E-recruiting although being relatively young in research field , many publications have already been produced, particularly in the last decade. The main aim of the study is to broaden the research on recruitment by assessing source effectiveness based e-recruitment. On base of grounded theory approach this paper presents the systematic review of e-recruiting literature. This paper shows that how method of e-recruitment can simplify the method of recruiting candidate for the available vacant position. Literature provides an overview of Critical analysis of strengths, weaknesses of e-Recruiting research.
The rapid advances in technology have dramatically changed the way business is conducted and this increasing use of and reliance on technology is clearly demonstrated by the number of organizations and individuals who utilize the Internet and electronic mail Organizations have always been concerned with attracting highly talented employees . In order to ease the process of recruitment , companies mostly rely on the electronic human resources (eHR) systems.
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The traditional recruitment methods used by organizations consist of contacting friends or employee referrals, engaging executive search, using newspapers classified ads, and others. Whenever there are changes in company's policy, technology, location, mergers, acquisitions, and employees' resignation, this process continues to take place periodically to add, maintain, or re-adjust their workforce in accordance to the corporate and human resource planning (Tyson and York, 2000). The use of conventional recruitment methods no longer suffices and timely to attract sufficient pool of qualified applicants. Many organizations have turned to adopting sophisticated recruitment strategies or combining various recruitment methods for example, by combining newspaper ads with executive search, or employment agencies, and others for recruitment; but this only adds to the increased of recruitment costs per hire. Traditional recruitment processes are readily acknowledged as being time-consuming with long hiring cycle times, high costs per process and minimal geographical reach (Lee, 2005). In contrast to this, the rapid introduction of the internet into recruitment processes made the communication quick, easy and cheap and its reach is on a local, national and international scale.
The following section will provide an in-depth overview of the growth of e-recruitment in business which will provide a foundation for the research being undertaken in the current study.
E-recruitment, also known within the literature as online recruitment, Internet recruiting or cybercruiting refers to the practice of advertising job vacancies online, and the formal sourcing of information about jobs online. According to Lee(2005) e-recruiting is defined as "practices and activities carried on by the organization that utilizes a variety of electronic means to fill open positions effectively and efficiently".
According to Lee (2005), "company has to go through five stages in the process of e-recruitment for their own corporate web site".
Firstly listing the available jobs on the website and in addition providing the contact information. Second stage includes stage one and ability for candidates to search job on the company's website. Thirdly company sends the candidate information based on criteria that candidate has determined this helps candidate to check for new job postings. In the fourth stage, provides a decision support system for candidates. Finally, , the entire process is streamlined to increase the relationship with the candidate. The idea is to promote a "two-way, long-term relationship between employers and prospective employees".
Internet appeared to have a complementary nature with other recruitment sources as those applicants who utilized the internet to search for job vacancies also used additional search methods deemed more traditional (e.g. responded to media advertisements). Such a recruitment strategy from an applicant perspective is valid in light of the fact that all organizations adopt different advertising strategies and
mediums and may not utilize the internet to advertise vacancies at all. A review of this literature will provide an indication of future areas of research. The review will initially explore the advantages of e-recruitment cited within the literature, followed by an overview of the perceived disadvantages associated with internet recruitment.
Advantages of E-recruiting
The popularity of using an on-line method of advertising jobs in comparison to more traditional means can result to a number of perceived advantages .
The biggest perceived advantage of Internet recruiting is that individuals can quickly and easily access information on a wide range of job opportunities twenty-four hours a day, seven days a week, reducing the need for employees to actively job hunt whilst performing current job duties, thereby minimizing the visibility of the job search (Feldman et al., 2002; Galanaki, 2002; Smith et al., 2004). As indicated in Radcliff's (2000) article on internet recruitment, it is easier for applicant to search for keywords for job vacancies than to search in newspaper and responding to online advertisements quicker and more simplified than submitting hard copy resumes to companies (Radcliff, 2000). "Nowadays, companies can instantaneously generate job vacancies, applications and sesames for the available position in few amount of time" (Galanaki, 2002). This capability is perceived as a major improvement on traditional newspaper advertisements where organizations are required to stick to strict advertising deadlines and for applicants to mail in their response to the advertisement.
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On top of that with help of internet employers are provided with market where they may not be able to reach. By e-recruiting, company can post their job for anyone in world to see. Companies now has the potential to reach a larger audience and most likely a larger pool of talented candidates. In essence recruitment on the Internet is "unconstrained by geography" (Cappelli, 2001).Another advantage cited in the literature on e-recruitment is the reduced costs Associated with Internet advertising compared to print advertising where the size of The advertisement and the publication itself impacts on the cost of posting the Advertisement.
A further advantage identified with advertising online is its utility in attracting the
Interest of perceived high quality people, who are not actively searching for a job,
also known as passive job seekers (Galanaki, 2002; Gutmacher, 2000). This phenomena is closely linked to the concept of online social networking which occurs when individuals subscribe to or receive information about a company's jobs and then either passes this information on to friends or colleagues, or refers a potential candidate directly to the company.
The final key benefit of internet recruitment is the increased capability for organizations to target passive candidates, a crucial recruitment strategy for hard to fill jobs or during labor shortage periods. As with all recruitment sources, there are not only unique advantages related to the medium, but there are also a number of perceived disadvantages unique to the source which warrant discussion to ensure organizations utilize the source appropriately to maximize positive outcomes.
An outline of the common disadvantages related to e-recruitment will now be presented.
Disadvantage of E-recruiting
In reviewing the impact of e-recruitment on the organizational recruitment process number of disadvantages have been identified.
One of the drawback with online recruitment process is employers receive large number of resumes, which makes even it even more difficult to find the most capable ,efficient and qualified candidate. Today as most of the sites lets applicants to email the resumes HR managers are over flooded with resumes to handle this onslaught of resumes companies need a different department to handle it which in a way increases the overall cost for the company. (Starcke, 1996).
Another concern which has been raised in numerous papers are privacy and security issues expressed by candidates regarding the personal details provided in resumes and applications posted via the Internet, and the potential for this information to be used for unethical purposes (Bartram, 2000; Feldman et al., 2002; Galanaki, 2002
Other key issues that have been identified with e-recruitment include difficulties in
posting resumes and applications; poor navigational links within and between sites;
network problems in web searches; difficulties in accessing relevant information
about jobs on web-sites (egg. job descriptions, salary levels, location of job and travel requirements); and lack of follow-up from organizations about the status of the job. Other disadvantages associated with e-recruitment include technological problems, lack of follow-up by organizations, and difficulties for candidates in identifying with the pre- established job classifications used by job boards.
Finally, diversity has been highlighted as both an advantage and disadvantage of e-recruitment. From a negative perspective a digital divide still exists where not everyone can access the internet and demographic characteristics also have the potential to affect e-recruitment usage.
IMPACT OF E-RECRUITING ON HR
According to (Jones and Hell, 2005) HRIS is currently perceived as one of the important factors influencing the role of the HR function, as well as the workplace as a whole. Although in many aspects, technology remains under-utilized in HR functions .Recently its effects have begun to be evident in many organizational aspects such as recruiting, selection, training, promoting, terminating etc. The main reason for this is that by using HRIS, HR professionals can improve their performance by gaining better knowledge of the organization and its employees, thus facilitate participation in strategic planning and implementation. E-recruiting help organization to find the most efficient and qualified candidate and improve the process of hiring and reduce the HR administrative cost.
It is clarified from the research that e-recruiting has played a significant role in the recruitment strategy and practices in wide range of IT companies. In today's competitive market, it is essential for organizations to increase their use of internet for the recruitment purpose or they may under risk of losing capable applicant as internet has become one of the major sob search medium. Internet recruiting process helps organization to manage and calamine their existing process and strategy in order to find the hurdles to attract and recruit the best applicant in best possible manner.
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The literature on the relatively new recruitment source, e-recruitment, has identified a number of perceived advantages and disadvantages associated with this source, however there has been little empirical research undertaken to verify the claims made.
Researchers and practitioners have acknowledged that whilst a larger applicant pool provides the organization with the opportunity to be more selective, and should ultimately result in the identification of the best person for the job, it has been acknowledged within the literature that a negative effect of a large applicant pool are the increased costs in administering the recruitment process, with the possibility that the best candidate can be overlooked (Barber, 1998; Carlson et al., 2002). Given the global reach of the internet and the increased ease with which applicants can apply, it has been proposed that the internet as a recruitment source has led to an increase in application numbers.
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