Critical Success Factor Of Wind Turbines Business Essay


Although rare in the Ghana, community- owned wind turbines are mostly used in north western part of Europe. Due to the adverse depletion of the ozone layer communities have decided to find another source of energy without burning fossil fuel and also reduce Co2 emissions.

This has brought us to a point where we have been assigned the post to find how feasible a wind turbine would work in a community in the eastern region of Ghana called Kwahu adawso

The people in this community are willing to invest in a turbine and build it on an agreed site, if the finds of this study are suitable to generate uninterrupted energy supply and reduce the use of firewood as a major source of energy in this community.

Wind turbines are one of the most cost effective renewable energy technologies, and their development over recent years has made them reliable, quiet and effective. For a fishing and farming community like Kwahu adawso who is looking on reducing deforestation and health hazards caused by fossil fuels This one best alternative option to prescribe for them Across the world there are tens of thousands in operation producing clean, green electricity. A turbine could make a “green” visual statement about the villages, and show the rest of the world that the villagers have a strong commitment to the global environment. In countries like Great Britain most wind turbines have been installed in wind farms in high, open areas, by external development companies.

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Land acquisition is a major problem when it come to the erection of these community turbines but with this community we do not think it would be a problem.

Our Co operation with the local council has made it easier for us to secure a site for the first erection to test the wind speed and other factors needed to be consider before a full plant is installed.

There are various groups and society who are trying to make the investment viable so most of the have contributed from their monthly donation and also secure a facility from the various co operative and rural banks in this community


According to the Centre for Alternative Technology, a successful community energy scheme can be achieved strong social network with a leader who can drive the project forward and inspire others to get involved. This community wind turbine when installed will help reduce residents carbon emissions and pro


Three sites were initially identified in the local area, each of which could be used for the site of the Community Wind Turbine. Each site has both it advantages and disadvantages and these are outlined below.

The sites are

1. Adansi 01

2. Nsuo ano

SITE -1Adansi 01

Adansi 01 is the windiest site of the three investigated. However, there are two serious problems with this site. The grid connection is very poor, and the views of the hill from the moors are likely to make gaining planning permission for this site very difficult.

Grid Connection

The existing grid connection for Adansi 01 village is single phase, which cannot be used for a wind turbine connection. The current connection is inadequate even for the farms, which cannot operate electrically powered machinery above a few kilowatts. A three phase supply capable carrying at least 30kW is required for a turbine connection of the size envisaged. A quotation has not been received yet because we are still waiting for a report from Ghana Grid Company (GRIDCO) on ways to upgrade the connection to adansi 01 site and installing a wind turbine. This new grid

Connection costs are very high (GHC370, 000) because this will involve the construction of several kilometres of new three phase overhead lines. This would have to be carried out without seriously disrupting existing supplies to customers. This would involve lengthy negotiations over way leaves too.

Looking at the installation cost it would not be economical to install a wind turbine in this site.


The other major problem with this site is its visibility.. However, the placement of the turbine in Adansi 01 is very visible from the outer parts of adawso and a wind turbine would be seen from there. Visibility from Adansi 01 would be very high and the turbine would become a very prominent feature in the landscape.

SITE 2 Nsuo ano

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Nsou ano is a good site for a wind turbine. It is relatively open, with scrubland

Vegetation of around 1m high and open views to the Volta Lake. Without any stump trees around the work on this site would not be expensive and also allowing easy access for cranes to erect the turbine.

Grid connection

There is a good three phase electricity grid connection from the nearby an existing power station. An extension to this to the base transformer for the wind turbine would be needed, approximately 300m long, requiring either an overhead pole line which is easier and cheaper to build depending on planning considerations.

Nsuo ano has good existing connection which could serve the community

Wind Resource

Adansi 01 site is less windy than the Nsuo ano area. The wind speed at the Nsuo ano site is approx 5.5 m/s at 30 m above ground level. This should be sufficient produce uninterrupted wind energy for the community.

Fig 3&4 are graph and chart to verify this data

*N.B all wind speed are measured in m/s where the height are based on 30m above ground level

Wind speed forecast for Kwahu Adawso

Wind speed






































*This data was collated by an independent group with support from the DISTRIC MET OFFICE


A turbine would be visible from the south west end of the community, and, at a distance, from the main trunk road leading to the town . However, it is unlikely to be seen from other part of the town

The turbine may be visible from the highest point of the of the town, but the distance will be such that it will be a minor feature of the landscape.

In its favour it is a less sensitive site from the Landscape Sensitivity Assessment point of view than Adansi 01 site.

Land management

Land acquisition and permit would not be a problem for the site because it have been earmarked for project that will benefit the community .this land was acquired by the district council from the local chiefs who own the land

In addition there is a good three phase grid connection from the nearby existing power station which supply power a nearby community


a) Landscape and visual impact

A key test of the planning application will be whether the proposal undermines the objectives that underpin the purpose of National ecological parks, namely protection of the landscape. This is central to the planning case. The district town and country planning would have to consulted before any move will taken

b) Ecology

The community will have to consult with the Ghana Wildlife Division and Environmental Protection Agency to determine if there are any ecological issues affecting the site.

c) Archaeology

In the next stage an early consultation with the District Archaeologist will be required to determine if there is any sensitivity at the chosen site.

d) Noise

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Given the separation between the proposed turbine and the nearest dwellings, we do not anticipate any difficulties regarding noise disturbance from the turbine.

The community will have to consult with the Environmental Health Officer at the District Council at an early stage to ascertain his requirements on the issues of noise Pollution. This may entail noise measurements over 24 hour periods, but this requirement is

Determined by a decision of the Health officer but I do not think, such measurement would be required at the Nsuo ano site.

e) Aeronautical issues

The Ghana Civil Aviation Authority has been asked for their opinion on the likely effects on aeronautical radar and aircraft operations. A response is awaited. But the is are no aeronautical implications on this area because there are no planes plying this route

g) Telecoms and TV issues

Consultations are ongoing with the National Communications Authourity in conjunction with telecommunications operators about any possible treat to their services.

From their reply it would seem that there are no microwave fixed links within 300m of the Nsuo ano site. Interference with TV and radio should be followed up in the next stage of the project.



Annual Mean Wind Speeds have been obtained from the national data based on a 1km .This has been illustrated in the Graph above Fig 3.

1. Nsuo ano site approx 5.5 metres/second at 30m Above Ground Level

2. Adansi 01 approx 5.0m/s at 35m above ground level but this site would not be suitable for the erection of this turbine due to cost and environmental situations

These wind speeds are OK for a wind turbine project, and are likely to be a paying proposition.


With the above annual mean wind speeds, the energy output from a 225kW wind turbine are estimated to be in the region of:

1. Nsuo ano 90,000 kWh @5.5m/s and 130,000@7.0m/s

Approx 90,000 kWh of wind energy would displace approx 475 tonnes of CO2 about 39% of the Community's carbon emissions .This research was made by Centre for Industrial and Scientific Research (CSIR)Ghana


Wind turbines are currently available in a sizes ranging from tiny turbines rated at 300 watts for roof tops to gigantic 5 megawatts (MW) turbines for installation offshore. Turbines for onshore wind farms are now built in the range 850kW to 3MW by a number of large wind turbine manufacturers.

Our wind turbine will be sourced from a manufacturer called Aeolos This is a 30kW Turbine .Below are the full specs of the the plant

Aeolos Wind Turbine 30kw Specification

Rated Power

30 kw

Maximum Output Power

34 kw

Output Voltage

320-480 V

Blade Quantity

3 Glass Fiber Blades

Rotor Blade Diameter

12.5 m (41.0 ft)

Start-up Wind Speed

3.0 m/s (6.7 mph)

Rated Wind Speed

10 m/s (22.3 mph)

Survival Wind Speed

45 m/s (100.7 mph)


Three Phase Permanent Magnetic Generator

Generator Efficiency


Turbine Weight

1380 kg (3042.3 lbs)


41.5 db(A) @ 5m/s

Temperature Range

-20°C to +50°C

Design Lifetime

30 Years


Standard 5 Years Extended 10 Years



The costs for a wind turbine consist of all of the following items:

  • Capital cost of the turbine
  • Delivery to site
  • Hire of cranes
  • Hire of installation engineers
  • Excavation of the foundation
  • Installation of the foundation
  • Installation of access track
  • Excavation of cable trench
  • Installation of cable
  • Installation of transformers, switch gear and meters
  • Electrical connection costs
  • Costs for way leaves
  • Cost of commissioning
  • Costs for Electricity Distribution Network Operator

Because Final permit for the site have not been secured upon, and no measured quantities are available, only overall estimated budget cost is available. This should suffice for the initial economic feasibility calculations, but more work will need to be done to refine costs in the next stage of work.

For a 30kW on Nsou ano, costs should be around £60,000 Approx (154000 Ghana Cedi @2.54 to the pound) installed and the scheme would have a 20 year life and 5 year warranty. Of this cost, about half will be for the turbine and the balance made up by all the other site costs involved. A cost projection sheet will be attached to back this figure


Sales of electricity

The electricity from wind turbines has a value when it is sold onto the national grid. However, this value is much less than domestic customers pay for their electricity, because there are substantial costs in delivering electricity to consumers which have to be covered in the difference between selling and buying. Also wind energy is unpredictable and has to be used when available, which also means it is of relatively low value to electricity supply companies.

Value taken in these calculations is 6.5 p/kWh day rate and 4.5 p/kWh night rate, which is quite cheaper that the hydro and thermal power they receive in the community

Selling price over the full life of the scheme. So a value of 5.5 p/kWh will be used for the projection here.


Capital cost (less grants)

Maintenance costs

Land rental / rates

Operation of the Community Wind Organisation


Possibilities for the surplus are that part goes to the community fund to take care of other project which benefits them and part goes to a Community Charity for deprived student. .


A simple economic projection has been used. The cumulative cash flow over the life of the project is shown in Figure 8 below. This is simplistic but gives an easy to understand

View of the basic economics. It is assumed that there is no opportunity cost of capital (ie they are calculated on straight line repayments over 20 years). Clearly there are many variables which will affect the cost, and extensive economic modelling could be carried out. However based on the above simple figures: Turbine capital cost £60,000 installed

Turbine output 90,000 kWh per year at 0.1856 G hp for the first12 years p/kWh 0.196 for the 13th and 14th year and 0.282 for the subsequent year .There is price variation because we have taken into consideration some economic shock like inflation and currency exchange since the plant was bought on GBp £

Electricity selling price = 6.5 p/kWh day, 4.5 p/kWh night

With these figures the annual value of income is around for the GHC14, 504 1st 12 years 15,390 for the 13th and 14th year and 25380 for the remaining years in operation

Costs for maintenance of 800 per annum have been allowed for, and “other annual costs” of 1200. This would allow the project to pay someone for half a day a week to do the books and other project administration as well as allowing for rates and other costs.

With these assumptions, this will give payback in a little over 12years.

The overall conclusion is that the project should be a paying proposition. 18

Cumulative cash flow - 30kW, Straight 12 year with no interest payments will also be attached in the appendix


The Bro Dyfi Community Wind Project is in Mid-Wales, near to Centre for Alternative Technology in Machynlleth.

Using a second-hand 75 kW wind turbine which was Installed 2003. It is incorporated as a community energy co-operative, with 55 local shareholders. There is a Community

Energy Fund which also benefits from the surplus generated.


Based on the finding that we made with consultations from stakeholder and out various partner and governmental institutions .We are the confident that this project will be a successful one that will help and improve the lives of the people of the Kwahu Adawso. Our main of putting up a first wind turbine will be accomplished upon the receipt of planning and land certificates.

Carbon emission will be reduced by 39% which will also reduce respiratory diseases caused by pollutant from fossil fuel .Thou the economic impact will be felt in the long term we hope the whole community will benefit from this project and will also boost economic activities in the community.