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Motivation is the will to work. This comes from the enjoyment of the work itself and from desire to achieve certain goals such as earn more money or achieve promotion.(Parry, p.17).
Work motivation is the willingness to apply one's efforts towards the achievement of the organizations goals, while concurrently an individual need is satisfied.(Currie, 2006, p.167)
Abraham Maslow gives a theory which focuses on individual development and motivation, the basic proposition of Maslow's work is that people are wanting beings; they always desire more and what they want depends on what they already have. He suggests that human needs are arranged in a series of levels- a hierarchy of importance.
Adams equity theory focuses on people's feelings of how fairly they have been treated in comparison with the treatment received by others.
Leadership is a relationship through which one person influences the behaviour and actions of other people.(Mullings, 2001, p.311)
Howard Gardner's writes that "A leader is an individual who significantly affects the thoughts, feelings and/or behaviours of a significant number of individuals."
HRM (Human Resource Management)
HRM is a way of management that links people-related activities to the strategy of a business or organization.
Armstrong defines HRM as 'a strategic and coherent approach to the management of an - the people working there who individually and collectively contribute to the achievement of its goal.'
"Employee engagement is a process by which an organisation increases the intellectual and emotional commitment and contribution of its employees to achieve superior performance."
Tower Perrin is a global professional services firm and they specializes is in employee engagement.
Through their study they confirmed a definition of engagement that involves both emotional and rational factors relating to work and the overall work experience. The emotional factors tie to people's personal satisfaction and the sense of inspiration and affirmation they get from their work and from being part of their organization.
The rational factors, by contrast, generally relate to the relationship between the individual and the broader corporation; for instance, the extent to which employee understands their role, and their units role, relative to company objectives.
Critical Analysis a Hospitality Organization
Last one year i am working in Domino's Pizza. It is widely recognised as the pioneer of pizza delivery concept. It was founded in the United Sates in 1960 by a man called Tom Monaghan. Tom joined forces with his brother and together they opened a pizza delivery store and named it Domino's Pizza. It opened first UK store in Luton in 1985. There are over 570 Domino's Pizza stores in a growing number of towns and cities throughout England, Scotland, Wales and Ireland. They have a lot of success. Behind those successes they have few problems as well which i am facing during my work:
Staff absences increasing working pressure
Lack of career growth
Force to work on holiday
Privilege between staffs
Lack of training procedure
Long hours, fatigue and poor work balance among staffs
Many staff cannot work under pressure
Something that their tasks are too much too handles.
Option for the solution problem
Domino's pizza is a well known company. Firstly management need to focus on their employees to make more profit for organization.
So they can use following options for overcoming issues:
Use different motivation theories for encourage staff to work
Provide the appropriate leader for leading to the staff
Need to employ knowledgeable staff and give them adequate training for procedure
Communicate clear goals and expectations to the staffs
Encourage employees to find a personal fit with the company culture
Support employees in their work and growth
Justification of the options
Motivation is key point to overcome the issues of Domino's. We know motivation theories divided into two broad approaches- content theories and process theories. I am going to propose few motivation theories from those to uses for my selected organization.
Maslow's hierarchy of need's model
Adams Equity theory
Maslow's theory of individual development and motivation provides a useful theory for any organisation. The basic proposition of this theories work is that people are wanting beings, they always desire more and what they want depends on what they already have. He suggests that human needs are arranged in a series of levels - a hierarchy of importance. At the lowest level are physiological needs, then safety needs, love (social) needs, esteem needs and at the highest level, the need for self-actualisation. Those needs are very important for each and every staffs.
John Stacey Adams proposed that an employee's motivation is affected by whether the employee believes that their employment benefits/rewards are at least equal to the amount of the effort that they put into their work.
Adam's categorised employment benefits and rewards as outputs and an employee's work effort as inputs.
The number of hours they work
The work commitment demonstrated by the employee
Flexibility such as undertaking tasks at short notice
The support that the employee has provided to the organisation, colleagues and line managers
Recognition of the employee's contribution
Positive work appraisals
Adam's stated that if an employee believes that their work outputs are not equal or greater than their inputs then the employee will become de-motivated. Adams' theory includes the assertion that when an employee is assessing whether the outputs they receive are fair the employee will often compare their colleague's work inputs and outputs with their own. The comparison will often be made with an employee at a similar level in the organisation to the employee. So managers need to recognise such forms of behaviour as possible consequences of perceived inequity, and to take appropriate action to motivate staffs. Also can use other theories like Herzberg's two-factor theory, expectancy theory, goal theory etc which is appropriate for the Domino's.
Abilities & competences
My selected company can also use Inventory for Work Attitude and Motivation(iWAM) tool which is unique and powerful to measure motivational and attitudinal patterns.
Visible behaviour 10%
The iWAM 90%
Leadership is the second key factor for solving issues of any organization. Domino's can use following theories for improving their leadership area. Like Situational leadership. The Situational Leadership method comes from Kenneth Blanchard and Paul Hersey holds that managers must use different leadership styles depending on the situation. The model allows you to analyze the needs of the situation you're in, and then use the most appropriate leadership style. Depending on employees' competences in their task areas and commitment to their tasks, your leadership style should vary from one person to another. You may even lead the same person one way sometimes and another way at other times. Blanchard and Hersey characterized leadership style in terms of the amount of direction and of support that the leader gives to his or her followers, and so created a simple matrix (figure).
R4 - High Competence, High Commitment - Experienced at the job, and comfortable with their own ability to do it well. May even be more skilled than the leader.
R3 - High Competence, Variable Commitment - Experienced and capable, but may lack the confidence to go it alone, or the motivation to do it well / quickly.
R2 - Some Competence, Low Commitment - May have some relevant skills, but won't be able to do the job without help. The task or the situation may be new to them.
R1 - Low Competence, High Commitment - Generally lacking the specific skills required for the job in hand, but has the confidence and / or motivation to tackle it.
Fig: Hersey-Blanchard's Model of Situational Leadership
Human Resource Management(HRM):
HRM is the third most important part for work against issues in the organization. The efficiency and performance of staff and their commitment to the objectives of the organization are focused by good human relationships at work. So management and staffs need to work together for organization. However, the range and scope of HRM activities considered within the framework of the following headings:
Human resource planning
Recruitment and selection
Pay and employment conditions
Education, Training and development
Employee service, welfare, health and safety.
HR planning is an integral part of the broader process of strategic planning and linked to the development of the organization as a whole. Management will need to determine the desired staffing levels for the various operational activities, for example, the number of cleaning staff to the number of rooms, or the number of waiting staff to the number of covers in the restaurant. Here i am going to talk about four main stages of the HR plan:
An analysis of present staffing resources,
An estimation of likely changes by the target date - this determines the supply forecast,
A forecast of staffing requirements for the target date - this determines the demand forecast, and
Measure to ensure the required staffing resources are available as and when required.
The nature of the hospitality industry and its pattern are such that managers of Domino's are likely to be faced frequently with the need to recruit and select staff. The need is for effective methods and procedures of recruitment and selection. Managers can follow the few steps to choose right person for the right place.
A planned and systematic approach to recruitment and selection
Assess the effectiveness of present policies and design new procedures as necessary, and
Review the method, skills and techniques of staff selection.
For most of the twentieth century the terms and conditions of those working in the hospitality industry were related by wages council orders which set minimum rates of pay, holiday entitlements and conditions relating shift work arrangements. The first is the minimum wage act, 1998. Under this piece of legislation the United Kingdom has, for the first time, statutorily enforceable minimum pay rates for all workers who are 18 or more years of age. Managers may make a lawful deduction from wages where accommodation is provided for
their staff. The second important piece of employment law is the working time regulation introduced to meet UK's obligations under its membership of the European Union. Like the minimum wage provisions, the regulations apply to all workers and not just those to employed under a contract of employment. The regulations, however, allow employees, individually, to agree to work more than the average of 48 hours provided that they do not suffer any detriment if they refuse. The part of the regulations dealing with daily and weekly rest periods do not apply where a worker works split shifts.
Staffs are a crucial but expensive resource and it is important for Domino's to optimise staff contribution to improving performance. A significant factor in the image of the hospitality industry, in the performance and retention of staffs and in levels of productivity is the extent and quality of staff education, training and development. The ultimate purpose of training is to help the Domino's improve its operational effectiveness and its economic and competitive performance, including the ability to cope with future challenges. Closer links between England and other members of the European Union further emphasise the importance of vocational education and training.
Training is necessary to ensure an adequate supply of staffs who are technically and socially competent and capable of career progression. The objective of training is to enhance knowledge and skills, and to develop attitudes. Training also forms a basis for both individual development and management succession including for example, the acceptance and practice of delegation and empowerment, problem-solving and decision-making, team working responsibility for quality standards.
So each new employee at Domino's whether full or part-time, need to give four to five months respectively to be fully train- then employee can gain five stars. Each of the five stars corresponds to a different part of the training. For example make line training, front counter training, hygiene etc. Each star is made up of between three or four modules and in order to pass module two observations have to be passed at 90 percent or above. The first to gain the initial training stars and the second as ongoing training. After few months each hourly pay employee need a performance review. And so on.
So those training focus on:
Increase the confidence, motivation and commitment of staff;
Provide recognition, enhanced responsibility, and the possibility of increased pay and promotion
Give a feeling of personal satisfaction and achievement, and broaden opportunities for career progression and
Help to improve the availability, quality and skills of staff.
Employee engagement is one of the important parts in organization. Management should give opportunity to the employee to meet to give best. Otherwise, If employees are stressed-out, which seems to increasingly be the case in today's workforce, they cannot be engaged. In my studies for my degree in Psychology, I learned over and over again that human beings are only capable of dealing with one extreme emotional reaction at a time-so if that reaction is stress, the energy and focus needed for engagement cannot co-exist in that employee. Thus, engagement drops and productivity suffers. Mainly management can focus on following factors:
involvedTraining, development and career
Performance and appraisal
Equal opportunities and fair treatment
Pay and benefits
Health and safety
The shocking part of the employee engagement challenge is that research indicates that only few percent of employees are actively engaged in their job at any one time in Domino's. This would mean that if you were a football team only few players on the team would be 100% committed to the team's success. It seems to me that the odds of winning a game with only minority players 100% committed to a team's success are pretty slim!
So, leaders can engage employee's heads, hearts and hands by starting apply the following 10 C's:
Connect:Â Leaders must show that they value employees. Employee engagement is a direct reflection of how employees feel about their relationship with the boss.
Career:Â Leaders should provide challenging and meaningful work with opportunities for career advancement. Most people want to do new things in their job. For example, do organizations provide job rotation for their top talent? Are people assigned stretch goals?
Clarity:Â Leaders must communicate a clear vision. Success in life and organizations is, to a great extent, determined by how clear individuals are about their goals and what they really want to achieve. In sum, employees need to understand what the organization's goals are, why they are important, and how the goals can best be attained.
Convey:Â Leaders clarify their expectations about employees and provide feedback on their functioning in the organization.
Congratulate:Â Exceptional leaders give recognition, and they do so a lot; they coach and convey.
Contribute:Â People want to know that their input matters and that they are contributing to the organization's success in a meaningful way. In sum, good leaders help people see and feel how they are contributing to the organization's success and future.
Control:Â Employees value control over the flow and pace of their jobs and leaders can create opportunities for employees to exercise this control. A feeling of "being in on things," and of being given opportunities to participate in decision making often reduces stress; it also creates trust and a culture where people want to take ownership of problems and their solutions.
Collaborate:Â Studies show that, when employees work in teams and have the trust and cooperation of their team members, they outperform individuals and teams which lack good relationships. Great leaders are team builders; they create an environment that fosters trust and collaboration.
Credibility:Â Leaders should strive to maintain a company's reputation and demonstrate high ethical standards.
Confidence:Â Good leaders help create confidence in a company by being exemplars of high ethical and performance standards.
This 10 C's can attach the employee with the upper factors.