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Cross-culture is a widespread phenomenon which has been followed in corporate across the world. Each and every person has different ways of thinking which embrace some cultural behaviour within each individual. In the globalized world, the cultures and managerial values conflict each other within the organisation. When there is a synergy between these cultures and managerial values, the company faces effective strategic option which thereby helps to perform a task successfully. Every organisation is accustomed on the culture and working hard to avoid cultural conflicts which affects their businesses in the wide spread. In a cross-cultural firm there is a healthy advantage of mixed skills, capabilities, knowledge, technology, experiences, awareness which other non-cultural organisations were lagging behind.
I'm intended to evaluate "The contribution of Project Globe to an understanding of this subject area". (French, 2007; Pg.105)
"The scope of cross-culturalisation leads to internationalism of business". It is not always easy to manage people from different cultural backgrounds, for e.g., the Chinese and Western managers have different beliefs and practices in terms of managing employees. With the globalisation of business, the management has been facing new challenges of diversified cross-cultural workforce in which they were not familiar with. Management might face problems having the best local staff when they do not have enough knowledge about the overseas culture. Furthermore, productivity might also get affected if their way of human management is not compatible with the working nature of the local staff. Therefore, the corporate world should be prepared well-ahead of managing the people from different ethnic groups and providing them with equal and balanced intercultural training to mix and combine all individuals and driving them to the force of meeting the goals of the firm. As an employee for 2 years in my past work experience, I faced different cultural influence within my company. Being worked with western manager, I faced a cultural shock where I need to adjust and work with less satisfaction, problems with communication and frustration to cope with the new cultural cues and expectations. Now, as a management student, exploring all the possible outcomes that a corporate faces when dealing people across cultures would help blend me with various cultural integration and ethics.
In recent years, not only the corporate organisations are going global, but also the higher education systems are expanding globally. With every year the number of foreign students who arrive to UK is increasing and many universities and colleges gain their essential and vital part of revenue from international students. In Coventry University, the count of international student has doubled this year when compared to previous years. This is because each and every student believes that they will gain a prospective learning experience when they study abroad, where they can discover and indulge themselves with different cultural people, thereby enabling them to explore people from different countries and backgrounds. International students face difficulties like diversity in language, ethnic and cultural groups, individual perception, etc.
As a student of Coventry University, my particular interest would be to research and recommend on how the universities can motivate their students and cultivate different cultural prospect. Perhaps, being a management student, I would like to further explore the above mentioned problems, and my research would be based on how to overcome these setbacks from the university level since "Today's scholars are the managers of tomorrow's world".
3. Preliminary review of literature:
This review comprises of 3 parts:
Defining culture, role of cross-culture in corporate world
Analysis of cross-culture in corporate world
Cross culture: the need for awareness and its importance in higher education system including Coventry University
Culture can be understood by the underlying ideas, facts, and especially by the members where the actual value lies. Hofstede (2001, p.9) defined culture as "The collective programming of the mind that distinguishes the members of one group or category of people from another". Culture can otherwise be described as where a group of people or society transmits its values and beliefs from one generation to another in terms of personality, traits, and concepts of their possible strategies and positive outcomes.
Role of cross-culture in corporate world:
The underlying concept of cross culture has a long history. National culture is referred to as "software of mind" by Hofstede. In the world of globalization it is very essential for every company to understand the cultures to achieve their goal and sustain it on a long time run. Cross culture began to develop with the globalisation of organizations. With the increase of multinational company, cultural values began to play a vital role in it. When there is a need of spreading global strategies, there is an obvious need for global leaders which leads to a multi-cultural team. "As companies rely more and more on global strategies, they require more and more global leaders. This tie between strategy and leadership is essentially a two-way street: the more companies pursue global strategies, the more global leaders they need; and the more global leaders companies have, the more they pursue global strategies" (Morrison, 2000; p.119)
My Analysis of data consists of two divisions; the first division replicates the previous study of original analysis. Secondly, the integration between the original and the derived results.
Typical Methods and Analysis for various cross cultural studies
Type of Study
Sampling of Culture
Replication of original study or new study
Systematic for convenience sampling
Replication of original study or new study
Systematic (maximize contrast on focal variable)
New study covariates may be present
Both level and structure techniques
Measures at different levels of aggregation
Source: Van de Vijver & Leung, 1997, pg. 132
Study Of Equivalence
No Contextual variable
Study of relationship of cultural factors and behaviours
Lack of attention to alternative
Focus On Interpretation of cross cultural differences
Choice of Covariates may be meaningless
Analysis of cross culture states that in earlier days, when companies began to expand globally they not only expand with their infrastructure geographically but also they tend to expand in terms of diversified human resources. But conditions have drastically changed. The modern era has changed the perspective of the organisations in which they looked upon cross culture. The companies nowadays consciously increase their cultural strength to promote themselves globally. According to "A study by John Kotter and James Heskett in 1992, states that Corporate Culture and Performance, revealed that over a ten-year period, companies that intentionally "managed their cultures well" outperformed similar organizations that didn't.:
Revenue increased 682% vs. 166%.
Stock price increased 901% vs. 74%..
Net income increased 756% vs. 1%.
Job growth increased 282% vs. 36%
The theme of cross cultural research is to understand, describe, and evaluate the underlying causes of cross culture in workplace and the relationship between societal, organisational culture with the leadership values within the organisation; this ultimately corresponds to the effects of variations across cultures in a work place and the need to eradicate cultural differences. The research that has been carried out in relation to the above is "Project Globe" "the meta-goal of GLOBE is to develop an empirically-based theory to describe, understand and predict the impact of specific cultural variables on leadership and organisational processes and the effectiveness of these processes". (House, Javidan and Dorfman, 2001; p. 492)
Culture can have a significant impact during the tough times of the organisation, when employee engagement and other workplace, environment, atmosphere and organisational brand get disappeared. Significant effort in contrast to these will not help the organisation but also to overcome the hard times.
Understanding cultures can provide "stability" during tough times of the organisation
Building multi-cultural environment will provide "alignment" where the employees can share the same ground rules and support effective team work
Establishing various cultures in workplace acts as a effective "filter" for actions and decisions
"Cultures would in fact vanish if their members communicated as much with people from outside the culture as they do with in their cultural group" (Guirdham,2005)
Cross culture: - the need for awareness in higher education system: Why is cross culture need to be implemented at the higher education level...? Is a big question that is consistently being asked by each one of us and rather an important question that has to be answered to fulfil the aim of my research proposal...!
"The most difficult thing to manage in an organisation is not people but their difference in cultures".
Most Multinational companies nowadays suffer not to manage people but to manage their difference in cultural facets, employees are not born they are made up of structured objectives, education, discipline, and other areas of education system. Therefore schools and educational institutions acts as a place where employees are produced and self discovered, therefore incorporating cross cultural studies and its ethics at higher education level becomes vital and non-negotiable.
"The importance of cultural values to the organisational life is well established in the literature. Yet the way cultural differences influence how people are valued in organisations has not been sufficiently discussed"(Jackson,2002;p.458)
Incorporating cross culture education principles at higher education level will not only result in making the students the "best scholars" but also a "respectable employee"
Positive outcomes of cross-culture at higher education system:
The first and foremost advantage is the university will not only be considered as Knowledge ground where education is taught but a battle field where cultural differences are destroyed
The corporate organisation doesn't need to spend much time on people management or employee engagement activities rather the companies can concentrate on its growth and future dimensions.
Future societies will be based on people and not based on their cultures simply "People oriented and not integration of cultures"
"Values underlying culture could be communicated to the group either unconsciously via enculturation or more explicitly through agencies of socialisation such as formal education system" (French, 2007; p.18)
4. Research questions and objectives:
What is the present status of cross-culture in UK corporate?
Why does incorporating cross culture in higher education system so important?
What is the need to identify the cross culture status in UK universities?
Do society and corporate benefit from implication of cross culture in higher education system?
To evaluate the present cultural facet of UK corporate.
To evaluate the need for cross culture in UK universities
To review the underlying attitude followed by universities in UK supporting cross-culture
To recommend what Coventry University do to enhance their activities on cross culture.
5. Research plan:
My research plan consists of quantitative in terms of students survey and Qualitative in terms of questionnaire to employees (corporate) and interview with staff (university)
My research will have a practical approach with positivist principles
Both deductive and inductive ideology will be followed
Cross sectional analysis will be as a part of my research since a small group of people will held in to consideration as a typical model representation
My research will also be a partly case study where Coventry university will be deeply examined
Data collection methods
I will be using both the primary and secondary data as a part of my research proposal
To address my objectives I will be using textbooks, journals, e-books, and webpage links.
I will intend to use online resources like Emerald, SAGE, Valtera, Blessingwhite, and Corporateculture.co.uk. Wherein Emerald and SAGE journals are very well available in e-library of our university
Since secondary data can only add limited attribute to my research topic, primary data plays major role and provides subsequent meaning to my research topic
Interviews & questionnaire
Interviews I have the opportunity to interview LL enterprise manager and its employees where I have been employed in part-time work (UK), which fulfils my first two objectives along with some up to date online resources. I will be intended to interview up to four employees along with my manager in LL enterprise
I will also interview the lectures of Coventry University along with Warwick and Kingston universities so as to satisfy my third and fourth objectives, the thing how I would get access to Warwick and Kingston universities is because of friends studying in Warwick and uncle who is working in Kingston will help me in access with the lecturers.
Questionnaire will enable me have the different perspectives of students on what they think on presence of various cultures in their universities, simultaneously their views on how they want themselves to be treated along with other cultured people, this would further explore their experience in living cross culture and cultural changes VS shocks that they undergo whilst their education. This will satisfy my fourth objective and would help me in suggesting changes across cultures in Coventry University. The questionnaire will be sent to100 students and the result rate of 50-75% is expected.
6. Ethical consideration:
I will adopt myself with BES Ethical guidelines and will fill out the Low risk approval form and will get signed from my Supervisor. Before collecting the primary data, I will show my Interview questions and questionnaires to my supervisor, which I will be using for my research. Since I will be interviewing Coventry staffs and students, I will seek prior permission from staffs and confirm appointment with them, whom I will be conducting the interview. I will use a participation information sheet to my respondents and a consent form to my interviewees, and will also explain them clearly about my purpose of research and its intended outcomes. I will show these forms to my supervisor before I start.
I also abide with the rules of plagiarism, I will use proper referencing style and whenever I use other's research work, I will give an acknowledgement and proper sourcing. The concepts of books, journals will be studied, understood and paraphrase them in my own words whilst being true to the original content.