The complexity in the organizational structures calls for ways that interpret the themes and guide lines that are used in the organization day to day operation. There are several approaches that have been used in organization and therefore a decisive explanation of the behavior of organizations becomes rather unreachable. It therefore means that for better understanding of an organization behavior, any approach should focus on specific goal and its approach has to be decisive, in doing so, the effects of compromise can be avoided while achieving insights into the organization but most importantly the theory of radical organization may withstand the abstractive intension of some people.
The view point from people with different t perspectives should not be ignored in the formulation of the organizational theories because the build up of evidences from the different approaches that had their ups and downs does not help in the development of batter theories but the clash of view points does encourage self learning and thus will facilitate the development of better theories. It is therefore advisable that in the running of organizations, through extensive sharing of ideas, debate of differences and building of consensus, a common ground should be reached. Proper policies and theories should be put in the organization in order that the day to day running of the institution is made easier and accountable.
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Bureaucracy is a form of management structures used in the organizations, it is a structure that does is specific to the authoritative hierarchy. Indeed Mabey, Salaman & Storey (1998) propose that bureaucracy can be defined as either, a clear work division having defined boundaries to specified responsibilities and involves the officials performing strictly the work that is assigned to them, or that it is defined rules that are accompanied by formal documentation specifying the actions and specific decisions that one can take in relation to his assigned duties.
Impersonality was achieved by using the policy of bureaucracy. Bureaucracy helped a great deal in eliminating favoritism where if an official was not guided on the decisions ha can take and when he can take them then it possible that he may take some decisions not because of their necessity to the organization but because of his own personal interest. The problem of nepotism was also eliminated by the proper us of bureaucracy, in the case were appointment are made in a organization, be it a promotional appointment or a fresh appointment, it is natural that a person would want to work close t those he knows say from the same tribe or nationality, given a chance then he would appoint people that are known to him but with bureaucracy the responsibility is for someone else therefore there would be no prior considerations for the appointment on the basis of familiarity with an individual. The decisions that are made in a company would be uninformed because of lack of knowledge in the specified area but with bureaucracy the responsibility that is given to the individual is in his area of expertise and therefore all the decisions he makes would be relevant (Mabey, Salaman & Storey, 1998.p234).
Even as bureaucracy has been found to be of importance in the running of organizations if not properly implemented, it may lead to various negative effects which includes rigidity, considering the fact that emphasize are put on control in a particular institution, then it may be very possible for the official in this department to strictly stick to the specified duties that have been assigned to him and in the case that he may be of use in a deferent department in the same institution , he can not help because the only place where his contribution are accepted is in his department, further more, a person may refuse deliberately to help other departments of the institution defending himself by the fact that the bureaucratic rule does tie him to a specific section.
Focus changes from the organizations goal to departmental goals is a negative effect that can arise as a result of bureaucracy. The leaders of the various departments are forced to focus on their department because of the division of task, he therefore will appoint the members of his department t to the functions that are in the department so tat any other need that may arise and is of importance to the institution is left an attended to. The success of the department will also be of importance to its members as opposed to the general success of the institution (Mabey, Salaman & Storey, 1998.p234).
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The set rules and the procedures tat are followed in an institution may be null because all the focus will be turned to the bureaucratic rules of the departments. Because of bureaucracy and the focus on the specialized areas of the institutions then people will concentrate much on the performance of their departments therefore making the acceptable behavior to be based on targets alone. This may also be negative impact caused b y bureaucracy.
The major negative impact that has been observed as a result of bureaucracy is the develop conflicts within institutions, individuals in the department are directly controlled by the leader of their department, in the case that some other official require that something is done by a junior staff in the institution then the staff may be confused on whose orders to take, this in turn may lead to power conflict between the leaders in the institution. In the same way the junior staff may feel obliged to respect and follow the orders of his departmental leader alone so that when he is required by a different leader to perform some duty he will refuse, this way bureaucracy leads to resistance.
However, irrespective of the various difficulties and dysfunctions in the use of the bureaucratic policy, it has been observed that world wide most of the well developed companies are still in nature bureaucratic. This is because through the bureaucratic structure the goals of the companies are met. Bureaucracy can not be written off but there is need for its close monitoring. Various other forms of structures have been improved, for example, the number of hierarchical levels have been reduced by delayering, the initial narrow job specification have been replaced by the flexible kind of jobs, the concentration on individual accountability has been replaced by the focus on teamwork, empowerment has replaced the numerous qualifications to formal kinds of job. In spite of all these experimental adjustments, initiatives and program changes the features of the bureaucracy are still present and await further adjustments in the future. The reason for the bureaucracy resilience may be because it actually carries many advantages that are productive in the organization (Mabey, Salaman & Storey, 1998.p236)
The organizational theories are diverse and complex; it is therefore easier to understand them by subdividing them into closely related axes: deterministic interpretativist and technocratic critical axes. Derteministivist-interpretativist focuses on differentiating between the approaches that concentrate on the assessment of organizations through the scientific and purpose way while relating the assessment to the existing structural conditions as well as the requirements and the approaches that concentrate on the undefined and dependent nature of reality, the effects of human interaction, unintended repercussions of mans activities and the interpretation influence.
On the other hand, the technocratic critical axis is a political scale representative. On one end of this axis, focus is based on the business consultants to whom the organizational theories are realistically positioned facilities for the efficiency improvement of the organizations on the other end of this axis are the explanations of organization and the social effects of the of the organization to the members and to the surrounding society is of more importance than the progress of the company in terms of profits and losses. This axis does concentrate on the sociological approach in the sense that it does effect the organizational growth.
By the considering the social effects to an organization, human relation is a key factor that has an impact socially. It has been observed that the informal work groups are more important to those in high positions in organizations than those in low positions, this is because, those in the management level are more likely to have travelled further away from their families as opposed to those in low management level. The fact that the employees interact with one another more often means that there will be growth in the understanding between the colleagues thereby enhancing support among the members. In the case that the management interacts freely with the junior staff then performance and productivity may as well be improved, through constant interaction between the management and the junior workers, it is possible for the management to understand the problems that they face in the organization and therefore improve. In some cases, the interaction with the junior staff gives room to share ideas that may be very constructive in the further improvement of the organization (Henderson, 1996.p3). Further human relation concentrates on the individual employee in relation to his psychological needs as well as the social needs, in doing this the employee feel well appreciated and thus may encourage him in doing the organizations responsibilities to the best of his knowledge.
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The interaction of the management and the workers can further be of very important contribution to the neo-human relations, this interaction may help the management appreciate the workers by motivating them whenever they perform better, when workers are appreciated it gives them the sense of completion among tem therefore improving g the productivity. The better ways of appreciation to the employees are symbolic and often psychological rather than materialistic search as promotions. Although the interactions of the management and the employees can help improve in performance, if not properly managed then performance can further depreciate, it has been observed from research carried out in Britain show that even without interactions and motivation of the employees, the productivity of the organization can still improve (Grint, 2005.p125).
Solutions to the organization problems can be solved through strategic planning which may be specified under the organization cultures. It is important for an organization to build some culture in its members; this is possible through the recruitment of likeminded people and the encouraging of the labor market internally. By promoting people from within the organization means that whatever that was being done in the company to enhance the good performance of the company will still be maintained (Blyton& Turnbull, 1992.p93)
The maintaining of culture in the organization poses danger as well because in the case that while in sourcing the was a bad habit that has develop in the company, the same may be maintained, further the tension between the members of the organization can not be easily solved by a member who was a part of it in the near past. In the case that there are few promotion opportunities, and then some workers may feel unappreciated and therefore quite the job.
The understanding of the behavior of an organization can help a great deal in the improvement of performance and well being of the members. According to the system theory, the interaction between and the relationship between two or more elements explains the behavior of a whole. Through the proper analysis of any organizations rules the behavior of the company may be predicted. It is observed that the behavior of any company may easily be monitored if the rules placed are specific to the company, in the case that the rules applied can be interfered with externally then the behavior within the company is easily changed. The demand by this theory tat an organization needs to have an equilibrium position for its behavior means that the human needs are not considered, furthermore we say that the needs of the human beings are the ones that control the organization and not vice versa (Kirschkamp,2007. P74).
The contingency theorem is one of the most appreciated theorems in a long time, according to this theorem, in order that an organization is run effectively there should be a match between the organization internally and the kind of demands that are required of it by the task it performs, the surrounding environment and the specific needs of the individual members. The contingency theory is based on the possibility of the occurrence of a task so that if it is uncertain that the higher the level of uncertainty then the official, centralized and particular the arrangement of an organization can be. All these originate from the hierarchy at low stages. Organization theory is based on the assumption that the characteristics of an organization should be shaped in way that the situation circumstances are met (Bacher, 2007.p2).
The human behavior that lock him to the rational behavior and are rooted in economics but still having its base on the human actions beliefs forms the rational choice theorem. Human beings do not have general psychological states that make them to act rationally, it is only the models that make the assumption that human beings act rationally. Rational approach is based on the economical rational so that the exchange that are considered are economic in nature such as the consideration of exchanging time for an amount of money so long as whoever takes the bargain gets the satisfactions of the transaction. This theory has been unfairly employed by the managers who think that the employeesââ‚¬â„¢ behavior is predictable so that they underpay the employees. The understanding of the rational theorem should help the organization to get a suitable and fair price for the services that are offered by the various employees. The employees should use the rational to ensure that whatever they offer is fairly paid for and that the services they offer are good so that whatever they earn is fairly earned (Henderson, 1996.p67).
Understanding of the theories and structures that are employed in the human resource management not only helps in the growth of the organization but also helps in the growth of the individual employees. The theories help understand how the rules and regulation of the organization are set, this therefore ensures that every member of the organization knows what is required of him in terms of the importance of strictly following the rule.
The interaction between the management and the workers is very important in that it enables the organization to improve by eliminating the factors that the members feel that it does hinder the productivity of the organization. The interaction further helps the organization in understanding of the employees and finds better ways of motivating them. The understanding of these theories further helps in making decisions, which steps to take in order that the organization works in the most favorable way for it has been observed that even as some of the structures an d models are important in improving the welfare of the organization some are counter productive hence cautions should be taken when using them.