Current Issues In HR Commerce Essay

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According to David et al (1998) HR is a contraction for human resources, that part inside a company which deals with the human aspect requirements of workers. Many companies have an HR section, which may offer a wide variety of services to its staffs. Some who work in HR are measured fraction of the section, but a lot of people externally of such a section may have incredible to do with not just the fiscal aspect of occupation, but as well "the individual constituent" of employing staffs.

Business environment:

According to T.R. Jain, et al (2006). The surroundings of business which have influence on business are known as business environment .the success of the organization depends how quickly it can adapts to it changing environment .because of political changes, economic changes, new technology the world is changing rapidly. In order to increase profit and to compete with their competitor organization needs to adapt it very quickly

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Business environments has two components and they are

1. Internal Environment

2. External Environment

Internal environment

T.R. Jain, et al (2006) state that Factors, conditions, events and entities with an organization which influences its activities are frequently considered as the part of internal environment of the business. Leadership style organizational culture, and mission statement of the organization, financial resources human resource, managerial policies, work environment, brand image, labor management relationship are also the part of internal environment.

External environment:

T.R. Jain, et al (2006) demonstrated that External aspects which influence the functioning of business is called external environment of the business. Business cannot control the external surrounding aspects .external environment can provide threats or opportunities to the business organization. The success of business depends greatly on the external factors.

External environments is of two types

1. Micro / Operating Environment

2. Macro / General Environment

1. Micro /operating Environment:

According to T.R. Jain et al (2006) Macro environment can be define as the forces which are close to the company and affects its ability to work. Suppliers, customers, market intermediaries, competitors and public are factors of micro environment. To the same industry this factors may affect different firms in different ways.

A) Suppliers:

Suppliers play an important role in business firms. They are those people who supply raw materials to the firms.

Example 1.T.K. MAXX a well known fashion retailer are selling their products up to 60% less than any other fashion retailer because of maintaining a good relationship with the suppliers across the globe. This good relationship also helps the hr department of T.K. max to train their buyers properly to maintain good relationship.

"How do we do it?"(Online)

Available at:

http://www.tkmaxx.com/tk-static-pages/what-is-tk-maxx/page/whatistkmaxx/

(Accessed 25 August l 2010)

B) Customers:

Success of the business firms depends on the level of customer's satisfaction. It is very important for the business to identify customers and fulfill their demands.

Example 2: In the year 1999 Virgin mobile has made a brave decision to satisfy their customers. They have changed the way people communicate. They made sure there were no hidden costs for the customer for using their mobile networks. To satisfy customers more virgin mobile build up a team who are closely related with customers.

"Our History 1998" (Online)

Available at: http://www.virgin.com/history/#

(Accessed 26August 2010)

Example 3: Hr department of ASDA has come up with the new idea to provide good services to its customers.thy have created a team whose sole job is to help the customers to set up their electrical equipment they have bought from ASDA. This department also deals with the complaints of customers.

"None trading careers at ASDA house" (Online)

Available at: http://www.asda.jobs/what-can-i-do/house/non-trading.html

(Accessed 26 August 2010)

Example 4: To gain more profit Carphone Warehouse has reward strategy. It has decided it will pay its employees for providing good customer service. According to its Hr department, the company will now focus on better customer service to earn more profit.

Sian Harrington (2009) "Carphone Warehouse rewards staff for customer service rather than sales volume" (Online) Available at:

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http://www.hrmagazine.co.uk/news/search/916233/Exclusive-Carphone-Warehouse-rewards-staff-customer-service-rather-sales-volume/

(Access 21 June2010)

C) Market intermediaries:

Market intermediaries connect the link between final customer and company. Financial agencies and brokers are known as market intermediaries. T.R Jain et al (2006)

D) Competitors:

In business competitors means business firms which produce or markets same or a very substitute of the products. It's very important for the business firm to understand the strengths and weakness of its competitors to achieve success. T.R Jain et al (2006)

Example 5: Blue rainbow apartments one of the leading hotels in Manchester has hired a bulk of reception team from their major competitor Yang sing hotel. According to the director of Blue rainbow apartments, they were desperate to hire those talented staff from their competitor Yang sing hotel.

David Woods (2009) "Bulk of hotel staff made redundant on Monday were hired by competitor" (Online)

Available at:

http://www.hrmagazine.co.uk/news/search/888574/Bulk-hotel-staff-made-redundant-Monday-hired-competitor-Thursday/

(Accessed 12 August2010)

F) Public:

Any group which has its actual and potential interest in the business is called public. This group could be users or non-user of the product.

2. Macro / General Environment:

According to T.R. Jain et al (2006) general environment of business are known as macro environment. Macro environment factor plays a huge to the growth and survival of the business. Macro environment factors can create opportunities or pose threats to the business organization. Economic environment, political environment, technological environment, demographic environment, socio-culture environment etc. are known as factors of macro environment.

A) Economic Environment:

Those economic factors which have impact on the business are known as economic environment. Such as nature of income, economic policy, economic system, trade cycles, level of income, distribution of income etc. This environment is very dynamic and complex in nature. T. R. Jain et al (2006)

Example 6: In the Year 2008 us economy faced one of its hardest time ever. During this time of its well known bank Lehman brothers has collapsed. The hr department of the bank was unable to provide job security to its employees and as a result all of their employees have lost their jobs.

Andrew Clark (2010) 'Lehman Brothers bosses could face court over accounting 'gimmicks'' (Online)

Available at:

http://www.guardian.co.uk/business/2010/mar/12/lehman-brothers-gimmicks-legal-claims

(Accessed 7August2010)

Example 7: Because of the rescission British airways is not profitable at the moment. In order to cope up with this economic problem, the hr department of British airway has decided to cut 1700 jobs. Hr department has done this because they want to reduce the cost.

David woods (2009) "British Airways says it must cut 1,700 jobs and impose a pay freeze to ensure long-term survival" (Online)

Available at: http://www.hrmagazine.co.uk/news/search/944008/British-Airways-says-cut-1700-jobs-impose-pay-freeze-ensure-long-term-survival/

(Accessed 12 August 2010)

Example 8: Due to the economic down turn Shell has deseeded to cut 1,000 jobs. Hr department of Shell wants to cut cost and make their more profitable for the future.

Terry Macalister (2010) "Shell to axe another 1,000 jobs and sell last UK refinery" (Online)

Available at: http://www.guardian.co.uk/business/2010/feb/04/shell-job-cuts-profits-fall

(Accessed 11 August 2010)

Example 9: A Scottish video game company known as Realtime world has with debts of 3 million pounds, because of its poor sales of its new release products. As a result the Hr of this company has redundant its 150 staffs.

Zoe Wood (2010) "Realtime Worlds collapses with loss of 150 Dundee jobs" (Online)

Available at:

http://www.guardian.co.uk/technology/2010/aug/18/realtime-worlds-games-maker-collapses

(Accessed 19 August 2010)

Example10: Due its tight budgets Scottish NHS has decided to cut 4,000 jobs. To manage its current financial challenge NHS has come up with this idea to secure its services for the future and to ensure that they deliver the best quality of care.

Simon Johnson (2010) "Scottish NHS faces 4,000 job cuts" (Online)

Available at: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/newstopics/politics/7801376/Scottish-NHS-faces-4000-job-cuts.html

(Accessed 10August 2010)

B) Political Environment:

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T. R. Jain et al (2006) shown that Political environment is one of the major business environments. Those political factors which have its impact on the working of business are known as political environment. The major components of political environment are political ideology of government, political stability in the country, defence and military policy, relation with government with other countries etc.

Example11: The hr department of BP has replaced its Chief executive, because of the pressure from the US government. After the deepwater oil spill in gulf of Mexico, us government has putted a huge pressure on BP to stop oil splitting in the gulf of Mexico .they also asked BP to do the cleanup program continuously. The US government asks BP to create independently managed fund for the lost in Gulf.

Terry Macalister and Andrew Clark (2010) "BP sends Tony Hayward to Siberia to appease US" (Online)

Available at:

http://www.guardian.co.uk/business/2010/jul/26/tony-hayward-bp-russia-gulf-oil-spill

(Online) (Accessed 10 August 2010)

C) Socio-cultural environment:

Business and society both influence each other .it is one of the non-economic environments of macro business environment. Cultural and social factor which

Influences the business organization is known as the socio-cultural environment. Such factors are region, habits, customs, tradition, social trends etc. T.R. Jain et al (2006)

Example 12: In India lot of people doesn't eat beef because of their religion .so hr department of MacDonald's India has designed their job description of employees that it does not hurt any employees religious believes.

"Our non-veg food" (Online)

Available at: http://www.mcdonaldsindia.com/ourfood/nonveg/index.html (Online)

(Accessed at 10 August 2010)

D) Technological Environment:

T. R. Jain et al (2006) sate that Technological environment plays great role in business organization. Because the fast changes of technology also changes the life style and living conditions. As a result business organization also needs to cope with the changes in order to meet the customer satisfaction and increase its profit. Technology can bring both advantages and disadvantages for business.

Example13. By implementing new technology RBS has decided to cut the jobs of their management division. according to the bank new technology will benefit the banks in both ways, it will helps the client' s to have better service from the bank also help the bank to increase profitability and efficiently.

Angelica Mari (2010) "Technology drives job losses at RBS" (online)

Available at: http://www.computerweekly.com/Articles/2010/06/02/241430/technology-drives-job-losses-at-rbs.htm

(Accessed 09 August 2010)

E) Natural Environment:

Natural factors which include natural resources, weather, climatic condition etc. are known as natural environment of business .both geographical and ecological has a huge impact on natural environment of business. T.R. Jain et al (2006)

Example14. In order to deal with the current global warming the hr department of Annapurna has decided to use raw materials from the suppliers who are committed to reducing the energy usage and wants to increase the recycling of wastes.

"Whether we like it or not, the world is changing..."

Available at: http://www.annapurna-hr.com/environment.html (Online)

Assessed (08 August 2010)

F) Demographic Environment:

T.R. Jain et al (2006) state that Demographic Environment refers to the demographic factors such as income level, education level .population size, its growth, family size and its structure etc. This factor affects the size of demand, preferences of the customers .Demographic environment differs place to place and country to country.

G) International /global:

For certain types of business international environment is very important. Such as organizations which are directly depending on exports and imports. Problems in foreign market can create difficulties for organizations depending on exports. T.R. Jain et al (2006)

Example15: Philippines and Portugal well known as net exporters of tourism labor, has a great impact of globalization in the HR department of their tourism business. Because globalization has boost their profits but also has threats the social equality and job security of their employees.

Chris C & Colin M (2008) "Contemporary tourism: an international approach"

HR department of a company can help to cope with the regarding environmental change by the following way:

Forces of Changes

According to John and Keith (2008) wide variety of forces, however, may bring about more dramatic changes that touch the entire core of an organization. Many of these have become much more common as the economy, competition, and pace of technological change have become more volatile. Examples include hostile takeovers, of firms, leveraged buyouts and subsequent organi­zational restructuring, reengineering of organizations, acts of public terrorism, and nat­ural disasters like oil spills and gas leaks. Crises like these, whether positive or nega­tive demand that managers help guide employees through the emotional shock that accompanies them, thereby bringing the organization to a new equilibrium.

Responses to Change

Work change is further complicated by the fact that it does not .produce a direct adjustment, unlike the adjustment of air molecules in the balloon. Instead, it operates through each employee's attitudes to produce a response that is conditioned by feelings toward the change. This relationship was illustrated in a series of classical experiments-the Hawthorne studies, conducted by F. J. Roethlisberger and his associates. In one instance lighting was improved regularly according to the simplistic theory that better lighting would lead to greater productivity. As was expected, productivity did increase. Then lighting was decreased to illustrate the reverse effect-reduced productivity. Instead, productivity increased further. Lighting was again decreased.

"Response to change" (online)

Available at http://www.rhdcc-hrsdc.gc.ca/eng/home.shtml

(Accessed 1 August 2010)

How Individual Attitudes Affect Response to Change:

Obviously better light­ing was not by itself causing greater output. There was no direct connection between the change and the response. Some other intervening variable, later diagnosed as employee attitudes, had crept in to upset the expected pattern. Roethlisberger later explained the new pattern in the following way: Each change is interpreted by indi­viduals according to their attitudes.

Group Response to Change

People interpret change individually and have their & have probable response to it However, they often show their attachment to the group by joining with other group members in some uniform response to the change, as shown in the "actual response".

This uniformity makes possible such seem­ingly illogical actions as walkouts when obviously only a few people actually want to walk out. Other employees who are unhappy seize upon the walkout as a chance to show their dissatisfaction and to confirm their affiliation with the group by joining with it in social action. Basically, the group responds with the feeling.

"Individual attitude towards change" (Online)

Available at:

http://www.humanresourcesmagazine.com.au/articles/1E/0C06871E.asp?Type=61&Category=873

(Accessed 2 August)

Homeostasis:

In trying to maintain equilibrium, a group is often inclined to engage in backsliding to return to its perceived best way of life whenever any change occurs. Each pressure, therefore, elicits a counter pressure within the group. The net result is a self-correcting mechanism by which energies are called up to restore bal­ance whenever change threatens. This self-correcting characteristic of organizations is called homeostasis; that is, people act to establish a steady state of need fulfill­ment and to protect themselves from disturbance of that balance. They want to main­tain their previous sense of competence.

"Management principals" (Online)

Available at:

http://www.marketwatch.com/story/update-sap-executive-to-present-lean-management-principles-for-hr-at-fifth-annual-kenexa-world-conference-2010-08-13?reflink=MW_news_stmp

(Accessed 2 August 2010)

RESISTANCE TO CHANGE

Resistance to change consists of any employee behaviors designed to discredit, or prevent the implementation of a work change. Employees resist change because it threatens their needs for security, social interaction, status, competence, or self-esteems Nature and Effects 'he perceived threat stemming from a change may be real or imagined, intended or unintended, direct or indirect, large or small. Regardless of the nature of the change, some employees will try to protect themselves from its effects. Their actions may range from complaints, foot-dragging, and passive resistance to absenteeism, sabo­tage, and work slowdowns.

All types of employees tend to resist change because of the psychic costs that accompany it. Managers as well as workers resist it. Change can be resisted just as stubbornly by a white-collar worker as by a blue-collar worker, it does not respect either type of dress or job.

A though people tend to resist change, this tendency is offset by their desire for new experiences and for the regards that come with change. Certainly, not ail changes are resisted; some are actively sought by employees. Other changes are so trivial and routine that resistance, if any, is too weak to be evident. Employees may resist changes for three broad reasons. First, they may not feel com­fortable with the nature of the change itself. If may violate their moral belief system, they may believe the decision is technically incorrect, or they may simply be reluc­tant to exchange the comfort of certainty and familiarity for uncertainty. People may resist change because of their fear of the unknown, threats to their job security, or the lack of a demonstrated problem. A second reason for resistance stems from the method by which change is introduced.8 People may resent having been ill-informed or they may reject an insensitive and authoritarian approach that did not involve them in the change process.

"New human resources director starts in Sudbury" (Online)

Available at:

http://www.metrowestdailynews.com/news/x316188463/New-human-resources-director-starts-in-Sudbury

(Accessed 2 August 2010)

Types of Resistance

There are three different types of resistance to change, as shown in Figure 14-2. These types work in combination to produce each employee's total attitude toward a change. The three types may be expressed by three different uses of the word "logical."

"Types of Resistance"

Available at: http://www.libraries.psu.edu/tas (Accessed 3 August 2010)

Logical Resistance

According to Robert & James (2008) logical resistance is based on disagreement with .the facts, rational reason­ing, logic, and science. Logical resistance arises from the actual time and effort required to adjust to change, including new job duties that must be learned. These are true costs borne by the employees. Even though a change may be favorable for employees in the long run, these short-run costs must first be paid.

Psychological Resistance

This is typically based on emotions, sentiments, and attitudes. Robert & James (2008) state that, psychological resistance is internally logical from the perspective of the employees' attitudes and feelings about change. Employees may fear the unknown, mistrust management's leadership, or feel that their security and self-esteem are threat­ened. Even though management may believe there is no justification for these feel­ings, they are very real to employees, and managers must deal with them.

Sociological Resistance

Robert & James (2008) demonstrate that Sociological resistance also is logical, when it is seen as a product of a challenge to group interests, norms, and values. Since social values are powerful forces in the environment, they must be carefully considered. There are polit­ical coalitions, labor union values, and even different community values. .On a small-group level there are work friendships and status relationships that may be disrupted by changes. Employees will ask such questions as, "Is the change consistent with group .values?" "Does it maintain teamwork?" Since employees have these kinds of questions on their minds, managers must try to make these conditions as favorable as possible if they intend to deal successfully with sociological resistance.

Implications of Resistance Clearly, all three types of resistance must be antici­pated and treated effectively if employees are to accept change cooperatively. If administrators work with only the technical, logical dimension of change, they have failed in their human responsibilities. It can be seen that psychological resistance and sociological resistance are not illogical or irrational; rather, they are logical accord­ing to different sets of values. Recognizing the impact of psychological and social factors is critically important to the success of proposed change.

IMPLEMENTING CHANGE SUCCESSFULLY

According to John & Keith (2008) some changes originate within the organization, but many come from the external environment. Government passes laws, and the organization must comply. New developments in technology arise, and products must incorporate the changes. Competitors introduce new services, and the firm must respond. Then there are pressures from customers, labor unions, communities, and others who initiate changes. Although stable environments mean legs change, dynamic environments are now the norm, and they require more change.

Stages of change

There are Three Stages in Change

Behavioral awareness in managing change is aided by viewing change as a three-step process: 1. Unfreezing 2.changeing 3.Refreezing

Unfreezing:

According to Hatch M.J (1997) unfreezing means that old ideas and practices need to be cast aside so that new ones can be learned. Often this step of getting rid of old practices is just as difficult as learning the new ones. It is an easy step to overlook while concentrating on the proposed change itself, but failure to cast aside old ideas is what often leads to resis­tance to change. Just as a farmer must clear a field before planting new seeds, so must a manager help employees clear their minds of old roles and old purposes. Only then will they be able to embrace new ideas.

Changing:

According to Leigh L. Thompson (2003) changing is the step in which the new ideas and practices are learned. This process involves helping an employee think, reason, and perform in new ways. It can be a time of-confusion, disorientation, overload, and despair.

Refreezing:

According to Hatch M.J (1997) refreezing means that what has been learned is integrated into actual practice. In addition to being intellectually accepted, the new practices become emotionally embraced and incorporated into the employee's routine behavior. Merely knowing a new procedure is not enough to ensure its use. As a farmer once said when confronted by an agricultural extension agent with suggestions for crop improvement, "I'm not farming half as well as I already know how." Successful on-the-job practice, then, must be the ultimate goal of the refreezing step.

Change management philosophy:

John P Kotter (1996) demonstrate that At all period engage and have the same view carry from people inside organization system surroundings, process, mores, associations, behaviors, etc., whether individual or organizational. Be aware of where the institute is at the instant. Appreciate where you desire to be, at what time, why, and what the actions determination is for have got there. Plan expansion towards over in suitable attainable quantifiable stage. Correspond, occupy, allow and make easy participation from group, as in the early hours and explicitly and as fully as is feasible.

John P Kotter's(1996 ) eight steps to successful change

1. Increase urgency. 2. Build the guiding team. 3. Get the vision right. 4. Communicate for buy-in.  5. Communications.6. Empower. 7. Create short-term wins.8. Make change stick.

Pont of view of change management

Change management needs equally a human being and an executive point of view:

Individual change management

Organizational change management

Understanding how one person 

makes a change successfully

Understanding what tools we have to help

individuals make changes successfully

Organization don't change, persons do. No affair how big of a scheme you are taking on, the achievement of that plan eventually lies with each worker doing their work in a different way, multiply diagonally all of the workers impacted by the change. Efficient vary organization require a considerate for and admiration of how one someone make a change productively. With no a person viewpoint, we are absent with behavior but no thought of the objective or result that we are trying to attain.

Whereas alter happen one self at a time, there are process and gears that can be used to make easy this transform. Tools like statement and preparation are frequently the only behavior while no prepared approach is functional. When there is a directorial change administration viewpoint, a procedure emerge for how to level change management actions and how to use the total set of tools obtainable for scheme leaders and company managers.

Figure 1 Point of View of change management

Source: Change management Robert A Paton and James McCalman (2008)

Tools of change management

Figure 2.Tools of change management

Source: Change management Robert A Paton and James McCalman (2008)

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF THE STEPS TAKEN BY HR DEPATRMANT TO HANDEL/COPE WITH THW CAHNGES

Advantages:

Some individuals embrace the change regarding the change within the organization. Some members of the group in the organization will accept it positively. Some employees will embrace the change which is introduced in the organization.

"Advantages and disadvantages of steps taken by hr"

Available at: http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/wyssusek02sociopragmatic.html

(Accessed 3 August 2010)

Disadvantages:

People tend to resist change when it is perceived as threatening to their needs, security, relationship, status, competence or self esteem. Resistance can cause variety of behavior that will have direct impact on performance. Such as: slow down, absenteeism, complaints sabotage etc.

There are three major resistances during the change coping with the changing period when a HR department tries to teach the staffs or workers in the organization:

Rational resistance is based on facts, reasoning and logic, it may arise from actual time and effort required to adjust to the change.

Emotional resistance is based on sentiments and attitudes; it arises from the fear of unknown. Social resistant is based on social values, norms, and interests groups tend to hold in work situation. It arises from the community feelings and status relationship in work group.  

Available at: http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/wyssusek02sociopragmatic.html

(Accessed 3 August 2010)

Recommendations

Building Support for Change

If we assume that management is following the model of the change process then forces of support need to be built before, during, and after a change. A wide variety of positive activities to build support are described below. Others, such as manipulation and coercion, typically antagonize employees and sabotage the long-term success of the change program.

Use of Group Forces

Effective change focuses not only on the individuals but also on the group itself. The group is an instrument for bringing strong pressure on its mem­bers to change. Since behavior is firmly grounded in the groups to which a person belongs, any changes in group forces will encourage changes in the individual behavior. The idea is to help the group join with management to encourage desired change.  

Providing a Rationale for Change

Capable leadership reinforces a climate of psychological support for change. The effective leader presents change on the basis of is impersonal requirements of the situation, rather than on personal grounds. It is generally better to provide objective (performance-related) reasons for the change. If they re compelling and substantial, they should be given.

Participation

A fundamental way to build support for change is through partici­pation, which is discussed in Chapter 8. it encourages employees to discuss, to com­municate, to make suggestions, and to become interested in change. Participation encourages commitment rather than mere compliance with change. Commitment implies motivation to support a change and to work to ensure that the change is effective.  

Shared Rewards

Another way to build employee support for change is to be sure, that there are enough rewards for employees in the change situation. It is only natu­ral for employees to ask, "What's in this for me?" If they see that a change brings those losses and no gains, they can hardly be enthusiastic about it.  

Employee Security

Along with shared rewards, existing employee benefits need to be protected. Security during a change is essential. Many employers guarantee workers protection from reduced earnings when new technology and methods are introduced. Others offer retraining and delay installation of labor-saving equipment until normal labor turnover can absorb displaced workers.  

Communication and Education

Communication is essential in gaining sup­port for change. Even though a change will affect only one or two in a work group of ten persons, all of them need to be informed about the change in order to feel secure and to maintain group cooperation.

Stimulating Employee Readiness

Closely related to communication is the idea of helping employees become aware of the need for a change. This approach builds on the premise that change is more likely to be accepted if the people affected by it recognize a need for it before it occurs. This awareness may happen naturally, as when a crisis occurs, or it can be induced by management through sharing operating infor­mation with employees.

Working With the Total System

Resistance to change can be reduced by a broader understanding of employee attitudes and natural reactions to change. Man agreement's role is to help employees recognize the need for each change and to invite them to participate in it and gain from it.18 It is also essential for managers to take a broader, systems-oriented perspective on change to identify the complex relation ships involved. Organization development can be a useful method for achieving this objective.  

Employee Security

Along with shared rewards, existing employee benefits need to be protected. Security during a change is essential.

Conclusion:

We all experience change continuously throughout in every stages of our lives. Change begins from the first day of our lives and stays with us till death. We adapt and adjust changes and also initiate and support changes. Likewise organizations too experience changes. The choice is not about whether or not to have the change but when and how to have the changes to make the organization more effective in reaching its goal.

Change is much alteration occurring in the work environment that affects the ways in which employees must act. These changes may be planned or unplanned, catastrophic or evolutionary, positive or negative, strong or weak, slow or rapid, stimulated internally or externally. Change can have profound effects on their recipients.

The whole organization is affected by change in many of it. Organization tends to establish a state of equilibrium where employees are adjusted. When change comes along, organization requires its employees to make new adjustment to seek new equilibrium. When employees are unable to make adequate adjustments, the challenges for the human resource department and the employees, but imposed to change can be more difficult to manage, than changes desired by the employees.

References

T.R. Jain, Mukesh Terhan, Ranju Trehan (2006) Business Environment Published by V.K. Enterprises India

David A. DeCenzo, Stepher P. Robbins (1998) Fundamentals of Human Recourse Management

John W. Newstrom and Keith Davis (2008) Organizational Behavior

Robert A Paton and James McCalman (2008) Change management sages publications ltd.

Hatch, M.J (1997) "Organization Theory: Modern, symbolic, and postmodern perspectives."

Leigh L. Thompson (2003) The social psychology of organizational behavior Psychology press

Chris Cooper, Colin Michael Hall (2008) Published by Contemporary tourism: an international approach. Published by Butterworth- Heinemann

"How do we do it?"(Online) Available at: http://www.tkmaxx.com/tk-static-pages/what-is-tk-maxx/page/whatistkmaxx/ (Accessed 25 August l 2010)

"Our History 1998" (Online) Available at: http://www.virgin.com/history/# (Accessed 26August 2010

"None trading careers at ASDA house" (Online)

Available at: http://www.asda.jobs/what-can-i-do/house/non-trading.html

(Accessed 26 August 2010)

Sian Harrington (2009) "Carphone Warehouse rewards staff for customer service rather than sales volume" (Online) Available at:

http://www.hrmagazine.co.uk/news/search/916233/Exclusive-Carphone-Warehouse-rewards-staff-customer-service-rather-sales-volume/

(Accessed 21 June2010)

David Woods (2009) "Bulk of hotel staff made redundant on Monday were hired by competitor" (Online)

Available at:

http://www.hrmagazine.co.uk/news/search/888574/Bulk-hotel-staff-made-r edundant-Monday-hired-competitor-Thursday/

Andrew Clark (2010) 'Lehman Brothers bosses could face court over accounting 'gimmicks'' (Online)

Available at:

http://www.guardian.co.uk/business/2010/mar/12/lehman-brothers-gimmicks- egal-claims

(Accessed 7August2010)

David woods (2009) "British Airways says it must cut 1,700 jobs and impose a pay freeze to ensure long-term survival" (Online)

Available at: http://www.hrmagazine.co.uk/news/search/944008/British-Airways-says-cut-1700-jobs-impose-pay-freeze-ensure-long-term-survival/

Terry Macalister (2010) "Shell to axe another 1,000 jobs and sell last UK refinery" (Online)

Available at: http://www.guardian.co.uk/business/2010/feb/04/shell-job-cuts-profits-fall

(Accessed 11 August 2010)

Zoe Wood (2010) "Realtime Worlds collapses with loss of 150 Dundee jobs" (Online)

Available at

http://www.guardian.co.uk/technology/2010/aug/18/realtime-worlds-games-maker-collapses

(Accessed 19 August 2010)

Simon Johnson (2010) "Scottish NHS faces 4,000 job cuts" (Online)

Available at: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/newstopics/politics/7801376/Scottish-NHS-faces-4000-job-cuts.html

(Accessed 10August 2010)

Terry Macalister and Andrew Clark (2010) "BP sends Tony Hayward to Siberia to appease US" (Online)

Available at:

http://www.guardian.co.uk/business/2010/jul/26/tony-hayward-bp-russia-gulf-oil-spill

(Online) (Accessed 10 August 2010)

"Our non-veg food" (Online)

Available at: http://www.mcdonaldsindia.com/ourfood/nonveg/index.html (Online)

(Accessed at 10 August 2010)

Angelica Mari (2010) "Technology drives job losses at RBS" (online)

Available at: http://www.computerweekly.com/Articles/2010/06/02/241430/technology-drives-job-losses-at-rbs.htm

(Accessed 09 August 2010)

"Whether we like it or not, the world is changing..."

Available at: http://www.annapurna-hr.com/environment.html (Online)

Assessed (08 August 2010)

"Response to change" (online)

Available at http://www.rhdcc-hrsdc.gc.ca/eng/home.shtml

(Accessed 1 August 2010)

"Individual attitude towards change" (Online)

Available at:

http://www.humanresourcesmagazine.com.au/articles/1E/0C06871E.asp?Type=61&Category=873

(Accessed 2 August)

"Management principals" (Online)

Available at:

http://www.marketwatch.com/story/update-sap-executive-to-present-lean-management-principles-for-hr-at-fifth-annual-kenexa-world-conference-2010-08-13?reflink=MW_news_stmp

(Accessed 2 August 2010)

"New human resources director starts in Sudbury" (Online)

Available at:

http://www.metrowestdailynews.com/news/x316188463/New-human-resources-director-starts-in-Sudbury

(Accessed 2 August 2010)

"Types of Resistance"

Available at: http://www.libraries.psu.edu/tas (Accessed 3 August 2010)

"Advantages and disadvantages of steps taken by hr"

Available at: http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/wyssusek02sociopragmatic.html

(Accessed 3 August 2010)