Concepts Of Leadership And Management Commerce Essay

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Leadership is influence - nothing more, nothing less. This how the famous writer James Maxwel defined Leadership. He said that it moves beyond defining the position of the leader, how the leader will influence others by his ability- both those who would consider themselves followers, and those outside that circle. Leadership has been defined as the process of influencing the behaviour and attitudes of others. Early assumptions about leaders being born or possessing particular qualities have not been borne out by research.

It is really hard to define leadership. It has become and continuously debased by how people overuse it. If you're going to browse the internet, most definitions will tell you the characteristics of the leader not on what they are doing. Leaders need followers and vice versa. There should be a symbiotic relationship between the two of them. If the subordinates don't have the willingness to follow what the leader has imposed, you cannot be consider a good leader despite the title and characteristics you have. Leadership is not a one-minute management because it requires skill. None of us is born to lead, we need humility and open-minded learning in order to utilise our skills in facing a challenging and difficult circumstances.

ABS-CBN Film Productions, Inc. popularly known as Star Cinema, is the biggest film outfit in the Philippines producing most of the highest grossing Filipino Films, it is owned by ABS-CBN Corporation which is considered as the country's largest network. In addition to that, the Star Cinema is also engaged into TV Programming for ABS-CBN. Our company's objective is to deliver to the Filipino moviegoer quality film entertainment while strengthening market leadership, profitability and internal organisation. In our workplace, we can merely and precisely say that we always observe leadership not in the sense that all of us will act as a leader but mainly on how we do our job in a manner that we can impose camaraderie in our team. To be a good leader, we need to devote all our time and energy, we need to see and understand what the problem is all about. We need to take into consideration the possible results of your action, overseeing the short and long term effects that could probably help or put danger to the organisation where you belong. A good and effective leadership is not just about having a position and telling our subordinates what to do but mostly on how we are going to inspire and develop a great team that will believe on the organisation's set of objectives.


When you hear the word influential person, who comes into your mind first? US President Barrack Obama? Queen Elizabeth? Mahatma Gandhi? Saddam Hussein? Yeah, you're right. They leave an important mark and contribution in the world based on their field of works. The above photo shows the Time Magazine Most Influential People in the World as of 2012. In an article written by Rick Stengel (April, 2012) entitled A World of Possibilities, he said that the nature of influence changes. It can be gleaned from the ideas during the medieval years up to now that we have the magical power of social media like facebook, twitter and the like. To summed it up, in a simpler way, we can define leadership as (1) leading people (2) influencing people (3) commanding people and (4) guiding people.

There are different kinds of leaders:

1. Leader by the position achieved. (for example those who have been elected in a governmental position like US President Barrack Obama)

2. Leader by personality and charisma (personal power)

3. Leader by moral example (e.g. Mother Teresa)

4. Leader by power held

5. Intellectual leader (e.g Steve Jobs)

6. Leader because of the ability to accomplish things.


1. Traits Theory. Assumes that individuals have inherent personal characteristics that enable them to be leaders. There are three assumptions that can be gleaned in the traits theory: (1) effective leadership relies on personal traits, (2) traits are stable and transferable across situations and lastly (3) traits are identifiable and measurable.

To be a part of the film production company is not an easy job. We should have a broader and wider understanding where an organisation is at today and oversee the direction in which an organisation has to change o survive and flourish. Leaders tend to be good at carrying through the process of change because they have the clearer view of the start and end point. He has the ability to see through the details and small setbacks which are a part of any change. They are excellent at motivating the people in the workplace and give them the opportunity to perform at their best. Basically, they are good in motivating others to change not only their totality as a being but also as part of the organisation.

For example, in our organisation, what we can contribute to the Film Production company is our ability to encourage each member of the group to take part in the decision making process- persuade and at the same time consult them before making a big major decision. As a leader, they all looked up to you, what they see is what they're going to follow because obviously you are on the highest position. Aside from that, we need to develop a clearer vision of what we want to achieve in the next year, 10 years, 20 years so on and so forth, so we will have an step-by-step idea on how to achieve it.

2. Style Theory. Leaders display a variety of behavioural styles that have specific effects on their followers. There are three types of styles:

Autocratic Leaders. Those who exercise strong control over subordinates and make all major decisions. This leadership style primarily focuses on the set of objectives and how to allocate tasks to every member of the organisation, that's why the group become dependent on him or her. The result of this style is that members of the group are often dissatisfied with the leader and this will basically leads to little cohesion, need for high levels of supervision and poor levels of motivation amongst employees.

Democratic Leaders. Those who actively involves subordinates in decision making. This leadership style primarily focuses on the set of objectives and how to allocate tasks to every member of the organisation, that's why the group become dependent on him or her. The result of this style is that members of the group are often dissatisfied with the leader and this will basically leads to little cohesion, need for high levels of supervision and poor levels of motivation amongst employees.

Laissez Faire leaders abdicate leadership responsibility. This style encourages participation in the decision making process. It can be persuasive wherein the leader has already made a decision but takes the time to persuade others that it is a good idea. For example, we decided to hire or employ outside staff for a certain position and persuade our old production staff that this might probably ease their workloads; the other one is consultative wherein the leaders consults others about their views before making a decision. For example, we want to invest or produce a movie for a phenomenal star; we are not going to pursue the said film unless they've got the views and opinions of our members.


Basically, there are four factors or challenges of leadership and management. As a good leader, we should have a clearer understanding of our position and who we are. What are our capabilities and what we are going to do if there is an organisational crisis? The success of the leader cannot be attributed on the leader itself but on his or her followers. If the member of the organisation do not trust their leader or vice versa, they will be uninspired.

Not all individuals are exactly the same. Similar to leadership and management, each of us requires a different approach in the styles of leadership. Example, in our organisation, there is a different treatment between the normal employee and those who undergo an on the-job training (OJT). The regular staffs doesn't need much of the supervision because they have been in organisation for a long time unlike those whose on OJT that really needs to be supervised and teach the rudiments of being a media practitioner. If the staff lacks motivation then he or she is required to a higher degree of motivation.

Communication. Communication has the greatest impact on the success of our organisation, there should be an open and a two way communication between our staff and the top management most especially when we are facing a crisis situation. Remember that the way and how we communicate with our staff will build or trigger our relationship with them.

We know for a fact that situations are totally different. One situation does not automatically mean that it will work in another, what is needed is to use instincts and judgement for us to know what actions and leadership styles are we going to take. I will give a film production scenario, example; one of our staffs forgot to inform the lead actor that he is scheduled to shoot for an important scene in the movie. Unluckily, the actor was out of the country due to prior commitments. The scene needs to be shot for TV promotions and advertisement to be aired the following day. As a manager or leader, we need to use our position to talk in a nice manner, not too harsh, not too weak but on the proper state of mind. We need to listen to the side of the staff on why that certain things happened and look for possible solutions to overcome the said scenario.



The goal-oriented characteristic that can help a person in achieving his or her goal is Motivation. As a leader, we need to ensure that our organisation has the same ethics and morals that we seek from our staff. We should make sure that the staffs are highly motivated, encouraged and trained in a way that it will meet the needs of the organisation. The key motivators that might influence you to achieve your desired goal are appreciation and rewards. In our organisation, we give rewards to our staff for showing an exceptional behaviour towards his or her work. We give them a token or certificate of appreciation wherein we mention the act in which the individual is being rewarded. Aside from that, we make our employees feel that they're doing an important task or work which is necessary for the well-being and success of the organisation, in this example, the Two-factor Theory by Herzberg will now arise. To further understand this theory, let's put it this way:


The job and its descriptions Salary and Wages

Recognition General working conditions and


Prospects for promotion Working relationships

Sense of achievement and satisfaction Incentives and benefits

Administration and company policy Personal advancement and growth

Interpersonal relationships Leadership skills and traits displayed

by managers

The next theory associated to the organisational success is the Goal Theory. This is the theory formulated by Locke which is based on the premise that individuals and team will be motivates if:

Managers set SMART or Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic and Time Scaled goals and objective for individuals and teams and give them direct feedback on their performance. Basically, we are going to succeed if our goals are clear and we know exactly what do we want achieved. We can barely say that it has been achieved because we have thw way in measuring its completion.

Managers provide support, advice and guidance if the goals and objectives set are perceived as difficult or unachievable. The success of the organisation relies on parties, the leader and subordinates. If we saw that something is not on track or the set of goals are unachievable, we need to make a new plan, plan b, plan c, plan d so on and so forth.

Manager set higher goals for them to achieve. We need to see our capacity and ability before setting up or goals. If it's attainable, then go for it and if not try to do some adjustments.

In an article written by Kristine Tucker entitled What Is Management Leadership's Role in Motivating Employees? she said that as a manager in an organisation, we must find a way on how are we going to motivate our employees in order to ensure that you are satisfied with your job. We cannot force you to be successful in what you are doing but at least we can help and motivate you by giving a fair treatment, compensation and incentives. Basically, this is the major role of leadership and management for an employee like you, to be motivated and be the best that you can be. Some of the roles are as follow:

Making sure that the goals of our organisation are clear to you. Misunderstanding of goals may leads to disappointment and eventually to failure.

Assess the staffs underlying motivations and most especially the work responsibilities..

Motivates our staff to pursue excellence.

Be fair. Create a fair system of benefits, rewards, incentives and word of encouragement.

Performance Management is a process wherein the aim is to improve the performance of the staff based on measurement, appraisal, action and monitoring. It is often used in two ways: (1) A process of maximising the performance of an individual, team or even the organisation and (2) a way of dealing with underperforming individuals.


1. Usually collaborative between management and staff

2. Can be informal with written records only recording revised targets.

3. Is a cyclical process, one of constant improvement?

4. Often involves analysis of the process


1. Involves more confrontation

2. Is a formal process with each step being written down

3. Is a process that escalates into disciplinary proceedings, possibly concluding with termination of employment?

4. Often involves analysis of one individuals' behaviour or attitudes.

The performance of our organisation can be measured or attributed in this saying, "you can't tell success from failure and thus you can't claim or reward success or avoid unintentionally rewarding failure." Performance Measures are developed to determine the gap between the targeted performance and the performance itself wherein the effectiveness and efficiency are highly observed. Good performance must show that the strategy is working and our employees' attention must focus on the success so we will be able to measure the accomplishment not only the performance. Performance Appraisal will now arise. It is essential for the effective management and evaluation of staff and the performance of the organisation that can be a great help in the future. Appraisals are important to monitor if the staff are highly motivated and if the goals of the organisation are being achieved. In our organisation, the 360 feedback can be applied to improve managerial effectiveness since it will measure the staff behaviours and competencies. It will not only come from the manager but also to the subordinates. In a big organisation like film production, it is good to get feedback from one staff to another so we can tell them what to improve in a specific task. The purpose of this is not to see your flaws but to motivate you to aim high and go further because wherever the organisation is your part of its success. Remember that we cannot achieve the goals that we want if we our afraid of failures. That's life, after the failure, success will follow. We cannot get the result in just a snap our fingers, we just have to be patient and do the best that we can be then will get rewarded from it.



Groups or Teams can be defined as any number of people who interact with each other and perceived themselves as part of the group, interacting with different kinds of people in all walks of life towards the achievement of the organisation's goal and its success.

We know for a fact that majority of the organisation's business activities today are being run by groups or commonly known as teams. In any organisation, it will be a great help to distribute large tasks into component parts wherein there is a sharing of different experiences and essential knowledge in the field where you belong. George and Jones (2002) in their book entitled Understanding and Managing Organisational Behaviour said that social science focusing on the nature of groups including those that govern the formation and development has a greater impact with the relationship of an individual towards the group or teams.

Basically, groups or teams can be divided into two types. It can be:

FORMAL which primarily focuses on setting up the virtue of the organisation's structure, the purpose of this is to coordinate and eventually complete the key task. In our organisation, the decision will not only come from the top management but most especially to our staff or subordinates. We cannot decide on a certain things without considering the opinions and views of our member. It should be a two-way communication for the organisation to prosper.

INFORMAL which primarily focuses on the fulfilment of the organisation's members social needs. In our organisation, to be able to succeed, we shouldn't just work for us to be paid but to be able to improve and put the organisaton on top in order for us to meet our social needs. The success of the organisation is not for its name alone bust most especially to the staff who are apart of it.


Each one of us is dependent with our colleagues to work as one and make a contribution to our organisation. We can't work alone; we need to seek some help to our fellow employees to accomplish a certain task, efficiently and effectively. It is better to work as a group or team rather than to work alone, as what the saying goes, one for all, for one. We can contribute great inputs if we will share it with other members of the organisation. We might have different views towards the achievement of our goals but at the end of the day we will be able to sum it up and form it as one. Every group or team should have a team leader who will act as the top person, we should have the ability to bind the team together and bring out the best with our team member. We should be able to give inspiration to our subordinates and be a role model to them.

An effective team leader is one who:

Sets organisation's goal and objective.

Practice impartiality. We should treat the members of the team equal and fair because if not it will lead to conflicts and negativity.

Constantly motivates team members. Never ever make fun of their mistakes but instead try to correct them in a nice manner.

Encourage each member to promote camaraderie. In case of a group conflict or miscommunication, don't you ever add fuel to the fire rather make a way on how to resolve in immediately. Remember, there are two sides of the story, try to listen on both sides before making an action.

Act as mentor to the team members. You need to stand by your team, always. Give credit to whom the credit is due.

Has the capacity of bringing the members closer. Try to break the ice among the staff. They need to get out from their comfort zone.

Monitor the staff's performance regularly.


EFFECTIVE TEAM LEADERSHIP. The success of our organisation will depend on our ability to build a stable team. Teams' effectiveness can be attributed on how we perform our task as a member. If we're doing the things that the top management asked every one of us to do, then we can say that we fully understand our role and responsibilities in the organisation. If the members of the team or group will come together to perform on a common goal with a common objective, therefore a team or group is formed. We must complement each other and work as one to deliver and give the best in us.

CONFLICT. Conflicts are everywhere and it is definitely inevitable but we have the capacity and ability on how to overcome it. The problem with most of us, we tend to be over-optimistic wherein we perceived things and act as if we can do it without looking on the consequences of our actions and because of that we tend to fail. Conflict is not a bad thing, sometimes it serves as a motivating factor to do certain things on track.

We can't deny the fact that we will be able to face different conflicts in team leadership. Competition between the members is one of the examples. There may be a clash in the personality of one staff to another and because of that the breakdown in communication will now arise. This kind of conflict in teams can be surpassed or managed by (1) gathering the facts and identifying why the problem arise (2) both parties should be open about the conflict (3) encouraging those who are involved to talk about the conflict and lastly (4) using mediation from the third party.

COMMUNICATION. Communication plays a vital role in organisational success. Though barriers may arise anytime, we should bear in our minds that open communication is needed to overcome it. The quality of the work depends upon the quality of information that we shared. Our ability to understand and communicate adequate information enables us to work together collaboratively.


To wrap it all up, leadership and management are very much related to each other. If there's no leadership we'll be having poor management in our organisation and vice versa. Learning must be a continuous process, it shouldn't stop. In a film production company, we still provide trainings and workshops for our staff to fully equip them with practical applications in the field. We need to bear in our minds that team work is the main key to the success of the organisation. As what the saying goes, THERE'S NO I IN TEAM WORK. We should work not only for our own benefit but most especially for the success of the company where we belong. Remember that the image of the organisation is the reflection of how we do our job.