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Believed by many scholars of management, decision-making is the basis of management and its core, and in many cases, certain of the managers, decision-making is their primary, because they consistently choose to work to be done, and he is doing, where, when and how to do it?; And therefore the rest of the management positions are a result of certain decisions. Given that the adoption of the latter is a selection of the best alternatives available after the analysis and evaluation of results and the values resulting from each alternative, and since the success of any organization depends on the efficiency of their managers in decision-making, the majority of management scientists assert that information is Hjralosas in decision-making, To the extent that accurate and comprehensive, the Court of timing, as far as the decision right and serve the objectives of the organization, and this is what will be discussed and try to knowledge in this chapter, where it was allocated the first section to study the process of managerial decision-making in the organization, and the second section to study the data and information and the relationship between , as well as their contribution to increasing the effectiveness of decision-making process.
The first topic:
the process of managerial decision-making
Will be in this topic an attempt to provide a comprehensive overview of the process of managerial decision-making in a way serving the objectives of the study, from the concept, importance and types of decisions taken, in addition to the stages of decision-making process with an attempt to focus on the decisions of strategic management and the most important factors influencing the decision-making and increase its effectiveness.
The first requirement:
the concept and importance of decision-making process
Sure, when thinkers today that the actions of individuals and their efforts are either a result of thinking or as a result of the unconscious, if the actions of individuals may have occurred after thinking, it was suggested that individuals may have made decisions, and if the behavior (unconscious or merely a reaction to Chaori), it can not talk for taking Resolution, the premise of the latter is "choose" certain conduct after study and reflection. 1 was confirmed by a majority of men thought management that the basis for decision-making is the existence of alternatives 2, its inclusion means the possibility of choice, which requires greater degree of accuracy and objectivity and î ¡ yet aligned self and personal considerations and self-interest, giving the decision taken a sufficient degree of efficiency and effectiveness to achieve the objectives desired.
Has been addressed by several authors decision-making process in the organization by definition, explanation and analysis, we find, for example Alclaldp knows that it "has analysis and assessment of all the variables common subject as a whole to audit and scrutiny so that it is incorporated and subject all of scientific measurement, equations of Scientific Research And scientific theory and quantitative statistical methods to reach a solution basis or further, and finally to the conclusions and recommendations for the development of this solution or solutions in the field of practical application and effect "1.
D either. Sweilem says it "human activity compound starts with a sense of doubt and not sure of the maker Alaqrarhol what must be done about the problem, and ends by choosing one of the solutions that are expected to remove the doubt and uncertainty, and thus help in reaching a solution to the problem at hand." 2 While known Lozi: "decision-making process is the use of scientific methodology and quantitative analysis to select an alternative from several alternatives, provided that the alternative will achieve the most beneficial for individuals and administrative regulations." 3 Was reported by Abdul Ghaffar Hanafi Abdel Salam Abu cranium definition consistent with the views of the majority of authors in this area; The Horde decision-making process is: "the process of selecting one alternative from among alternative potential or more to achieve a goal or set of goals over a certain period in the light of data of both internal and external environment and the resources available to the Organization. " 4 The assumed decision-making process very important in the modern era, especially after it became businesses are many resources and huge equipment, used large sums of money; hauling decisions in business management as a real engine of the activity of organizations, and the starting point towards the achievement of the Millennium And success, prompting the emergence of a school of thought in management named "school decision-making", believe that "decision-making is synonymous with management," says Simon, Herbert (Herbert simon) That: "The decision-making is the heart of management, concepts of anagement theory must be derived from the logic and psychology of human choice"; 1 Decisions are only a series of interlinked, and every major decision (strategic approach of a continuum of decisions to the extent that decisions on a very small , Where is the implementation and achievement of objectives (which is in itself resolutions. What is the administrative body that really only determines the device? And when? And to what extent? Each person taking decisions; and this limit individual freedom in taking decisions according to whim and replaced by a device for making individual decisions interrelated and coordinated. The elements of management activity are only a continuum of decisions; policies are only decisions taken at senior management levels to control the actions of subordinates; it shows what must be done and what may not be done, and procedures are only decisions determine how to implement the various processes step by step, and time schedules are decisions are only the dates for the work, and planning is nothing but a continuum of decisions, and control are only a series of resolutions related to the quantity of the product and Drjpjodth (Auditing Standards), and the timing of achievement ... and so on 2. Based on this, organizations pay the importance of Utmost importance to the communication process in the organization because it ensures the delivery of decisions and information related to the parties concerned, and because the process of good coordination and linkage arbitrator between the system of command at the institution 3 is not only through a good system of information (Le Système Opérant) and the operating system (Pilotage Management.
The second requirement:
the types of administrative decisions
In fact, that the Director and the exercise of its daily work to take many decisions that differ from the situation where the different impact on the organization as a whole; it is making what is simple, including what is complex and sophisticated, awarding holiday satisfactory, for example, or the payment of wages are the decisions that are not established- branch of the institution in another place, for example, or radical changes in the pattern of production; are strategic decisions have a great impact on the sustainability of the institution and the possibility of continuity and its position in the marketSo he tried many interested in this Aamajal classification decisions, according to several criteria; however, known that it could be classified based on the following resolutions:
- Programmed and unprogrammed.
- Organizational and personal.
- The reliability of the information.
- Individual and collective.
- Administrative levels.
First: making programmed and unprogrammed decisions
Intended decisions programmed, "says Abdel-Ghaffar Hanafi Abdel Salam Oboqahv Nek rather than Koontz 1: those decisions pre-planned, which deals with the resolution of recurrent problems or routine Where is the identification of ways, methods and procedures to resolve or deal with any problem in advance, and where does not require effort Great thinking; Examples of identification of a new employee's salary or the granting of leave or send orders to the supplier ... and so on, reflecting, in advance of the special procedures of each case from the reality of regulations in the area of procurement or personnel management or others.
As for the decisions that are programmed are those that take place in a period of time non-recurring or in conditions that are similar; therefore require effort certain level of thinking as well as access to adequate information and may carry additional costs, for example, established a new branch or ask a new product Markets (required market study) or the resolutions of merger or expansion. It is noticeable here is that this kind of decision on the strategic dimension, and the leadership of the organization (senior management) here is responsible for research and analysis and then to take; because this resolution is essentially linked to the future of the organization.
And organizations make a major effort to convert non-programmed decisions are programmed to another, depending on the experience accumulated from the study and adopted and implemented.
And the table (01) illustrates the difference between the decisions programmed and unprogrammed:
Table (01): Comparison between the programmed decisions and unprogrammed decisions
Property making the property non-programmed decision-programmed
Second: regulatory decisions and personal decisions
Regulatory decisions are the decisions taken by the Director under the official position held by, and a reflection of the policy of the Organization and the embodiment of a regulatory nature, in terms of instructions or regulations which are not in this framework, can then authorize (mandate) people to take. The personal decisions that they reflect the personality of the Director and the self-orientation, and management expertise in the field of work; In this case can not be delegated the authority to make these decisions. 1
Third: The decision by the degree or amount of information that are based upon
And is divided into three cases; either if you are sure, or risk situation, or uncertainty. And (as the figure (01 in the case of making sure the decision-maker has sufficient nformation to enable it to predict the expected results for its choices of Among the many alternatives; He therefore seeks to achieve the greatest possible return on them.
Figure (01): Classification of resolution depending on the degrees to make sure
To ensure full
Decision-making in the absence of
To ensure full
Degree of uncirtinti
Make sure not to make sure the entire full
((Source: Muhammad Sweilem, Administration, Dar Al-Hani print, without the year and country of publication, p. 10
In light of the risk, the Director develops alternatives, and calculate the prospects of achieving the expected results of each alternative, using, in many cases, quantitative methods to calculate the possible consequences of each alternative; tree-making and the simplex method, and sensitivity analysis, and others.
In the case of uncertainty, the prospects for the consequences of each alternative is not selected (less specific than risk situation), if there are a number of factors affecting the resolution, and these factors were not similar or had been in limbo too, the decision maker depends on his personal rule
And past experience, in addition to resort to consultation and the report to strengthen the collective ideas and opinions.
Fourth: The making of individual and collective decisions
Individual decisions are decisions that are unique Director taken without the participation or consult with the concerned subject of the resolution, and many authors consider this type method autocratic authoritarian management, but that the reality of the business and what sets it apart from the speed and competition requires the Director, in many cases make individual decisions.
The collective decision is a result of interaction and participation of the views of a certain number of personnel in the organization and this reflects - according to many authors - the spirit of democracy as in business organizations, as well as the development of the collective spirit, and acquisition by individuals rather than to belong to the organization, which reflected positively on the The desired objectives.
Fifth: The decisions by administrative levels
This is a category of the most important classifications circulation specialists, strategic decisions deal with the issues of impact of future long-term organization, which is the linchpin of strategic management tool and senior management in determining the long-term goals, as well as in policy-making institution, in addition to the fundamental choices of the Organization; Kmoukaha and structure, where the production lines as well as the distribution policies and possibilities for expansion and integration .. and others; that is, they focus on the nature of the project Products, processes and markets and consumers, and focus on the distribution of resources in general to these machines, and integration between the departments of the project, and the change in the form of organization, which aims to follow the strategy selected and thus achieve the desired objectives.
The middle management is competent job decisions, which fall into its functional areas; any in production, marketing, finance or human resources. And each is responsible for one of these machines to determine the functional contribution of its field to achieve the overall strategy of the organization and thus take appropriate decisions. 1
The direct management has power in the decisions, operational and serves as the fragmentation of the strategic decisions into several stages of short-term, dominated the nature of progress in implementing the policy of the organization, and repetitive as well, administration operational implement the instructions issued to it by the middle management and by issuing guidance and detailed decisions on how and date and place of execution in so doing, everything related to methods of supervision and control over operations and the distribution of resources available on the main functional activities.
Since the direct management is responsible for the implementation of the processes, decisions are characterized in detail as well as often, there are estimated by experts from the 90% of the total decisions taken in the Organization. 2 The following figure illustrates the division of the former: Figure (02): Classification of decisions by administrative levels
(Lasary, Economie d'entreprise, Imprimerie Essalem, Alger, 2001, p (Source: 74
And notes in all divisions prior to the decision maker regardless of the quality of the decisions taken can not in any way to dispense with an information, the more available in the latter the appropriate conditions will become making more programming, objective and away from the self, which means easy to take and not to waste time in consulting, research and analysis, but a full-time to the important strategic issues, and here highlight the need for effective information systems to serve effective decisions.
The third requirement:
the stages of the administrative decision-making process
The reality of the business reflects that the decisions do not always relate to problems or difficulties is required to find solutions to them; but there are some decisions that fall within the areas of work and the daily routine, and discuss the process of decision-making in business management requires the guidance of several questions and try to find the correct answer by They are: Is there a gap) of difference (between the current situation and the target position?
ï€ Do you realize the meaning of the decision maker and the content of this gap?
ï€Does the decision maker desire and incentive to take action?
ï€Do you have the means to act with this gap?
ï€And shape (03) illustrates the idea earlier:
Figure (03): Pre-determination of decision-making process
The answers to the above questions represent stages throughout the decision-making; the majority of the authors have agreed on: this area as it passes the following stages 1
1. Identify and diagnose the problem (the situation. (
2. Data collection and correct information about the problems.
3. Analysis of the problem (situation. )
4. To find alternatives to resolve the problem.
5. Assessment of alternatives selected.
6. Choose the appropriate solution.
7. The implementation of the resolution and follow-up.
There are the authors of the added, and there is reduced; each according to his view.
First: identify and diagnose the problem
Determinants for the target problem is known in the area of decision-making process as a deviation in advance; or is a state of imbalance between what an object and what should be 1 And in practice we find that the problems of life - in the organization or other - rarely presents itself to be a decision, but the first thing that appears is the component of the problem, any symptoms, not the same problem 2, and may be Symptom on the surface is the least exposure of the roots of the problem. A manager here is required to determine: What kind of problem?, How did the problem?
What are the essential points of it? What is the appropriate time to solve it? Why must find an appropriate solution to it? What are the minor problems that have not resolved in earlier? What are the problems that can result from the delay in resolving this problem?.
This requires the Director of the mind to recognize the problem, diagnosis, diagnose, correct and timely manner so as not to worsen their impact and are transported to other areas, as "the diagnosis is a process for building production and processing of information" 3. It also requires a degree of perception and imagination and recognition of the revelations, and the experience and skill with their role in the discovery of some of the problems even before they appear in the content of the various indicators monitored by periodic management 4. It also requires that the identification of deviation from the Director know the location and the place in which it noted the deviation, and the things or people who touch the deviation and the time of observation, and all this information being able to distinguish sites that affect them the problem for those that do not affect them.
II: data collection and correct information about the problems faced by managers every day many of the problems and situations that require them to take correct decisions and clear towards them, and the most important determinants of success of the decision in reaching the goal is the abundance of information and accuracy on the grounds that the decisions of the Director represent the actions of the future, and the results expected in the future; he says the conduct of the Foundation is conducting its future, the conduct of its future is ": (Kotler & Dubois) Kotler and Dubois Management information "1, and therefore the handling of the problem - specifically, to the implementation - may be far from reality unless the Director accuracy and ensure the collection of accurate data and uncertainty regarding the position to be treated, the more the image is clear, the lower the degree of risk, in addition to the Director the demands of investigating the information from original sources, or at least of the more reliable; If the data and information sources internal obtaining it is usually easy, especially if the facts were reserved and the Code in accordance with the assets of scientific and practical, and do not require great effort to reach it, and that's exactly what provided information systems organization; as they provide the information accuracy and speed regulation is required, making it easier to take the right decision. If the sources of external (third parties or competitors, or official bodies ...), the access being according to the Foundation Relations of Foreign Affairs, and the ability to negotiate as well, and a successful manager is the one who always sought to understand the vicinity of his institution of direct and indirect, and is trying all possible means of understanding the mechanism in Almtoagd market it, and getting ready to fluctuations in the Pacific is located so as not to weaken its position in the positions of the negotiating table.
III: analysis of the problem
Includes analysis of the problem evaluation factors internal environment affecting the activities of the organization to identify the strengths and weaknesses, and then follow up factors of the external environment affecting the activities of the organization, individual, on the overall level and operational to identify opportunities and risks prevailing, and then is selected Size of the gap between the strategic opportunities and risks prevailing in the external environment and strengths and weaknesses of the existing business as a whole and each of their activities, each separately. Most decisions are based on knowledge is incomplete, either because of lack of information or access to cost a lot of time and effort and money. And it is not necessary to know all the facts to make a sound decision, but it is necessary to know what it is. Missing information in order to assess the degree of risk involved in the resolution and accuracy 2
Fourth: to find alternatives to solve the problem
In fact, that there is a problem that requires a large number and variety of opinions, because if they have one solution there would be no problem to take a decision because the reason which will be forced to adopt the only solution available to him.
And noted that managers in the context of searching for alternatives to solve the problem resorting to alternatives known in advance (ie, previously used as solutions), If it appeared Ba î • a not suitable for refuge to the perception and creative thinking (creative) to find different solutions, if the diagnosis of the problem depends on logical thinking (which is based on analysis and comparison), the solutions of replacement depends on creative thinking, which is based on the perception and prediction and the creation of ideas. 1
He also faces managers a number of restrictions limit the scope of their behavior and impose upon them some possible solutions, and the major constraints is the time factor, as well as financial and material resources available, as well as the degree of risk, in addition to many other restrictions such as controlling dangerous governmental and technological possibilities and economic conditions as well as the personal goals of the personnel of the Organization It has been estimated î ” m on the implementation of alternative, and that the decisions of senior management in the organization may contribute to the removal of many alternatives to the decisions taken in the departments the world
V.: Evaluation of alternatives selected
Until the completion of the development of alternatives available, find a manager himself against the need for evaluation for the selection of a suitable alternative, because any of these solutions includes several advantages and disadvantages; It is not equal solutions are all in their ability to achieve the goal, hence the importance of analytical studies of the problem, as well as the decision to be taken. 2 The process of differentiation between the alternatives are not easy and always clear, since the alternatives typically include intangible factors is difficult to establish precise criteria for measurement, as well as the short time available for decision makers to discover the expected results for each alternative.
There are several standards that can be used to differentiate between the 3 proposed solutions, including: The possibility of implementing alternative, and the availability of material resources, human and natural necessary. Here, look ï€ clear the importance of the exclusion of alternatives that are possible implementation difficult or impossible because of incompatibility with the objectives of the organization or with the conditions of their surroundings. Costs and resources resulting from the implementation of the alternative. Which can be estimated by balancing ï€ gains to be expected from the implementation of alternative and losses that may result from it. - The effects of the implementation of the alternative facility) sections and departments, functions and performance (or other organizations. This varies depending on the problem and its importance, and whether the decision was functional or strategic affect other organizations; abolition of some additional bonuses for workers cut costs, but will affect the Psychiatric workers, and therefore the motivation and dedication to work, which could cost the organization more money than provided by the reduction of bonuses.
Time and circumstances to take the alternative. May not allow the emergency circumstances that require the face of urgent maker ï€ decision to conduct advanced studies and necessary alternative solutions, forcing him to choose one of the solutions available and a strong resolution and urgent under the pressure of these circumstances, the so-called "decision under pressure" 1, in such situations envisages the decision maker to choose the best possible under the circumstances and influences that controlled the situation.
Response of subordinates and acceptability of an alternative. Of their impact on the implementation of this alternative, and here ï€ highlights the need to engage them in discussion, assessment and formulation of views put before the decision maker a vision of what would be the solution for the future of subordinates. Time it takes to implement the alternative. In the light of alternatives offer the institution the same results, and the same ï€ costs would seek the Director to choose which to achieve those results in the shortest time, depending on the nature of the problem and type.
VI: Choose the best alternative
after the decision in previous phases Director finds itself facing the need to choose one of the alternatives, which is expected to achieve the best results (for example, the highest return at the lowest cost). Has been said previously that the process of evaluating alternatives difficult it is, as it requires mental effort from the decision-maker for the budget and the accurate assessment of the advantages and disadvantages of each of the alternatives proposed; selection process affected by many factors, some
Action-oriented objective and the other Dhusbgp personal experience of decision makers, knowledge and motivations, feelings and desires) may be the orientation of optimistic or pessimistic) and some action-oriented environmental stemming from the situation demands Rules governing the selection process, and the more available to the director adequate information on the various alternatives, and in a timely manner whenever Director crucial role in decision-making and the process of choosing the alternative is far from self and thus reduce risk and increase the likelihood of Rashadp resolution, but if the opposite would be the Director Reluctant to take this resolution; and therefore, he must spare no effort in the use of mathematical methods, as well as methods of optimization (Calcmpelks and sensitivity analysis) and controls well in information technology and communication, because this decision Singer of many of the decisions the Sub which may decide the fate of the organization as a whole, in addition to I heard he and his future in the organization.
VII: Implementation of the resolution and follow-up
The task manager does not end upon the selection of the best alternative, but move to the stage of actual implementation by the efforts of others, beginning by informing them of the decision and through explanation of dimensions and work to increase acceptance of it, as well as motivate them to implement the form in which to achieve more effective and efficient and ending with the follow-up implementation and evaluation of deviations that may tainted.
And those responsible for this decision would take into account the procedures needed to implement it and boot it, as well as due speed in implementation; by formulating a set of operational plans, as he has to take into account a number of unexpected results that may arise during implementation, despite all the elaborate steps to the them.
And the implementation process better be accompanied by a periodic assessment to verify the effectiveness and efficiency of the decision taken during his investigation of the desired results, and calendar (debug) deviations, if any; it would be wrong to take. Director decision and then forget and neglect the assessment of the outcome 1
The fourth requirement:
Characteristics of decisions by senior management
Many of the people interested in Business Administration firing of senior management the term "strategic management" and that her signature is to take strategic decisions, and its analysis of the constraints and opportunities from the perspective of a strategic and long-term - and unlike many of the decisions that are taken in the lower administrative levels - and its handling of with issues of future long-term impact on the Organization, Strategic Issues requiring decisions at senior management level because they affect many areas of Activity and operations in the organization, and senior management that has the power and authority to allocate the required resources for implementation, and is characterized by its priority, inclusiveness and non-repetition. The following are the most important: the properties of the decisions of senior management 1
01. Strategic issues are the future orientation: Their decisions are often based on predictions of future managers, not just their current knowledge, and focus on future scenarios that will enable the organization to choose the best strategic alternatives.
02. Multiplicity of effects or results of strategic issues: strategic decisions have complex effects for the majority of areas of activity in the organization; decisions on the mix of customer focus, competitive or organizational structure, for example, necessarily affect the activities and results of operations of several units Business strategy, interests or sections, all of these machines will be affected by the reallocation of resources and responsibilities resulting from these decisions.
03. Require strategic issues taking variables of the external environment in mind: that all business organizations operating in a system open, and therefore affected by conditions and external events that fall outside the scope of control; therefore achieve market position appropriate requires managers to look at what is beyond the activities and operations of the Organization Interior, to analyze and interpret the behavior of competitors and customers, suppliers, financiers and government agencies ... etc..
04. Affect the strategic issues on the welfare of the organization and prosperity in the long term: strategic decisions require the company to walk in specific directions for long periods of not less than five years, and its effects for many years, building the organization's strategy affects the image and put it competitive and scale of activities and levels of sales, profits, and then capacity for growth and expansion and prosperity.
05. Require strategic issues to use and employ vast amounts of organizational resources: strategic decisions include the allocation tangible financial resources and physical assets and human resources, which must be obtained from either internal resources or external, and that these decisions require the organization of many behaviors during a specific time period is relatively , which means the need for tangible resources.
The characteristics of the pre-formed strategic decisions considerable pressure for managers, especially with the technological development and technical experienced and are still witnessing economic organizations, which requires that managers develop information systems providing them with the smallest details about the internal operations of the organization and its surroundings as well as The outside, making it easier for them to make decisions, as well as to tap into the delegation of many of the decisions (especially recurrent ones) to other members - which i î ¨ War consulting assignments and advisory bodies - and retaining only strategic decisions. The following table shows some of the decisions can be delegated: Table (02): Some of the work and decisions and the possibility of its mandate
The strategic decision-making - in fact - can be viewed as a point in the phase preceding information, studies and communications, and tracking of information, studies and communications, so it is possible to particulars of the mandate in the studies and implementation details, and keep taking the same resolution. And other words; if the decision-making process identified the problem and then go through analysis, development and evaluation of alternatives (advantages and disadvantages), and finally the selection process or Final Cut, this is the final stage (stage selection of the final solution Of the subject) is not delegated, but the other stages, it may very well - and perhaps it would be desirable or necessary at times - its mandate.
Factors affecting the effectiveness of decision-making
Could be argued that effective decisions are those that lead to the success of the organization and achieve its objectives based on accurate and complete information leads to foresee all of the problem subject of the resolution, taking into account all possible alternatives and reliance on quantitative methods and scientific decision-making, could also be argued that the effectiveness of the decisions include the following dimensions: 1
Â 1. The quality of the resolution, which in turn is reflected in many dimensions; including:
- Gains and losses expected to be achieved can be generated for the decision.
- Better use of human and material resources available with minimal effort.
- Avoid conflicts within the organization.
- Avoid conflicts with other organizations.
- Discovery of new opportunities in the market.
2. Time decision-making and implementation, which should not be postponed or delayed adopting or implementing decisions, in other words, the timeliness taken and implemented.
Â 3. Ease of implementation of decisions.
Â 4. Taking into account the acceptance of the decision by subordinates.
The process of decision-making at senior management level is difficult and complex - as previously reported - especially in business organizations, large-scale, and therefore it is very natural to be affected by many factors, including the self, including the objective, especially in the throes of choosing a suitable alternative, and as many authors 2, these factors ranging from compliance with laws and regulations and the trend of intellectual and emotional and personal decision-maker, in addition to the social environment of the traditions and customs of the values and systems group, and the pressures of internal and external effects than previously, which affects to some extent in the decision. The following is an explanation of some of these factors:
Laws and regulations:
Often find themselves bound by senior management, a set of laws and regulations both at the government level or at the level of the ocean in which it operates, which hampers many of the strategies, policies and depriving them of a set of options may be optimal in the absence of such laws. The departments of the middle and lower, the decision maker in which he finds himself bound by a set rules and regulations by the center or his or her position in the organizational structure so that decisions are part of the overall policy of the organization, so he has to take many factors into account, Kalaatmadat financial allocation and strategy for Organization (offensive, defensive ,...), and the laws and customs applicable in the immediate vicinity, ... and others.
Director and personal experience:
The character of the Director and the emotions, values and history to work, and the type of work already carried out, social status, financial and psychological condition are all factors affecting the effectiveness of the decision taken by, and that the Director is a member of the community affected, including the customs, traditions and values reflected in the behavior career .
3. Assistants and advisers specialists:
Is the impact of Assistant Directors and advisers through a method of thinking and methods of display and handling of the topics for this to be the leader to choose his associates carefully, and we recommend that you be with tendencies. The terms of reference to create a different atmosphere conducive to creative ideas.
We have developed the perception of Mrwo O a lot, since it is no longer viewed them as working tools only, but on the Ohnm individuals who have desires and motives, knowledge and skills that can be invested and take advantage of the area to contribute views and ideas to find solutions to choose from the best alternative, since the diversity of the problems facing the modern enterprise requires the participation of all has to do with direct or indirect, of the problem, or what is called depending on the collective efforts of the joint, especially since the decision today is multi-dimensional organizational, human, environmental, legal, economic, etc ....
Â 5. Internal and external pressures:
Managers face many pressures and at all levels, which affects the quality and effectiveness of the decisions taken, and there are two types of them:
A - internal pressure: It is most important in the organization pressures informal organization by leaders and followers, which does not allow for taking the time most of the thinking and the decision shall not be opportunity enough to get accurate information about the alternatives and examine them objectively, as these pressures are usually turned the decision to either intentionally or unintentionally to interests that are not fully compatible and interests of the organization as a whole.
B - external pressure: pressure, represented in the external environment such as the political situation, economic situation, public opinion, etc .... Yet it is effective for a period or in a certain area, you may not be the case at one time or another. In addition to pressure the owners of the relationship with the organization, such as customers or
Consumers, creditors and suppliers, and departments of competition, prices and the interests of the taxes ... etc, which define the functioning of the Director in the decision-making.
6. The efficiency of the Director:
The weak efficiency of the make it unable to choose the best alternative, and thus either lose the chance of an institution or downloaded costs and additional losses, and this may push it to select the alternative that satisfies all parties affected by the decision to do so, the manager who does not have the efficiency needed to discharge work - especially in the technical aspects - to do everything in its power to remedy this deficiency, had been undergoing intensive training and rehabilitation, or for surrounding himself with advisers or uses any other method it may deem appropriate for his condition. The information systems developed to provide the greatest amount of good information to help him more in control of the shortcomings that plague
7. The will of the manager or his fear of decision:
The longer fear the Director of the decision-making to the social environment and job difficult, and instability in the administrative regulations, and frequent transfers, and ambiguity of roles and objectives together, pushing Palmderily back to his superiors to join them in the responsibility.
8. Feet or the Director in the recent post:
As the Director of talk in the office usually feel insecure, tends to defer a decision may be that circumstances change for the better, Vtafeeh the burden of choosing one of the alternatives, in addition to lack of clarity in rules and regulations being subject to different interpretations. The length of the proceedings often leads to
Exclude or postpone the decision, such as preventing the Director and the access problems that granted to his subordinates the authority to resolve or attempt to evade the subject of a final resolution of the problem.
9. The quantity and quality of information available to decision makers:
An important element in effective decision-making is an element of information in terms of quantity or quality, the more information is available, the closer the manager if you are sure, and therefore approached to take Alaqrararashid, and whenever information is organized, easy, comprehensive and accurate, and in the timeliness of the closer of if you are sure the full, and thus increased the quality of decisions taken, in addition to the presence of information in a timely and easy to speed up the process of decision-making and implementation as well as to dispel uncertainties, which increases the degree of Acceptance of his subordinates, and thus enhance the chances of success and achievement of its objectives; and this is what I tried and are trying to provide information systems for managers.