature of employment, employees can, in the final reasoning be "pushed" into accepting the "products" they do not want. Fourthly, the financial cost of having satisfied employees could be taken into consideration. Lastly, the idea of "employee as customer" raises the investigation as to whether the requirements of external consumers have domination over those of staffs.

Similarly, Sasser and Arbeit's (1976) suggestion that the staffs are the most important market of a service company accords power to the employee market and downgrade the external customer to a secondary level. This proposition appears not to be line with the most basic axioms of marketing, namely that the external consumer has primacy. This brings us to the second phase.

2.2.2 Phase 2: Customer orientation

2.2.2(i) Interactive Marketing

Further to the first phase, the second step in the evolution of the IM concept was stipulated by Grönroos (1981) who started with the concern that contact employees in services get involved in what he termed "interactive marketing'' which is important to the responsiveness to customers' requirements. Grönroos recognized that not only do buyer-seller interactions have an influence on purchasing and repeat purchasing decisions but also, critically, that buyer-seller reciprocal action provide a marketing opportunity for the firm. To benefit from these opportunities, sales minded staffs and customer oriented are required. Thus, according to Grönroos (1981), the concept of IM is to motivate and customer conscious employees. In this picture, the employees must be motivated and sales minded point which is shared by Berry and his followers (1976). Moreover, an effective cooperation between front-liners employees and back office employees result into an effective service. Grönroos also highlights the concept of IM as a means of integrating the different activities that are essential to customer contact of service organizations Grönroos, (1981).

The original definition of IM by Grönroos was extended by himself in 1985. He stated that IM is a method of motivating personnel towards customer consciousness and sales mindedness, to include the use of marketing-like activities in this pursuit:

". . . holding that an organization's internal market of personnel can be influenced most effectively and hence motivated to customer-consciousness, market orientation and sales-mindedness by a marketing-like internal approach and by applying marketing-like activities within the organisation".

Grönroos, (1985)

2.2.2(ii) The addition of marketing - like techniques

George (1990) likewise share the same view by evaluating that IM holds that employees "have customer oriented behaviour and are best motivated by an active marketing like approach, where marketing like activities are used within the firm". In addition to the marketing like techniques internally, leads Grönroos closer to that of Berry's (1981) definition. Both sets of approaches promote the use of "marketing-like'' techniques to motivate employees. But, the exceptive difference between Grönroos approach and that of Berry and collaborators is that staffs are not treated as customers, as is the case in the latter conceptualization. Further to this, Grönroos' conceptualization laid emphasis on developing customer oriented staffs through a process of influencing, rather than satisfying and motivating employees per se.

2.2.3 Phase 3: Broadening the internal marketing concept - strategy implementation and change management

2.2.3(i) A vehicle for strategy implementation

A number of authors clearly expressed in the commencement of the third phase the role of IM as a vehicle for strategy implementation. The probable role of IM as a technique in achieving organizational goals by the means of managing employees was brought forward by Winter (1985), being among the earliest authors to state that point. Winter laid emphasis in the role of IM as follows:

"Aligning, educating and motivating employees towards organizational objectives . . . the process through which staff recognize and understand the value of the program and their role in it".

Winter, (1985)

Developing IM as an implementation vehicle in institutional objectives was also supported by the idea that IM had potential as cross functional integration mechanism within the firm. Likewise George (1990) stresses on the fact that IM is a philosophy for managing the organisation's human resources George, (1990). Emphatically this point is expressed by Glassman and McAfee (1992) who put forward the role of IM in personnel functions and integrating marketing to the extent that employees are resources for the marketing function.

In this phase the role of IM is clearer as an implementation tool. Basically, this idea was found in the context of services marketing by Flipo (1986), and Tansuhaj et al, (1987) which was later generalized by Piercy and Morgan (1989) in any type of marketing strategy. Widely speaking, all these approaches arise from the evidence that for strategies to be implemented more effectively then there is the need to overcome inter-functional conflict Flipo, (1986) and there is the requirement as well to attain better internal communication.

Over the years, IM as a mechanism for reducing departmental isolation Martin, (1992), reducing inter-functional friction, and overcoming resistance to change Darling and Taylor, (1989), Rafiq and Ahmed, (1993) was recognised. Considering into account these issues, Rafiq and Ahmed (1993) defined internal marketing as "planned effort to move over institutional resistance to change and to integrate, align, and motivate staffs towards the effective implementation of functional and corporate strategies". This definition supports the idea that any change in strategy is in favour that an IM effort to overcome institutional inertia and to motivate employees towards requisite behaviour. Moreover, cross functional integration are needed since some (including marketing) strategies are likely to span several functional areas.

The previous definition of IM seems capable of handling these issues within the remit of its boundary. In addition, according to this definition less emphasis are placed on the concept of staff as consumer but more on recognizing the central role of employees in the activities and tasks performed by them for implementing effective marketing and other programs to achieve customer satisfaction.

2.4 Objectives of internal marketing

We need to define clearly the objectives of internal marketing and precisely explain its concept. The IM objectives are defined in external and internal market Snoj, Mumel, 1998, Franjic, Å verko (2000).

According to Bašic (2008), there are three basic objectives of internal marketing: the first objective of IM is related to the investments in employees so that they feel they belong to the company, understand the strategic objectives and the vision of the company and also how these will be realised. The second and third objectives are bounded to external market and put forward the investments in customers geared at developing good long-term business relations and reaching competitive advantages, which is the basic evidence for the continuity of the organization in the market struggle. Additional objectives of IM are as follows:

Employee motivation Grönroos, (1991), Hay (1999)

Harmonising employee relations Snoj, (1998)

Maximizing employee efficiency Thomson and Whitwell, (1993)

An increase of employee satisfaction Lings, (1999)

Keeping quality personnel Green, Walls and Schrest, (1994)

The above objectives help to understand the IM concept Berry (1981), Grönroos (2002) as a strategic view of employees as internal customers who apprehend their work tasks as internal products that fulfil the needs of internal and external consumers. They imply directing and educating employees to keep and create customer relations, namely customer-oriented employees and common cooperative effects that produce competitive advantages as the final objective of each company.

2.5 The Internal Marketing Dimensions

Many attempts have been made by researchers in the context of measuring the internal marketing implementation. They have settled different dimensions to measure the concept. In the following diagrams, there is an amalgam of different dimensions, inspired from different authors.

Compete for talent

Offer a vision and provide a purpose to equip employees with skills and knowledge of their roles

Bring people together as a team

Leverage the freedom factor

Nurture achievement through measurements and rewards

Base job design decisions on research

Parasuraman, Zeithaml and Berry (1991)

The establishment of a service culture

The development of a marketing approach to human resource management

The information dissemination among hotel employees

The implementation of a reward and recognition system

Carlzon's (1987)

Figure 1 Figure 2

Figure 3 Figure 4


Staff training

Appraisal and feedback

Customer consciousness

Hogg, Carter and Dunne (1998)

Staff Selection

Internal communications and support for quality improvement

Strategic rewards

Staff climate monitors

Training design and measurement of competency

Ballantyne, Christopher and Payne (1995)

Dissemination of information from all internal groups

Development of competence

Development of incentive and motivation systems.

Varey and Lewis (1999)

Training programs

Performance incentives

Vision for service excellence

Tsai and Tang (2008)

Tsai and Tang (2008)

Figure 5 Figure 6

2.6 Internal Marketing Implementation

One of the primary objectives of this research is to assess internal marketing implementation in a four-star plus hotel in Mauritius. Many studies have considered the definition of internal marketing by Carlzon's (1987) while simultaneously reviewing other authors' views and approach; since that type of marketing meant internally at the firm's employees. These steps are as follows:

The establishment of a service culture

The development of a marketing approach to human resource management

The information dissemination among hotel employees

The implementation of a reward and recognition system

2.6.1 Establishment of a service culture

In a wide array of literature, accent on the role of culture and its influence on organisations have been put forward. To support this thesis, Deal and Kennedy (1982) and Schein (1999) have brought attention to the fact that organizational culture is the practice of shared values and beliefs that gives members of an organization a meaning. In addition to this, the employees are provided with the roles of behaviour in the organization.

Moreover, in these days customer service is playing a fundamental role in every company aiming to improve the quality of its offering. Thus it has been noticed that for IM to be successful, the company culture must be service oriented. According to Kotler (1996), an internal marketing program is an output of a service culture. A culture that assists customer service through actions, policies, procedures and reward systems. To support this statement, a service culture is said to be present when an interest in customers and service orientation are the most significant norms in the organization. With reference to Bowen, (1997), a service culture is condemned to failure if serving the customer is not supported by its organizational culture.

However, Zeithaml and Bitner, (2000) suggest that for a service culture to exist, a good service must be given to both internal and as well to external customers. They characterize a service culture as "a culture where an appreciation for good service exists, and where giving good service to internal as well as ultimate, external customers is considered a natural way of life and one of the most important norms by everyone". Following this explanation, a very important point to be noted in service culture is that, good service is "a way of life" and it comes naturally.

Within this context, a number of researchers Arnett et al, (2002), Ballantyne, (2003), Wasmer & Gordon, (1991) have approved the potential of implementing internal marketing through the development of organizational culture patterns. They suggested that organizations should lay emphasis on hiring, training and motivating employees. This concept is conformed to the nature of hotel establishments where frontline employees represent most of the contact with customers (Wasmer & Gordon, 1991).

The service culture focuses on serving and satisfying the customer. The service culture has to start with top management and flow down. In four Seasons Hotels service culture is drive through employee communications, company policies, and personal actions. This belief at Four Seasons is reinforced for all its employees when those employees who go to extraordinary efforts to satisfy the customer are made Employee of the Year.

A service culture empowers employees to solve customer problems. It is supported by a reward system based on customer satisfaction. Human beings generally do what is rewarded. If an organization wants to deliver a quality product, the organization's culture must support and reward customer need attention.

2.6.2 Development of a marketing approach to human resource management

Further to the statement of Berry, (1981), whose approach was that organizations should view employees as "internal customers", a couple of authors namely, Foreman and Money, (1995) suggested that IM is "merely a synonym for good HRM".

Although that human resource management and internal marketing are two distinctive practices, several authors like for example Carlzon, (1987), Robertson, (1994), Sirakaya, Kerstetter, & Mount, (1999); mentioned that managers must use the principles of marketing in order to attract and retain employees, and develop an understanding of their employees' needs, just as they study the needs of the consumers. In the hotel industry of Mauritius very often job vacancies are advertised on the local news paper and the internet. Besides the management do some market research to attract and to retain the best employees.

According to Susskind et al, (2000), the behaviour and attitudes of employees are critical in the service industry since they frequently determine the quality level of customer service.

It has been noted as well that IM is not restricted to the marketing department but extends itself through the whole organization. Other than the human resource management, every department should ensure that each plan, strategy or change by the hotel should be well understood by the employees. As such it can be said that IM is antecedent to HRM.

Traditionally, motivation of employees has been the area of human resource management, but now it is possible through the means of a broader definition of IM to make use of marketing techniques to motivate employees. On top of motivation, the authors Palmer and Hartley, (1999) put forward that in reality IM should encompass HRM policies, which are "designed to attract, select, train, direct, evaluate and reward personnel".

As a result, a successful internal marketing program requires a close cooperation between human resource management and marketing. A marketing approach to human resources management starts by the selection methods that identify customer-oriented candidates and by hiring the right employees. This practice must be used as part of the hiring process Carlzon, (1987). It was also found that Collins and Payne (1991) have made research with regards to the transfer of marketing thinking to the HRM domain. By laying emphasis on the use of marketing-like technique in the HRM function, employees could buy-in programs. Moreover, using a marketing-like approach to internal customers (employees) will not only give a hand to HRM to develop motivated, customer-conscious and satisfied employees; but it will add lately to the bottom line by reducing employee turnover.

2.6.3 Dissemination of marketing information to employees

In accordance to Johlke & Duhan, (2000) organizations convey information from one entity to another; that is, dissemination of information through the means of communication. As a result, it affects the performance of all the staffs. Information dissemination is as well considered to be an important prerequisite to support employees' attitudes and behaviours with the organization's goals Guest & Conway, (2002). In the context of internal marketing orientation, all employees must be treated as internal customers as per Berry, (1981). In other words, this means that there should be creation of awareness, specifications and also expectations which could be identified through market research.

Thus, hotels should centre attention on the segmentation of employees. In addition the organizations should tailor specific strategies for each segment. Ahmed, Rafiq, & Saad, (2002), Hogg et al., (1998) evoked that the procedures implemented may be examined through staff climate monitors. In relation to what have been mentioned formerly, the following subsections will be the applicability of communication, market research and segmentation to employees.

2.6.3(i) Communication

Most managers and supervisors have realized the need to communicate to their staffs and make them understand about new service strategies implemented by the organisation. Through the means of communication the top management and the middle management can also get their staffs excited about a new concept or idea and likewise make them accept new strategies, tasks and ways of thinking. For example if a new cocktail is launched at the hotel to increase the sales of beverages, it is important that each and every employee from the Bar has knowledge of this new product item.

However, it has been noticed that people do not know how to handle this process. Several authors like for example Piercy and Morgan, (1990), (1991), Piercy, (1995), Rafiq and Ahmed, (1993), Lings (2000) have identified the importance of communication as a motivational device within the IM campaign. Therefore, following the previous statement, communication can be considered as an essential component of an IM program.

An array of techniques and media can be used to communicate to employees. Hereunder is a list of the techniques used in hotels:

Oral briefings


Company newsletters




Computer software

Corporate videos

Videotapes and other audio-visual materials

The implicit authority behind what the manager and supervisor said during face to face presentations to individuals and groups can be more effective than external marketing. As per Townley (1989), face to face communication is regarded as having a greater impact than other communications method. Meetings are conveyed by managers and supervisors on frequent basis in hotels to discuss about organisational issues or upcoming events such as (seminars, wedding, groups and incentives) that will take place in the establishment.

2.6.3(ii) Market Research

To begin with, the hotel's organisation must start by shaping through research possible changes (such as changing the nature of work, introducing computer technology, uses of renewable resources of energy, reducing wastage, delivering superior service and so on) that are required. Research and understanding the employees' needs, just as the needs of customers should be part of the managerial task of hotel Kotler, (1996). Through this process, managers can then use marketing research techniques to segment the employees' market, select the best segments for the firm's benefits. Afterwards marketing mix could be developed to attract these segments. The research findings through this process might suggests the need for actions by the management. It is very important that research is undertaken on a continuous basis as it brings support in monitoring the situation in the hotel.

2.6.4 Implementation of a reward and recognition system

The implementation of a proper reward and recognition system is among the fundamental dimensions of internal marketing in an organization. If companies want to have customer-oriented employees, the staff should be rewarded for the service that has been provided to the customer.

Freedman and Montanari, (1980) and Huseman and Hatfield (1990) assert that a rewarding and recognition structure can result to an organizational effectiveness and employees' behaviour. This idea is supported by Guest and Conway (2002), who suggested that a psychological contract exists between managers and employees. Promises and commitments are made to employees. They will receive certain rewards for displaying appropriate behaviours. Allan & Tyler, (1988), Desatnick & Detzel, (1993) claimed that fair and effective procedures coupled with the proper execution of such procedures provide a guarantee of rewards that would promote exceptional employee cooperation and customer-service performance.

An internal marketing programme encompasses service standards and methods of measuring how well the organization is meeting these standards. Kotler, (1996) stated that the results of any service measurement should be committed to employees. In so doing, the organization must provide feedback to the employees about their performance through a performance measurement system.

A few hotel organizations use and implement the followings as part of their reward system:

Recognition program


Cash bonuses


Employees can also be encouraged to work together across the performance measurement and reward systems. Moreover, they could be rewarded to work in teams and to improve as well team performance. This will in turn result in a reduction in interdepartmental conflicts.

2.6.5 Employee Turnover

Customarily, turnover can be classified into two types: voluntary and involuntary. The organisational factors (relationship with the director, better work opportunity, promotion, work challenge, salary, and so on) are considered to be the main reasons for voluntary turnover. In addition to these organisational factors, individual factors like health, retirement, physical move, further study, and so on lead to voluntary turnover. On the other hand, involuntary turnover means to be separated or fired Price (1977), Wanous, (1979).

In order to better understand voluntary turnover, it can be categorised into functional turnover and dysfunctional turnover. It is meant by functional turnover (low performance) that the organisation appraises the employee negatively. In other words, the wish of the establishment is that the employee would abdicate, and the employee as well desires is to abdicate. By maintaining employees like this in the hotel will threaten the organization's benefits.

On the contrary, when the organisation appraises positively the employees, wishing to keep these employees, but due to some factors the employees want to abdicate is known as dysfunctional turnover (high performance). According to Huang (2001), Dalton, Todor, & Krackhardt, (1982), these employees leaving the establishment will harm the organization's benefits. To sustain the afore mentioned statement, Dalton et al. also thought that the organization must attach importance to the dysfunctional voluntary turnover, but not the whole of voluntary turnover.

2.6.6 Intention

Intention means to do special thing or action with a special attitude, or with means, purpose, or plan in the individual's heart. "If dissatisfaction sets in, the next phase is the thought of turnover appearing in employees' heart, and it also is the last phase before turnover practice. It is the employees' total performance of work dissatisfaction, thought of turnover, intention to find another job and the feasibility to find other job" Mobley (1977), Mobley, Horner, & Hollingsworth (1978).

Watson Wyatt Worldwide conducted a worldwide investigation 2007/2008 with respect to employees' turnover. The study revealed that 48% of employees abdicate due to dissatisfaction with the management system and lack of the opportunities for promotion; 44% of the employees abdicate for lack of enough skill training, 58% of employees give up due to a dissatisfying salary; 37% of employees abdicate for welfare; 24% of employees abdicate due to the working environment; and 23% of employees abdicate for conflict with directors or colleagues.

To sum up the above opinions, as per the authors, turnover can be considered as a process. The behaviour behind leaving an organization, or leaving a particular working field is considered as turnover, whether it is voluntary or involuntary. The intention itself is the psychology or thought process before generating the turnover behaviour. So, as per the author's belief, turnover intention can be considered as an idea or a thought. Whatever the circumstances, when an employee has the slightest thought of leaving his current service field, it is considered as turnover intention.

This study will focus on voluntary turnover more precisely dysfunctional turnover instead of involuntary turnover.