Defining The Traces Of Organisational Behavior Commerce Essay

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Organisational behaviour is defined to traces its origins to the late 1940's when researchers in psychology, sociology, political science, economics, and other social science sought to develop a comprehensive body of organisational research (Greiner,1979). Whereas according to George and Jones (1996), " Organisational Behaviour is the study of the many factors that have an impact on how individual and groups respond to and act in organizations and how organization manage their environments".

This report shows the formation of group, behaviour of an individual in that group, advantages and disadvantages of individual in an group and stages of formation of the group, The factors like motivation, peer pressure, intra conflict, group norms which are psychological rewarding as well as potential demanding for an individual while working in a group with certain examples from journal and self examples.


Definition of group: Groups are described in many ways such as any number of people who interact with one another, who psychologically aware of one another and who perceive themselves in group (Schein, 1988).Whereas work group, is a part of group which is described as a collection of people who share their work in form of interaction, ability to act in a unitary manner, in group consciousness etc. (Schein, 1988). Apart from group, team work is almost similar to group activities, According Crainer (1998), "Team occur when a number of people have a common goal and recognize that their, personal success is dependent on the success of others". There are some differences in group and teamwork based on size, selection, leadership, perception, style, and spirit.

Advantages of group for individual:

There are certain advantages for an individual in the group which can psychological rewarding as well as potentially demanding for an individual like if we consider task performance where task given to every individual to performed with efficiently and properly while generating new ideas creative solutions to complex problem, superiority for purposes of liaison and co-ordination, greater suitability as vehicles for change, and to enable the socialization and training of new members (Chell, 1993). To suppose this point there is a personal experience as I was working as an employee for 'Reliance' company. My group work was related to marketing a product. The task was given by the top management to the entire group. Where I maintained good relations, shared collective ideas, guided by manager which helped me to achieve the task and the work was performed efficiently. My work was appreciated by top management teams in our organisation which motivated me to perform more efficiently it were like an psychological rewarding for performing the task. later on I was promoted to higher level of post.

Disadvantages of group for Individual:

This is like a bad phase of an individual in the group. There are certain things related o disadvantages like conflicts between with members, , burden of work, disagreement made delay decisions caused hard feeling, group is dominated by one or two group members while discussion making, if ideas are not noted down properly then it may be forgotten. It there no good relation with leader then individual might have to face lots of work burden. After completion of the work the individual would not be rewarded psychological or any other way. Rather than facing a criticisms which can affect the behaviour of an individual.

Reason behind Joining the Group by an individual:

The reason behind joining the group is to achieve the psychological rewards as well as potential demand from the employees or other top managers in the organisation. There is a simple explanation that according to Myers (1994) "where strong proof on the basis that men and women seek to join others as a natural part of life and that they enjoy the socializing effect of being with other human being". According to Katzenbach and Smith (1993) declares that "A team is a small number of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose, performance goals, and approach for which they hold themselves accountable". Whereas According to Heller (1997) "Working in groups is an excellent way of building the effective interpersonal relationships that organisations need. The basic reason behind joining the group for an individual is security, task achievement, social needs and power. Security means an employee's when they come together with stronger feeling and more confident whereas collective bargaining with employers can indicate the uneven relationship between employer and employee for e.g. In a group there is a group leader and a employ where ideas are collected together but the differences are needed to be maintained. Whereas in task achievement, without group certain tasks cannot be performed where collective ability and skills are more efficient then the individual performance for quality of output. Social need means and addition in a group give individual status and self belief whereas social relationship also helps to improve communications and also leading to increased job satisfaction. Last but not the least is the power where the pressure of negotiation can be used more successfully if there are large numbers of members in group who support actively (Mullins, 1996).

Types of groups:

There are two types of groups which are formal and informal group where as formal group is defines as a planned system of cooperative effort in which each participant has a recognized role to play and duties or tasks to perform (Katz, 1965). It is classification into number of levels that differentiate the bench worker from the skilled mechanic, from top to bottom of the department and so on. These level are well defined and also the formal orders, instructions and compensations are informed to them (Hussein, 1989). It also include systems, policies, rules and regulations that express what the relations of one person to another are supposed to be in order effectively to achieve the task of technical production (Roethlisberger and Dickson, 1941). The formal organisation includes the In contrast to that Informal group is defined, According to Palazzolo (1981), "a collection of individual whose common work experience result in the development of a system of interpersonal relations beyond those expected of them by values of their employment". Such type of group is characterized by friendliness and common interest where as group goals which are not required for the efficient performance of their expected work activity. It is also a flow of functioning in setting s outside the working environment. This may also develop relationships of a primary nature which relationships last longer than their common work experience (Hussein, 1989). For e.g. In formal group, when I was working as a employed of a company where our selected group or team use to follow rules and regulation like communicate should be done strictly related to work, not to behave in causal way etc. whereas if I had any problem related my work then I use to directly communicate to the my group leader rather than other employees. Due to which that work was based as an individual work from which I usually not find it correct the ideas I followed. Whereas an example of an informal group, during an event organisation held in our university named 'Spectrum- The Ray of Light', I was a member of that event group where if I had any problem related to our work I use to get help from every end rather which motivated me a lot to put extra efforts to do my work more efficiently. And which also helped me to gain the knowledge from other members of the group. It also made me to become socialized between the people and I also developed my communication skills, there was better understanding, and behaved in very friendly way so that if there is any problem can be discussed with everyone. So according to my personal experience informal groups are better than formal groups. Apart from that there are also negatives of informal groups. Sometimes informal groups is also rewarding for an individual like if an individual is having a good relation with top manager in the group can help him to get promoted, or increase in higher salary etc. which is an potential demanding for an individual in group.

Stages of Group Development:

Under this section describes some general stages through which groups evolve and points out the sequential development process involved such as forming, storming, norming, performing and adjourning (Bettenhausen, 1991).which are explained by Tuckman (1965) the initial stage of group starts with forming which means coming together and begins to form its own working relationships For e.g. when the group if formed the members of the group has to maintain good communication relation with other members in the group which helps them to achieve the goal efficiently. After forming there is second stage which is storming which means various members in the groups work together to settle any disagreements and set priorities for e.g. where he/she has to achieve some importance in a group while maintaining relationship with other members in a group rather than creating the conflicts. The next stage is norming which is characterized by co-operation and collaboration for e.g. members of the group coming together and try to sort out the problem by suggestion of idea from different members in the group and also to maintain good relation with the members. After norming , performing where the group is fully functional for e.g. the structure of the group is set and the roles, efforts , energies and commitment on performing which is accepted. The final stage is adjourning stage involves the termination of group activities. After researching through stages it plays an important role in individual of group where it is psychological rewarding such as developing good communication, forming relation with members and developing the knowledge of thinking.

Behaviour of an individual in a group:

B=f (P, E), Behaviour is a function of interaction between person (p) and environmental factors (E) (Lewin, 1951). This theory's propose indicate that individual behaviour should be examined both from the organisational perspective as wee as from the individuals perspective. There are variable affecting the behaviour of an individual in a group or organisation personality, perception, values, abilities for innate factors. The other factor that is environmental factors which include organisation factor, family, peer-group pressures and personal life experiences. To support this theory there is good example the show called Big Brother where ten to twelve contestants share a house over several week and their behaviour is observed through a battery of hidden cameras. Where every week they were give a task to be performed and if it is not fulfilled then there was an elimination factor at end of that week. From which the behaviour of individual is tested physical as well mentally. And if the work performed by any member of the house there were rewarded with various incentives like chocolate, to phone at their real house which motivate them more to perform their work more efficiently which is psychological rewarding for members of the house. There are two main methods of analyzing the behaviour of individual in group situations are sociometry and interaction analysis.

The Key Aspects that working in a group can be both psychologically awarding as well as demanding for the individual:

Motivation: It is defined by Mitchell (1982), there are some characteristics from which one that underlie the definition of motivation which are as follows,

"Motivation as an individual phenomenon where every person is unique and the major theories of motivation allow for this uniqueness to be demonstrated in one way or another".

There are also certain theories of motivation like Maslow's hierarchy, Alderfer's modified need hierarchy model, Herzberg's two factor theory which plays an important role for motivating the individual in the group.

Maslow's hierarchy theory which indicate that stages which is for the development of individual and motivation like physiological needs, safety needs, social needs, esteem needs and self-actualization need. Where if we consider any individual then he has to first go through the physiological needs where needs a good pay, better working conditions etc. where as in safety level an individual thinks for job security, safe working conditions and company's benefit. As on in social need good communication with the members in the group. And In esteem needs where individual thinks for a job title, promotion, wants importance from other employees etc. In last the self-actualization needs which is equal to highest post in an organisation like leader where individual has to face challenging job, creativity of ideas, achievement in work. As per myself experience at my work place most of the individual are satisfied with their physiological need and safety needs. Where there are certain people who show their ability to achieve self- actualization as in to become the leader. Using the above theory if an employee operating at the self-actualization level and fails to receive a challenging job which will affect the capabilities that employee's has and also would be demotivated. If we see success among Chinese and Indian community is considered mainly through their support and family or community. Whereas Chinese will usually look for monetary rewards like bonus, incentives etc then only they will give their if family needs are satisfied. Whereas Indians on other hand will be loyal towards any organisation or group that caters for their own personal well being (Ahmad, 2001). After comparing this two example it shows psychological rewarding for the employees which in turn potentially demanding for the group which a success achieved by employee which helping the other members in the group.

Group Norms:

Sherif (1936) defined norms as the "customs, traditions, rules, values, fashions, and any other criteria of conduct which are standardised as a consequence of contact with individuals". There are certain informal rules that group have adopted to regulate and regularize member's behaviour through norms (Feldman, 1984). Norms are vital social-psychological as well as organisational concept that is presented in most discussion of work group behavoiur and organisational effectiveness (Gary, McMahan 1991). Group norms are of two types like formal and informal. Where in formal group norms there is standard should be maintained like written policies, operating procedures, operating manuals, blueprints, safety notices and similar materials (Cole, 2005) For e.g. In a recent case in sporting world, the Captain of England Rugby team sacked by the Rugby football union senior management for making some ill-advised public criticism of their behaviour. After that another team captain was sought but team was so united behind the former captain none was prepared either to accept the captaincy or any other captain. So it is important to recognize that, even when arising from official sources, all norms are interim measures for securing the human resources of the organisation in the attainment of organisation al goals. Whereas for informal norms which not standardized such as decoration of an office plants or gathering of group member at lunch times (Cole, 2005). Like from this we can say that the performance of a individual matters a lot which comes in a form of psychological reward for an England captain by the other team members but not supporting the management. It is also potential demanding for the team as the performance of the captain.

Intra Group Conflict: Conflict is work a group is expected from time to time, especially if there is pressure to perform the work within the group. Whereas intra group conflict occurs when members of the same group fall out for e.g. where two different employees in a group have different point of view towards the same job given to them (Ellis and Dick, 2000). Intra group is allows cited as a important source of stress for an individual at work (Quick and Quick, 1984). This is basically affected to individual's work as per my personal experience where I was a member of a group and my co-member had a conflict with leader in our group. Due to which it affected his motivation factor, lots of stress related to work. Whenever he suggests some idea related to problem were never took into consideration by our leader of the group. Due to which it he was never psychological rewarded in group and where as his ideas were never potentially demanding would never be taken into count by the leader. Because he is one who at last select the idea which is right for the organisation.

Peer Pressure:

When someone comes up and offers you one of ant substances and then it's our decision whether individual wants to try or continue to use these substance then he or she should be prepared to make these decision and making good decision individual should be educated on that topic. For e.g.