Mostly organization structures define the framework to get jobs done properly, but the ways in which people behave in their roles, the processes of exercising power and authority, acting politically and inevitably. This assignment clearly defines three aspects of organization that is; power, politics and control. Power is a quality of a person or group and politics and control are the methods, but three of them are closely related to each other. The roles of three of them define separately.
According to John R.Schermerhorn et al (2008) power is define as "the capability to get someone to do something you want to be done or the talent to make things happen in the way you want them to. The real meaning of power is control over the behaviour of others. Without a direct or indirect link it is not possible to alert the behaviour of others".
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Max Weber (1948), define power as "the possibility that one actor within a social relationship will be in a position to carry out his own will despite resistance".
Jay (1967) commented that 'power lies in the acceptance of your authority by others- their knowledge that if they try to resists you, they will fail and you will succeed'.
French and Raven (1959) talk about 'power is the capacity to impress the supremacy of one's goals or values on others.
Since power is a very obvious concept, different people use the word power in different ways. Although some book use the words 'power' and 'authority' the same but they are not the same. According to Weber (1947) "authority is a special type of power that exist when a specific position or role is endowed with the right to make decisions or command the actions of other people. Unlike some other types of power, it is not a property or quality of a person, but this is hand over from above".. According to Katz and Kahn (1978) "authority comes with a position a person holds in the organization, and its use is usually consider as legitimate by those over whom it is exercised". Oxford English Dictionary defines authority as "the power or right to enforce respect". It is the process of exercise to influence on others in order to get jobs done properly. "Organizations do include frequently taking place which help to form their members performance (Child 1988), and one of these features is the use of authority". Finally organizations exist to get things done, and this will engage exercising authority, although that may take place in the form of management by agreement rather than management by control.
Bases or sources of power
To further understand more about power and its use so for that we have to understand that why some people or groups have more power than other people. Power mostly comes from several sources at the same time, some of which are founded within an individual or groups some arise from the nature of an organization and others may be more an sign of specific condition or situation. There are two type sources of power they are position power and personal power. Both of these powers are further divided in different parts.
One important source of power available to a manager stalk only from his/her position in the organization. Specifically, position power related with a position. Position power is further divided into four aspects of position power; they are legitimate, reward, coercive and information power.
Legitimate power comes where someone occupies an organizational role that holds the authority to make decisions or command the actions of others. For e.g. the manager have the official power to grant or reject such employee requests as jobs transfers, finish someone holidays without any reason by using his power or do not allow any employee to work more rather than his/her contracted hours. Legitimate power is a unusual kind of power which mostly managers occupy because of the position he/she holds in the organization.
It is the level to which manager can use extrinsic and basic rewards to control other people. Examples of such rewards include raises the pay, give promotions etc on their good performances. This kind of power can also be founded on punishment instead of reward, for e.g. a manager may threaten to refuse to give a pay raise or transfer of some employee, or even suggest terminating the job of the employee whose performance is not that good as expected by the manager. Research has proved that reward power often guide to increase job performance as employees see a strong performance reward possibility.
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Coercive power is the opposite of reward power. It is the level to which a manager can reject needed rewards or order punishments to control other peoples. Example of coercive power in organizations include the ability to finish the job of someone, devalue people, transfer someone from one position to another position where they don't like to go.
Information power is the access to and or the control of information of the organization. It is one of the most important parts of legal power. The right to know and use information can be, and is frequently give to a position holder. For e.g. the manager of the organization not only keep the information of the documents of the organization but also keep himself aware from everything happening in the organization.
Personal power exists in the individual and is independent of that individual's position. There are two bases of personal power they are expert, and referent power.
Expert power is the ability to control another person's behaviour through the possession of knowledge and experience which some individual have in his/her personality while other people don't have. For example employees obeys their manager or a supervisor possessing expert power because they think that their manager or supervisor understand more better than them about the problems or documentation in the organization because of their knowledge and experience which they have, they know easily what is to be done or how it is to be done to handle things, another example of expert power I would like to give of the class teacher who teach a particular subject so in that subject he/she have a lot of knowledge so because of that extra knowledge that teacher is very expert in that subject, that teacher have more knowledge and experience than his/her students in the class
Referent power is describe as a an individual with a strong personal quality, and that quality make that person a source of reference or model for others. Here I would like to give the example of celebrities (actors, players) etc, most of the advertising companies like celebrities to recommend their products. When celebrities do advertisement of any product so that product sells too much in the market, the companies use celebrities as a reference to sell their product.
Mostly in every organization, the organizational politics hinders the goals of the managers in putting the concepts into practice. Organizational politics is a continuous concept in every organization. Most of the concepts of management and the organizational behaviour become non-practical because of the organizational politics. Organizational politics are mostly the result of differences and conflict between individual goals of one group and another group within an organization. Organizational politics is not limited to a group of employees or at any level in the organizational management. Almost employees as well as the management act politically to set their individual goals.
Pfeffer (1981) define organizational politics "as actions undertaken to get, improve and use power to achieve preferred result in situations having dissensus on choices".
Stephen P. Robbins organizational politics as "any behaviour by any organizational individual that is self serving. The behaviour makes no reference to the goals or interests of the organization. When individuals act to improve their own position, despite of costs to the organization or to others, they are acting politically. Organizational politics exists wherever people work together".
Factors which give rise to political behaviour
Some of the Individual plays very important role in the promotion of political activity. There are some people in every field of life who have some special quality in their personality, who can play the role of Politician, and achieve a desire goal because of their political nature; because of that quality they succeeded every field of life. For e.g. "Machiavellians like to exercise slight control over others, are expert at manipulating them and are more strongly organize to use politics" (Gemmil and Heiser 1972). "People with an severe personality often like high risk situations and are sometime willing politicians who are quite irresponsible in their use of political tactics" (Ferris et al).
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The personal attributes indicates the individual as the major people that uses politics in an organization and such eliminates the situational factor which brings provisions for a tactics in the political system. Such situational factor are properly kept in the work of Miles (1980) and Robins (1998), and are as follows
In mostly organization there are some goals which are not clear to the people working there. These goals kept ambiguous nobody know that what are the goal which is obviously not clear. But the organization expected to achieve these goals, so this ambiguous situation gets the shape of politics in the organization.
It means limited resources sometime in the organization resources (rewards, promotions) are distributed among the people. Some people get these resources while some don't get anything so that creates a win and lose situation , so those people who don't get anything they trying their best to get something for that reason they start political tactics to achieve those resources.
Technology and environment
Whenever there are some changes comes in the innovation or anything else so that is totally new situation in the organization there is always resistance with every change, People are not ready to accept the changes which is on its way because they have no idea how to deal with new technology or a change, that change even get the cause of job loses. So That change creates uncertainty and the environment is totally disturb at that time, to stop that change in the organization employee start political tactics to stop the change.
It means that if a person working in an organization in different position and his/her role is not clear and he/she is very anxious about his position as that is not clear, this make him/her confuse that what is his/her position in the organization.
Tactics of politics
Some writers have tried to register political tactics, a challenging task because it is very difficult to observe politics at work. However using the writing of Pfeffer (1981) and Mintzberg (1983), a list of tactics explains as follows.
Control of information
Dominate information flows
Use of outside expert
Control of agendas
Control of decision parameters
One of the most important functions of management is control. To achieve goals and objectives it is important to manage an organizational activities and that makes control an important process in any organization. Control is the process through which managers assure that authentic performance conform to planned activities. Control checked current performance against set values contained in the plans, with view to ensure sufficient improvement and acceptable performance. According to George R. Terry "control is determine what is being accomplished, that is assess the performance and if necessary, applying corrective methods so that the performance takes place according to policy".
The purpose of organizational control
Organizations came into being to get their target and it needs human activity in an enterprise. Therefore the aim of control is to manage various organizational activities to accomplish the targets for the entire organization. On the basis of those grounds, normally control is applied at all organizational levels. All the organization needs to be controlled to make sure that it adopts a proper attitude, its environment and, at lower levels, control is used to analyse the activities of teams and individuals to make sure that they play a positive role in their process.
The managerial perspective on control
Managerial perspective on control means that in organization managers have the authority to control the behaviours of others which is their legal right, some of the writers and theorists agree with this. Henri Fayol (1916) defines five important functions of management they are, planning, organizing, command, coordination and control. But many managers talk about control that it is the most important function in all these functions of management process for the achieving of goals and objectives. These are the feelings of most managers even this view is also reflected in a number of books, even Barney and Griffin (1992) wrote about control as a legitimate right of management.
The open system perspective
Open perspective neither criticize nor support control, but view that big organization has no choice rather than this to operate control mechanism which will give benefit to organization in the following fields they are
Economic efficiency and the best use of their limited source.
Certainty, solidity and consistency and even the people in the organization would know about their work, which will avoid uncertainty in the workplace.
The political perspective
Political perspective is extremely important since last two decades and a number of writers such as Willmott (1997) explain that in organization control is not just maximizing money. It have strong basics of supremacy and development. This make this easier for managers because managers control the sharing of rewards, which allocate them to achieve submissive behaviour and ease the strong to control and exploiting the weak. For that reason, political perspective on control has a strong focus on social control, in which observance, consistency and compliance are, accomplish through processes that take place between groups and individuals.
Armstrong and Baron define performance management "as a process in which individual and groups work together in order to attain some organization performance. Performance management is a strategy which relay on every action of the organization set in the perspective of human resource policy, culture and communication".
According to the Armstrong and Baran performance management is "a process to establish a culture in which peoples and groups make improvement of business process and improve their own skills and behaviour for the benefit of organization.
It is about to share information and probability. What mangers want from the groups they clear that goals. Similarly individuals and groups communicate about the expectation which the management wants from them and about their jobs. Performance management is the quality to improve the relationship between managers and people, managers and the group and between managers and people of groups etc, its also about planning and measurement. It not only apply on managers but employees, teams as well as the individuals. It is a continuous process, not a one-off event.
Tools of performance management
It is not possible to define all the tools of performance management, but some of them are as follows
Performance appraisal and development
Performance appraisal is one of the most common ways of management. It uses in the organization to evaluate work performance of the people and of the teams. In the appraisal system they checked the employee's qualities like initiative, reliability and behaviour etc, compared with other employees and rated. Recently importance has been given to measure the results of employee performance. Managers made the appraisal of employees regarding their work performance.
Learning and development
Employee development is very important for the development of organizational performance. Which need an understanding of the method and techniques of the organization. In learning and development individuals are encouraged to think that how they want to develop.
In performance management coaching is important tool for learning and development. Coaching improves the skills and knowledge of the individual, which improve his/her job performance. Coaching is recognised as important duty of the line managers, and can prove an important element in personal development plan.
Objectives and performance standards
Objectives or goals are described to be achieved by individuals, groups or the organization in a specific period of time. There are some targets which are given to the organization which they suppose to be achieved by the organization in a certain time, organization do their best to fulfil the target given in the required time.
Measurement is very important process in the improvement of performance. This can give a clear view of the work, it show you what is going wrong or right. It gives way for further success. To measure the performance objective attainment, level of capability, pattern of performance and work outputs are used.
Performance management is frequently related with performance related pay, it is an important element in various performance management schemes because it is said that this encourage people to show good performance to get good reward for that, and people rewarded according to their performances or competence. But on the other hand it is believe that there are some other factors which are more important than performance related pay in motivation, which is personal measurement of performance.
Team working is important part in various organizations, but when team working on long projects so their work is measured according to their performances like their outputs customers services and financial results etc.