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The interview method of collecting data involves presentation of oral-verbal stimuli and replay in terms of oral-verbal responses. This method was used through personal interviews. The researcher also considered the use of telephone interviews which is something that finally did not take place due to researcher cannot monitor respondent's reaction during interview and get enough data to complete the research.
The method of personal interview required the research to ask the interviewee questions generally in a face to face contact. At times the interviewee also asked certain questions and the interviewer responded to these, but usually the interviewer initiated the interview and collected the information.
This sort of interview was in the form of direct personal investigation and the interviewer had to collect the information. In the case of direct personal investigation the interviewer had also to meet people from whom data had to be collected. More specifically, researcher had collected data from Hr manager Mr. Chandresh Patel and Line manager Mrs. Geeta Nalia of Sigma pharmaceutical plc.
126.96.36.199 REASONS FOR USED INTERVIWE METHODS IN RESEARCH PROJECT
This method of collecting information through personal interviews is usually carried out in a structure way. As such we call the interviews as structured interviews. Such interviews involve the use of a set of predetermined questions and of highly standardised techniques of recording. Thus the interviewer in a structured interview follows a rigid procedure laid down, asking questions in a form and order prescribed.
The major advantages of the interview method are:
More information and more depth can be obtained
Interviewer by his own skill can overcome the resistance, if any of the respondents; the interview method can be made to yield an almost perfect sample of the general population.
There is greater flexibility under this method as the opportunity to restructure questions is always there, especially in case of unstructured interviews.
Personal information can be obtained easily under this method.
Observation method can as well be applied to recording verbal answers to various questions.
Samples can be controlled more effectively as there arises no difficulty of the missing returns; non response generally remains very low.
The interviewer can use control which person will answer the questions. This is not possible in mailed questionnaire approach. If so desired, group discussions may also be held.
The interviewer may catch the information off-guard and thus may secure the most spontaneous reaction than would be the case if mailed questionnaires are used.
The language of the interview can be adapted to the ability or educational level of the person interviewed and as such as misinterpretations concerning questions can be avoided.
The interviewer can collect supplementary information about the respondent's personal characteristics and environment which is often of great value in interpreting results. (Kthori, 2008)
3.3.2 QUESTIONNARIES METHOD
The researcher had collected data through questionnaires filled by the employees of the Sigma pharmaceutical plc. The respondents contact details mentioned in Appendix 2.
A questionnaire is a written list of questions in which the answers are recorded by the respondents. In a questionnaire respondents read the questions, interpret what is expected and then write down the answers.
3.3.3 REASONS FOR USED QUESTIONNARIES IN THE RESEARCH PROJECT
In case of a questionnaire, there is no one to explain the meaning of questions to respondents, it is important that the questions are clear and easy to understand. Also the layout of a questionnaire should be such that it is easy to read and pleasant to the eye and the sequence of the questions should be easy to follow. A questionnaire should be developed in an interactive style. This means respondents should feel as if someone is talking to them. In a questionnaire a sensitive question or a question respondents may feel hesitant about answering should be prefaced by an interactive statement explaining the relevance of the question.
Choosing between an interview schedule and a questionnaire
The only difference between an interview schedule and a questionnaire is that in the former it is the interviewer who asks the questions and if necessary, explains them and records the records the respondent's replies on an interview schedule and in the latter replies are recorded by the respondents themselves. This distinction is important in accounting for the respective strength and weakness of the two methods.
The choice between a questionnaire and an interview schedule is important and should be considered thoroughly as the strengths and weakness of the two methods can affect the validity of the finding. (Ranjit Kumar, 2005)
The main attraction of the questionnaires is their unprecedented efficiency in terms of researcher time, researcher effort and financial resources by administering a questionnaire to a group of people; one can collect a huge amount of information in less than an hour and the personal investment required will be a friction of what would have been needed for say, interviewing the same number of people. Furthermore, if the questionnaire is well constructed, processing the data can also be fast and relatively straightforward, especially by using some modern computer software.
Cost-effectiveness is not the only advantage of questionnaires. They are also versatile, which means that they can be used successfully with the variety of topics. As a result the vast majority of research projects in the behavioural and social sciences involve at one stage or another collecting some sort of questionnaire data.
There is low cost even when the universe is large and is widely spread geographically.
It is free from the bias of the interviewer; answers are in respondents' own words.
Respondents have adequate time to give well thought out answers.
Respondents, who are not easily approachable, can also be reached conveniently.
Large samples can be made use of and thus the results can be made more dependable and reliable. (Kothari, 2003)
Although the questionnaires have some serious limitations and some of these have lead certain researchers to claim that questionnaire data are not reliable or valid.
Simplicity and superficiality of answers
Because respondents are left to their devices when filling in self completed questionnaires, the questions need to be sufficient simple and straightforward to be understood by everybody. Thus this method is unsuitable for probing deeply into an issue (Moser & Kalton, 1971) and it result in rather superficial data. The necessary simplicity of the questions is further augmented by the fact that the amount of time respondents are usually willing to spend working on a questionnaire is rather than short which again limits the depth of the investigation.
Unreliable and unmotivated respondents
Most people are not very through in a research sense, and this is all the more true about dealing with questionnaires- an activity which typically they do not enjoy or benefit in any way. Thus the results may greatly from one individual to another, depending on the time and care they choose or are able to give (Hopkins, Stanley & Hopkins, 1990). Respondents are also leave out some questions, either by mistake or because they did not like them and low (1999) presents empirical evidence that respondents also often simply misread. If returning the questionnaires to the survey administrator is left to the respondents, they very often fail to do so, even when they have completed it.
Respondent literacy problems
Questionnaire researcher makes the inherent that the respondents can read and write well. Some respondents have difficulty with reading and the number of those who are uncomfortable with writing is even bigger. It is therefore understandable that for respondents that for respondents with literacy problems, filling in a questionnaire can appear an overwhelming task.
Little or no opportunity to correct the respondents' mistakes
Questionnaires items focus on information which the respondents know best, and therefore the researcher has little opportunity to double check the validity of the answers. Sometimes respondents deviate from the truth intentionally but it is also common that as just mentioned - they simply misunderstand or forgot something or do not remember it correctly. Another fairly common situation is when informants do not know they expect response to a question yet answer it without indicating their lack of knowledge. (Zoltan Doryei, 2003)
3.3.4 TYPES OF QUESTIONNAIRES
Types of questionnaires
Closed-format questions where the respondents must choose from a choice of given answers.
Open-format questions where the respondents are free to answer in their own words and style.
The advantages of closed-format questions are:
It is quicker to answer
They are easy to code
They require no special writing skills from respondent
The disadvantages are:
There is a limited range of possible answers.
It is not possible to qualify answers.
Types of question can be listed as:
Signal answer- yes/no
Multiple answer (e.g. select from a options)
Licker style (e.g. rate the extent to which researcher agrees with a statement: strongly agree undecided, disagree, and strongly disagree).
The advantages of open-format questions are:
Respondents permit freedom of expression
Respondent's can qualify their responses
Bias is eliminated because respondents are free to answer in their own way.
The disadvantages are:
They are more demanding and time consuming for respondents
They are difficult to code
Respondents' answers are open to the researcher's interpretation (Nicholas S. R. Walliman, 2006)
3.4 THE INTERVIEWS CONDUCTED IN COLLABRATION WITH MANAGERS AND EMPLOYEES
In this research I have selected Sigma pharmaceutical company to accomplish my project requirements. My research topic area focuses on employees and management of the company. So I got all information which is connected with my projects by employees and managers. In the interviews there are two managers and five employees who involved doing successful interviews.
I have selected Sigma pharmaceutical plc due to my uncle had preferred me to select this company. My uncle knows the managing director Mr. Bharat shah of this company. This company is located near Watford junction. It is just 10 to 15 minutes walking distance from the Watford junction tube station. First of all my uncle called them by phone and talked about my research project to Mr. Chandresh Patel Hr manager of the company. He had agreed to give all information which I need to complete the project. During the deciding the interview date i got lots of problem because of manager had lack of time. Manger and employees were busy in their work so that they could not reply me even if I called them. But finally I got the interview date and I had gone for the interviews of managers and employees in the company. When I was arrive reception desk of the company then I had told that i have get appointment with Mr. Chandresh Patel. Then i had introduced myself as well as research project to him. I had told to him I need at least two managers' interview. He had called to his colleague Mrs. Geeta Nalia. Finally I acquired their views about my interviews questions by which i become able to complete my interviews.
It was possible for me done interviews with the employees due to some employees are my friends who work in this company. Their names and contact numbers mention in appendix2.
3.4.1 REASONS FOR SELECTED MANAGERS AND EMPLOYEES
My first research interviews have done with the managers of the Sigma pharmaceuticals plc. A manager has ability to keep track of employees' task and performance during their job year. A manager appraises employees according their performance. As result employees get promotion, transfer, demotion and salary increase. Manager evaluates employees' performance and keeps the record of employees. So they have more knowledge about my research area better than employees.
I have given second reference to employees of the organization. This research cannot accomplish without employees' views on appraisals, because manager is appraiser and employees have gone to appraise by managers. Some of employees have appraised in the past because of poor performance. What did they do if employees appraised by manager? How can employees get out from the appraisal to achieve company's goals? So I can get reviews about this research area. Employees who are also important part of my research.
3.5 NUMBER OF QUESTIONS
In this paper I have asked nine questions which same for both managers. On the other hand I asked six same questions to five employees of the Sigma pharmaceuticals plc.
3.5.1 EXPLAINATION OF EACH QUESTIONS INCLUDED IN RESEARCH PROJECT
The Question1 planned to determine appraisal method is adopted by this company. This question is planned to prove the research objective of the project.
The Question 1 intended to get data about managers had given feedback to employees about during the meeting. The research wants to know that number of meeting and purpose of the meeting.
The Question 2 projected for performance planning which is important for the company for achieving its goals. In addition manager knows that how goals fit in the performance planning and managers discuss about company's goals and job descriptions during the meeting. The researcher knows about performance planning fit in the goals.
The Question 3 proposed due to most organization keep track good employees or poor due to their performance during their job. And keep record of the employees' performance on written documents. Managers keep records of employees' performance what is he or she doing during the job. When time comes managers assess the quality of the employee's performance.
The Question 4 Was plan to recognizing good performance is that single most motivation tool managers have at employees' disposal? So result employees can increase in their desired performance. Motivating an employee involves getting that employee to do more of behaviour e.g. coming to work on time, completing the work and less of behaviour e.g. coming late, doing minimum work. Although we do significant changes in the jobs to increase their motivation value is an important long term effort.
The Question 5 planned to get data about pay really motives employees in the company. If employees dissatisfied with their pay when they feel it does not concerned with their efforts, are distributed inequitably and does not reflect responsibilities of the job. No matter how much employees raise salaries as result can't generate motivation and job satisfaction. On the other hand, if employees feel that their pay reflects the quality of the contribution they are making their organization with high talent performers inside and outside the company and recognize the unique contributions that they make. So that pay can be powerful source of true motivation.
The Question 6 indented for managers who counsel a poor performance during one to one meeting. Get the employees to agree that there is a need for a change in quality of performance. Indentify the nature of the problem in the employees' performance. Follow up regularly with the employee to ensure that he or she is reaching the goals which they have set.
The Question 7 demonstrated that the training varies depending on the company and structure of the performance appraisal system. Managers should be posses' knowledge and skills about any effective appraisal as such as, Manager have ability to create and gain agreement on specific, challenging, and measureable goals. So the researcher knows about kind of training present in the organization which necessary for necessary for managers.
The Question 8 planned for most of the factors that influence an individual's effectiveness have been firmly established by the time the person is a member of an organization. The researcher gets key elements from managers in developing staff.
The Question 9 explained on the basis of performance on an analysis of the job, define employee performance dimensions in behavioural terms and support assessments with observable, objective evidence, Keep things simple, monitor and audit for discrimination, manager assess performance accurately and conduct effective appraisal discussions, Provide for upper management review before the appraisal is reviewed with the individual.
My second interview was for the employees of the Sigma pharmaceutical plc. The researcher had included this all questions which mention as below due to its related to the researcher's topic area. The researcher believes that employees are the valuable assets for the organization. The researcher had given full explanations why he selected these questions for the employees as follows.
Question 1 projected for evaluation of employees' performance during the year. The researcher can know about performance evaluation period.
Question2 proposed for getting the opinions from the employees who is best appraiser for them. In most of organization there is different appraiser who appraised the employee's performance. On the basis of this question the researcher can get directly idea about employee's satisfaction towards their performance evaluation.
Question3 drafted because once employees evaluate on their performance, they get the result which is worth for them or not. The researcher knows purpose of performance assessment in the company.
Questions 4 and 5 demonstrate simple questions for employees. If employees get result then are they allow to see result if yes then are they able to do discussion of their results with managers?
Question 6 proposed to get opinion of employees' satisfaction about performance appraisal in the organization. In the organization each and every employees had different reaction about performance appraisal.
Question7 projected to accomplish the researcher's project. The researcher had acquired data in what way company's goals achieved through performance appraisal. Is it helpful to employees?
Question 8 drafted to determine key elements to get out from performance appraisal for employees in the organization.
Managers interviews questions
How many meeting do you have with an employee to talk about performance?
How does goal setting fit in to performance planning?
How do you keep track of employees' performance? Do you record day to day performance or just note exceptional positive and negative events?
What about recognition? Isn't recognition an employee who's done good work an effective motivational tool?
What about pay? Isn't money the only things that really motives?
How do you counsel poor performing employee in your company?
What kind of training does manger need to do a good performance appraisal? Have you had anything?
Which part does the appraisal play in developing staff?
How do you make sure that your performance appraisal is legally defensible?
Respondents contact information
MR. Chandresh Patel, HR manager , Contact no- 07973114407
Mrs. Geeta Nalia Line manager, contact no- 02085374080