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An organization is an institution in which people work together to achieve certain goal or to conclude certain project. Each organization promotes exchange of ideas among employees which improves knowledge among employees. It is my pleasure to reflect the result of my research in this given assignment. On the basis of the case study done in the Trial and Error LTD, I am going to do a research on certain methods and ideas of the organization to improve the quality of the organization.
A continuous improvement process could be described as continuing effort to progress products and services. On the other hand organizational development is the total progress of the organization with in the particular time. As per Van de Ven &Poole,(1995)organizational development could be looked at variety of changes. For instance changes in policies, structure, strategies and so on. This effort follows or results "incremental" improvements within the time or "breakthrough" improvements at once. The important principle of CIP is reflection of the process itself.
Key features of Kaizen include:
1. Improvements are based on the small changes instead of a major variation which occurs from Research and Development.
2. As far as the ideas originate from employees, it is easier to implement if it is a slight change rather than a complicated one.
3. It is obvious that small changes could make major capital investments than a whole process change.
4. Ideas from the employees are more acceptable and worth full as compared to using R&D, consultants or equipment which are very expensive.
5. Each and every employee should be looking forward to improve their performance individually.
6. It helps workers to take the ownership of their work and can improve team work which gradually increases the motivation of workers.
These steps are applicable in the case of the Trial and Error LTD.
1.2 LEADERSHIP AND MANAGEMENT STYLES
Definition of leadership
According to Warren Bennis "Leadership are a function of knowing yourself, having a vision that is well communicated, building trust among colleagues, and taking effective action to realize your own leadership potential."
Leadership styles give an idea to implement plans and it teaches us how to motivate people. Kurt Lewin(1939)as a leader of a group of researchers identified the three major styles of leadership. They are (U.S. Army Handbook, 1973);
Authoritarian or autocratic
Participative or democratic
Delegative or Free Reign
Following all these three styles makes a good leader while the bad ones always concentrate on any of these three.
This is the style when the leader tells the employees what to do and how to do it.This is rarely acceptable in the organizations since all the employees have been controlled by the leader. However it could be useful in the scenario where the time period is limited to complete certain target or assignments. In this style of leadership the leader must have all the information but the employees may not know anything regarding the certain project that to be completed.
On the other hand, people think that this style is unprofessional because leaders tend to use demeaning languages, leading by threats and even they do not hesitate to abuse their power. These unprofessional choes are called "bossing people around" which cannot be acceptable.
In this style, whenever a decision making needed, the leader involves two or three members from the employees to share the ideas and come to a conclusion.However, the final decision comes from the leader itself. This is the reason why the organizations select the skilful employees to certain fields of work. It is mandatory that the employees should not get all information. This style helps the leader to be a part of the team and it helps to make a better decision. It is very helpful for continuous improvement within the organization.
Delegative (free reign)
This is the style where the leader permits the employees to make decisions. But the leader is the one who is responsible for all the decisions made by them. This style is used when the employees are capable to analyse situations and take a decision on what to do and how to do it.
The disadvantage of this style is that it is easier to blame others when things go wrong. This style could be followed when the leaders fully trust on the employees.
According to Harold Kootz and Heinz Weihrich,"management is the process of designing and maintaining an environment in which individuals working together in groups efficiently accomplish selected aims."
Styles of management;
On the basis on different management styles, there are different types of managers such as, directive, authoritarian, supportive, participative and consultative. But they are follows either autocratic or democratic styles.
They are only concentrating on profit and known as hard-nosed boss. They control everything on employees and even on their work.
THE DEMOCRATIC MANAGER;
The managers who follows democratic style, appears more supportive and considers his or her employees more and participate in work along with the workers. They become the part of the team. A few of the employees have been trained to manage within the workers and they remains in the organization as the helping hands for the manager.
Among these types of managers, it is well obvious that the autocratic style is carried out in our organization. I strongly suggest the management to pursue the democratic style in their organization.
1.3 FEATURES OF LEARNING ORGANIZATION
Learning organizations are companies that emphasize continuous learning, knowledge sharing, Peter Senge's (1990).
The features are as follows;
1. Concentrating problem solving and new ideas
2. Development of advanced methods that improves knowledge generation and sharing
3. Motivate employees to do experiments in their work and encourage flexibility
4. Always try to give importance to employee's wellbeing
5. Encourage employees to learn from the situations (Confessore and Kops, 1998, London and Mone, 1999).
1.4 CHANGES WITHIN THE ORGANIZATION
There are many models of changes in different organizations.Priliminary stage of change in Trial and Error LTD could be start from an audit or analysis. After the audit, it is the time to identify what has to be changed and how. It should be shared within the organization. Eventually introduce the change. On my view, it is possibly acceptable if we introduce the Machine model in this particular organization because if there is an issue arises, the process of change will wait until it is fixed.
The following figure explains the main characteristics that define and describe traditional and modern views of changes and the changes in the organization is gradual process and it has to be implemented carefully. Once the change is implemented it has to be the routine in the organization and everything returns to the normal.
Traditional,classical,mechanistic views of change
Cause and effect
New,modern,dynamic views of change
Full of opportunities
Revolutionary and incremental
1.5 APPROACHES TO QUALITY IMPROVEMENT;
Even though there is no much evidence of how to link the different strategies available for developing quality (Paul Batalden), he managed to offer a formula to think how the different factors of quality improvement fit together.
Generalizable Particular Measured
Scientific + context = Performance
Jeremy Grimshaw of the Ottawa Health Research Institute came in front with a different approach to quality improvement Research. Research concentrated on the challenge of providing evidence based care to patients, mainly on the technical way of care. The aim is to develop an evidence base that could be useful to improve the implementation of research findings.
Nevertheless, the opinion by the attenders these approaches to quality improvement research oppose each other.However,some said the discussion opened more similarities than differences.Bataden and Grimshan concluded on the purpose of quality improvement research and agreed that the evidence base needs to be improved.
In the case of trial and error LTD, the founder or the management id=s not pleased with the current situation of the organization. It is mandatory to identify the opportunities of improvement in this present scenario. It could be find out simply through a series of diagnostic questions as a need of finding ways to improve the quality of organization.
-Which dimension of the organization could be changed or improved?
-Fit with customer need?
-In what part of the organization has the most room for improvement?
-What management system could be changed?
-Project the identified management system
-Business management system?
-Senior management behaviour towards the employees?
-How do we change these management systems?
2.2Information to identify areas for improvement
As a result of researches, there are different ways of identifying areas of improvement within an organization. Business process Assessment means to recognise the strengths, weakness and the existing improvement activities and the chief areas of improvement. In the beginning of the business process assessment and improvement (BPAT), the business analyst, analyses the required change as compared with other successful business organizations and do the proposed changes. They could introduce a new set of models. If it is not working well, they could show where the adjustments need to be done.
For the application of the new models in an organization, all the participants from the organization need to be satisfied.
2.3The impact of proposed changes to organizational activities
To be safer in this competitive era, organizations should be vigilant to accept any kind of changes at any time. It could be internal or external. Some sudden changes like loss of a major customer, changes in demand or sudden growth or appearance of new competitors should make an immediate reaction from the management. Most of the employees may find difficulties in coping with these sudden changes but, they need to accept it to continue in the particular organization as an employee. According to Ivancevich et al (1990),it is the responsibility of the top management to reduce the occupational stress and improve workers well-being and health in the occurrence of organizational change.
During the time of structural changes in an organization, there will be a feeling of uncertainty despite of the position of employees. There are two types of uncertainty;
Knowing about the uncertainty of the organization continued existence or success; this kind of uncertainty could be found in the decision makers. Knowing of uncertainty means to do something with the situation for the one who take the decision. However some of the people who are capable to do that may turn their back and try to find out another job.
Not knowing about the uncertainty of the organization continued existence or success; in this sector the people who held the post in which cannot make decisions involves. They always wait until the decisions come out which means a wait and see approach.
2.4 EVALUATE PROPOSED CHANGES TO ORGANIZATIONAL ACTIVITIES;
Evaluation is the final step of changes. It has to be carried out by the change agent those who involved in the change process. This evaluation process helps us to know whether this change has to be continued or to stop then and there. The evaluation has two sub steps;
It reviews the prior prepare process and calculate the positive and negative sides of the change process.
Identify the possible approaches to use and estimate the potential effectiveness; finally select the most appropriate one.
The first stage takes place with different steps, starts with looking forward to get an idea of what the clients need and is to positive organizational variables in the reality. Next comes the potential costs and your own potential risk.
Whenever you need to conclude a decision, you could follow three things.Firstly, you may make definite commitment to continue with the change process.Secondly,you may decide the time is not right or you could postpone the change process to another time.
For the evaluation of a change within an organization, it is mandatory to identify both pros and cones of the change and see how it impact on the organizational atmosphere, If it is a good change in the basis of financial, or it is capable to satisfy the clients need, we could claim that the change is acceptable.
It is a written plan for the improvement of Trial and Error LTD. This plan says what changes is needed in this particular organization and how it could be implemented. Finally, I would like to do the evaluation of the certain changes done.
IDENTIFICATION OF CHANGES REQUIRED.
On an overall evaluation within the organization it is necessary to introduce some changes. Changes in the management and leadership style are the preliminary step for change. It is obvious that the present management style followed in this organization is autocratic style. There we need a twist for democratic management style which may give an inevitable result. The same way of change could be applied in the leadership style as well. A preliminary assessment is needed before applying any changes.
However the organizational culture could be changed in order to improve the quality. It is evident from the case study that the organization has not been undergone any of the changes within the last six decades. Therefore the company runs with the outdated policies and procedures. If the management is not willing to accept changes, the organization may not exist for another decade. It is high time to introduce an overall change in this particular organization including,
Employee's involvement in the decision making which is a democratic style.
Continuous educational programme to update the knowledge of the employees.
AGREE PROPOSED CHANGES WITH STAKE HOLDERS.
Involving stakeholders from outside is necessary when we apply a change to an organization. The participation of stakeholders ensures transparency and adds legitimacy to the implemented or planned policy reform which helps for the acceptance of policy.
In all the organizations, the management shows interest to participate stakeholders, hence they could analyse all the areas such as economic, environmental, and social effects of the planned changes. They always welcomed for the policy discussions. The same way, it is a wise idea for the Trial and Error LTD to involve the stakeholders for the thorough discussion regarding the policy change within the organization.
communicate with stakeholders
In a project there should be a project manager to make a project plan. In the case of applying changes to the Trial and ErrorLTD, the project is implementing changes. So the project manager should be reported in the meeting with a report regarding all the changes what we needed to apply which is discussed in the above tasks. Here the stakeholders express his/her idea of changes that could be applied and identifies the pros and cons.
There are some criteria which should bear in mind while goes for a meeting. They are,
1. What has to be communicated?
2. What is the appropriate mode of communication?
3. What is the suitable audience?
4. When and where should be the communication?
There are a few more points that has to be taken in account depend up on the stakeholders.
1. Physical location and time zone of the stakeholders
2. Communication approach for the stakeholders
3. Type of communication
3.4 DESIGN SYSTEMS AND PROCEDURES TO SUPPORT THE CHANGES;
It is needed to be changed all the design systems in order to support the changes which we implemented in the organization. The system in the organization may need to be designed which includes the car parking areas or the internal furniture or any other existing facility.
This also includes the physical atmosphere such as the building, rooms with in the building, infrastructure details. Communication paths and types also could be changed like telephone, computer and so on. Along with these changes, it is possible to introduce a new pattern or model of uniform for the staff.
3.5.REVIEW THE CHANGE PROCESS FOR AN ORGANIZATION;
Reviewing a change in an organization means to identify both the positive and negative sides of the change. Every major change gives the total movement to the culture of the organization. This is what happens in the case of Trial and Error LTD.
In the last recent 5 years, several articles(Nicholas,1982,Roberts&Porras,1982,Vicars&Hartke,1984,Nicholas &Katz,1985,Guzzo et al,1985,Macy et al,1986)have reviewed the organizational changes.
As per their way of evaluation, they found out different results. Vicar Hartke has done fifteen recent studies which related to a previous study (Morrison, 1978) and noted an increase in validity criteria. Nicholas (1982) reviewed sixty-four studies and he revealed some limitations within the changes. The review could be done from the employees of the organization. They can form a group among themselves and make an evaluation result which should accepted by the management. However it is normally done by an external body which works along with the organization.
When I summarize my work here, it is mandatory to briefly explain what I tried to reveal in the above described tasks. Depending on the given casestudy,it is evident to me that all the sub tasks are relevant and applicable to the Trial and Error LTD. It is been explained that the different styles of management and leadership and I decided the democratic style is more applicable for the given organization.
It is hard to survive in this competitive era especially in business. All the business organizations are looking forward with an optimistic view. All the traditional business methods are paved the way for new technology with the eyesight of profit or to be in front with all the opportunities.
Once we look at the Trial and Error LTD, it is obvious that the organization follows the traditional ways in all their aspects like culture, style of management and leadership and even the paths of communication. However through a thorough study, it was possible to introduce different methods to improve each and every areas of the existing organization.
There is an inevitable matter to bear in mind that the employees may find difficulties in coping with these sudden changes, but this is the duty of management to understand it and give the adequate support.