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In the discussion that the researcher did earlier, there are few factors that will affect the consumer behavior on using the e-shopping which is consumer attitude, price, brand loyalty and brand location. It is also due to technology are getting higher, the consumers want to have convenience and save more time to have better shopping lifestyle via e-shopping. Therefore, the main objective was to investigate the Melaka citizens about the factor affecting consumer behavior on using e-shopping.
Figure 3.01 Research framework
Independent variable Dependent variable
Consumer Attitude/ Personality
Figure 3.0: Factors that affecting consumer behavior on using E-shopping
3.02 Hypothesis Development
After the variables had been identify. Hypotheses were developed and to be tested to looking in dept for the relationship whether it is true or not. Several hypotheses were formed to be examined.
H1: There is a relationship between brand loyalty and consumer behavior in using e-shopping
Due to the brand loyalty, the consumers prefer to buy and purchase the products from e-shopping which can provide them fully satisfaction. The consumers which purchase the products through the e-shopping will keep on purchase it on the same location and also same brand as the consumers trust the brand can provide them fully satisfaction. This brand loyalty and consumer behavior got relationship as the consumer behavior will choose the brand that suit and satisfy them and will continue repeat order.
H1: There is a relationship between price and consumer behavior in using e-shopping
The consumers are concern about price before purchase any products from e-shopping. The consumers have to see their own ability and also compare the price of the products from e-shopping with outlets physical. The relationship with the price with the consumer behavior as the consumers will focus on the products` price and compare with others market before making the purchases. As we know purchasing from the e-shopping can get the cheaper price compare to the outlets as the distribution channel are shorter and direct to the final buyers. It saves the cost of being charge by the intermediaries if via the e-shopping. Therefore, the prices are important issues toward the consumers' behaviors as well.
H1: There is a relationship between purchase location and consumer behavior in using e-shopping
There is the relationship between the purchase location and consumer behavior as the consumers prefer and feel safety to login to the website which is more secure and safety as well. The consumers are also concern about the attractive of their purchase location as high security website can provide them and protect their personal details and privacy. Besides that, the attraction of the website may captivate the consumers on keep visiting the website and purchase the purchases. So with the consumers' behavior, there is definitely that the consumers have related to the purchase location.
H1: There is a relationship between consumer attitude/personality and consumer behavior in using e-shopping
Consumers` attitude/ personality which related to the consumer behavior in term of affecting the consumers to purchase the products from e-shopping are quite important. The consumers have different attitude and motives them to enter to website to shopping. Besides that, the consumers which have good attitude towards internet may always login or visit to the website to select their purchases as well. Through the e-shopping, the consumers can directly save a lot of time and deliveries are done by the particular company as well. Different genders are also affects the consumers` attitude in purchasing the purchases via e-shopping as they have different attitude and also personality as well. Therefore, the consumers` attitude/personality is having closely relationship with the consumer behavior which motives the consumers in purchase the product.
3.1 Development of research questionnaire
In this research, there are using questionnaire to collect the primary data. The questionnaire will develop base on the previous study and also base on the objectives that have been discuss in chapter 1. Besides that, there are few samples or existing questionnaire which have been done by another researchers in the previous time so these information can guide and give exact direction on how to do the correct questionnaire.
There are 2 sections in the questionnaire. Section one of the questionnaire is demographic questions which are personal information of respondents. Section two of the questionnaire comprises question that related to the variable of this study. Likert Scale is used with a rating of 1 to 5 (1 = strongly disagree, 2 = disagree, 3 = either disagree or agree, 4 = agree, 5 = strongly agree).
3.2 Pilot Study
Pilot tests is small experiment designed to test logistics and gather information prior to larger study in order to establish reliability of the instrument in terms of accuracy and consistency (Doug, Norman, Innes, Michael, Jane, Laure, 2006). It also can reveal deficiencies in the design of a proposed experiment or procedure and these can then be addressed before time and resources are expended on large scale studies.
To increase the reliability of this study, response of 30 forum users will be obtained for this pilot study. The result that gathers from these respondents will help to improve the questionnaire's design.
3.3.0 Population and Sampling
A population is defined as a complete set of units of analysis that are under interest of researchers wishes to investigate (Sekaran, 2003). In this study will base on Melaka population who is working group people and at least age 30 above. Sample is a subset of units chosen for study from a population. This sample will be used in this study and it should able to draw conclusion that would generalize to the population.
Process of selecting a sufficient number of elements from the population is called sampling (Sekaran, 2003). This study will conduct by using the simple random sampling. Simple random sample is a subset of individuals chosen from a larger population. Each individual is chosen randomly and entirely by chance, such that each individual has the same probability of being chosen at any stage during the sampling process.
3.4 Data collection methods
Data refer as the relevant information from the past and present that are usually collected from the result of experience, observation or experiment (Sekaran, 2003). In this study, data are collected through the primary data and secondary data.
3.4.1 Primary Data
Primary data collected refer as the information obtained by the researcher that is specific issue or problem under the study. Therefore, sources of primary data are come from individual respondents, which mean that this research will not use any focus group or panels to investigate. In this study, the collection of data will be randomly from residents in Melaka by distributing of the questionnaires.
3.4.2 Secondary Data
Secondary data are collected through the existing information that already done by others researcher or others material. Sources of the secondary data can be obtained via the journals, reports, web site and also the books. The literature reviews from chapters 2 are the secondary data that are collected from the journals. This can help to determine the direction for primary data collection and to know about the research problem.
3.5 Data Analysis
Data analysis is a careful planned step in the business research process. This step should stem from a consideration of the purpose of the analysis, which is to identify the factors that affect attitude towards online purchasing, online purchase intention and in turn affect e-procrastination. After collecting data from respondents, we will use the following method to analyses:
3.5.1 Cronbach Alpha
Cronbach's alpha is an index of reliability associated with the variation accounted for by the true score of the "underlying construct." Construct is the hypothetical variable that is being measured (J.Reynaldo, 1999 and Hatcher, 1994)
Alpha coefficient ranges in value from 0 to 1 and may be used to describe the reliability of factors. The higher the score, the more reliable the generated scale. According to Nunnaly (1978), has indicated 0.7 to be an acceptable reliability coefficient but lower thresholds are sometimes used in the literature.
In this research, cronbach's alpha is an important analysis method to tests the reliability of all the items.
3.5.2 Pearson Correlation Analysis
Pearson correlation analysis is common measure of the correlation between two variable X and Y. It is very widely used in the sciences as a measure of the strength of linear dependence between two variables, giving a value between +1 and -1 inclusive. It was first introduced by Francis Galton in the 1880s, and is named after Karl Pearson.
3.5.3 Multiple Linear Regressions
Multiple linear regressions is a flexible method of data analysis that may be appropriate whenever a quantitative variable (dependent variable) is to be examined in relationship any other factors (independent variables), (Cohen, Cohen, West, & Aiken, 2003). It is based on least squares which the model is fit such that the sum-of-squares of differences of observed and predicted value is minimized. (GEOS, 2009, p. 1)
Y = A + B1X1+ B2X2+ â€¦+ BPXP + e
The beta value, B in multiple regressions is used in measuring how effectively the independent variable influences the dependent variable. In multiple regressions, it is measured in terms of standard deviation.
R, is the measure of association between the observed value and the predicted value of the dependent variable. R Square or R2 in multiple regressions is the square of the measure of association which indicates the variability in the dependent variable. Adjusted R2 takes the number of variables in the model and the number of data points in the model under consideration.
Software program will be use to sort the data into statistical form. The most common use of software is SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences).
SPSS is among the most widely used program for statistical analysis in social science. This program consists of different inferential statistical tools to assist analyst in having a more effective and efficient view. It is used by market researchers, health research, survey companies, government, education researchers, marketing organization and other. The SPSS manual (Nie, Norman, Bent, and Hull, 1970) has been described as 'Sociology's most influential book'. In addition to statistical analysis, data management and data documentation are features of the base software. Statistics included in the base software:
Cross tabulation, Frequencies, Descriptive, Explore, Description Ratio Statistics
Means, t-test, ANOVA, Correlation (bivariate, partial, distances), Nonparametric tests
(Source: developed for this study)