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In this fast moving world of business it has become very competitive for businesses. If we look at the infrastructure of the organizations we will be able to see the transitional changes taking place in the organizations to co-op with the fast changes. This management topic has been very interesting from the beginning. The operation has been also very interesting. Sometime it has been named as the gatekeeper of the business organizations. After centuries have passed businesses started to evolve into much complex than ever and the evolvement process didn't stop there it is still evolving according to the organizations, societies or the individuals needs.
Personnel Management is small part of the Human Resource Management. It has been focusing on much sophisticated matter which cannot be looked into in a much bigger scale with all other factors which are also necessary to the business organizations. By narrowing down the knowledge base of this business management it has focused into the personnel of the business organizations who are basically the assets of the business organizations. The significant changes that can be made through personnel development is also a key topic for this business management.
Career aspiration has always been driving people for the better choice to be made. According to Skovholt and Morgan "Career development themes lie at the core of the self image of men and at the core of the evaluation others make of men." (Skovolt & Morgan, 1981)
To have a better understanding of this submerged issue of the business organizations we will have to look a bit deeper into the key elements that make all these possible. As we all know that it is easy to make changes in a business organizations on the other hand it is very hard to maintain the changes as well increase the organizations profitability at the same time. In this matter these factors comes very handy. We can see from Bourdieu's capital, habitus and field concept Mayerhofer, et.al (2000) different fields of careers resulting from an interplay of the two dimensions: coupling and configuration between individuals.
These four fields of career has been seen in two different phases which are,
Stable phase of career
Unstable phase of career
Figure : 1
There are two stable phase of careers
Company world (tight)
Self employment (loose)
And the two phases of the unstable careers are
Free floating professionalism (tight)
Chronic flexibility (loose)
There are many factors that helped the organizations to figure out the find out the people according to their needs. There are many issues that the organizations considers very important in-terms of recruiting. One of the most important one of them is the personality of the person. This has been the main issue because different organizations stands on the base of different cultures and the cultural issues take affect when a new starter joins the organizations otherwise you don't feel the difference of the cultures. This has been named as the person environment fit.
The framework of person environment fit has its long history. The concept of person environment fit basically indicates that alignment between characteristics of people and their environments results in positive outcomes for individuals and organizations. (Schneider, Smith & Goldstein, 2000)
Fundamentally, it is not a strong relationship that guarantees a successful hire - although, granted it helps to build an understanding of the vacancy and client. More importantly, it is actually the ability to attract and influence the best candidates on the market that actually fills a job. This is where the reliance on a sole Recruiter often leads to vital positions remaining vacant for far too long. The "360 degree" recruitment model that has developed over the past 30 years sees individual Recruiters managing the staff hiring for a variety of clients. Sadly, there are just not enough hours in the day for the typical Recruiter to deliver the half dozen-or-so applicants necessary for each role. Therefore, positions are neglected and remain unfilled. The client's perception of the process is that the Recruiter is busy, levering away on their role whereas in reality they are simply one of many balls being juggled - and often dropped. Simple. A spec is delivered to the Account Manager and then the team is briefed on the role. They search and select the best candidates on the market and don't stop until the position is filled. Web based recruiters offering flat fees and fixed prices are a false economy warns a specialist recruitment expert. The 'pile 'em high and sell 'em cheap' ethos of online agencies may offer headline savings but it fails to find that 'perfect fit', according to recruitment boss, Andrew Hardaker. Andrew, Managing Director of ATA Selection, cautioned: "The prospect of a fixed price or flat fee for finding a candidate may sound appealing but firms could be wasting their money. "Web agencies are guaranteeing to fill vacancies for low fees but good recruitment isn't about simply filling vacancies. "Yes, you will get a candidate but is it the right candidate? "Good, effective recruitment is matching the best candidate possible to the role and that requires a lot more than scanning a CV and having a quick chat on the phone.
"It also requires strong market knowledge and not the blanket approach often adopted by web recruiters who are tapping into many and diverse employment sectors."
Andrew Hardaker said: "Finding candidates who are best suited to a business is a laborious job. The candidate's CV and experience, personality and career aspirations all have to be considered.
"Fail to do this properly and a business may well end up with a disgruntled employee whose productivity is poor, who undermines team morale and who soon seeks another job so you are back to square one and facing further recruitment costs and loss of productivity which can hit profit.
"Using a specialist recruitment company, with experience in your field, is more likely to provide you with that perfect fit, a happy, productive employee who will stay with you for the long term.
E-recruitment, also known as online recruitment, is the use of technology to attract candidates and aid the recruitment process. The use of technology within human resource management has grown considerably in recent years: a CIPD survey in 2005 showed that 77% of organisations used some form of human resources information system and 51% of organisations reported that their use of technology systems were for recruitment and selection purposes.
Similarly, almost two-thirds of respondees to our Recruitment, retention and turnover 2006 survey described themselves as using e-recruitment.
Many different organisations use e-recruitment as a cost-effective method of recruiting new staff. It is popular among job-seekers - latest figures from the British Market Research Bureau show that using the Internet is the favoured job-hunting method for one in four UK adults, with the most likely job hunter to be 33 years old with 11 years experience, according to the National Online Recruitment Audience Survey (NORAS). It is important to remember when designing a recruitment campaign that online job hunting is not the first choice for all.
Recommended recruitment steps
Resource Planning - Establishing the type and number of job vacancies. This is the first step for the organizations to take before they go public to recruit. They will have justify the existence of the vacancy. In this step they will need to term time of the employment. That means they will have to define the duration of the employment with the organization they have announced the vacancy for. The number of the vacancies they have for the same post. They will also have to find out the criteria of the vacancies they are announcing. Organizations will have to take time get the proper information for the vacancies they have. For the recruitment they will have involve the Human Resource team who will monitor and directly get involved in the recruitment and selection process. They will have to make a checklist for the personality and the qualities they are going to look for in the candidates. If they spend some time behind this small issues the whole job will become easier for the HR. They will also have to consider the packages they will offer to the candidates to make vacancy announcement more attractive. Which will have to include training and development for the selected candidates; Which will meet the business needs.
Defining the job requirements. This is also a very important step for the recruitment process. This is going to contain the major responsibility of the job the organization has is going to offer. They will have to spend time to increase the accuracy of the information. The information about the key competencies the candidates must have, skills, experience, personality, any qualification or professional certifications needed for the job should be considered with careful observation.
In-order to get the information right at the first time they will have to check their ideas with the senior managers of the team and the departments. They will have to use their company competency framework if they have one to get it right in the first time.
Defining the job; This is a critical but sometimes overlooked part of a quality recruitment and selection process. Getting this part right will give you something against which to judge the job candidates and help the decision making process - in terms of both time and quality.
It is also important to focus on the needs of the job rather than what the current (or previous) job holder did or did not do. The key information the recruitment team will have to keep in mind are
What is the key purpose of the job?
How does it fit into the organisation?
Have you a job description?
What are the outputs required?
What are the dimensions - responsibility in terms of budget, assets, people
What are the legally required, if any, qualifications, certification?
If you use a job evaluation system or salary benchmarking, you need to ask if the job been assessed?
Short-listing; this is the filter for the whole recruitment process. From this point recruitment team starts to select candidates depending on the information provided information in the initial applications. This part includes Paper screening, telephone interviewing, ability testing etc. In this phase they will have to keep in mind are they short-listing focusing on the job needs. They will also have consider all evidence and make notes along the way for the nest steps. Its better if the team has 3-5 people just to do the screening process.
Attracting the right people; Creating a suitable candidate pool from which to select is important. Too big and you waste a lot of time; two small and you will not know if you have got the best job candidate possible.
Creativity and imagination are important at this stage of the process - the more ideas you have as to sources the candidates the better and if the sources are 'less apparent' the greater your chances of finding people that your competitors have not found.
Think also about your team and the need to have balance in terms of the mix of backgrounds, and approaches if you are going to achieve high performance.
Making the decision; this part plays a vital role in the selection process. The team will have combine and compare the information they are going to get from the candidates and what they already have. In this way by balancing the information they will be able to make sure the selected applicants are providing the right information and they fulfil the base threshold for this job. Which will help the recruiters to make a fair decision on the candidates. The key fields they will have to look after at this point forward are,
Get more information if you do not have enough
Refer back to your original requirements
Make notes on your decision
Consider weaknesses against strength; assess the relative risks. Consider also how their weaknesses will fit with/can be compensated by the current team and the particular manager.
Look at the work environment and context. If you have a number of other people doing a similar job who are available to give some help and guidance it is more plausible to bring in someone with less experience and train them up. If the individual is going to be a sole operator with nobody to check things with then they need to be fully qualified and competent.
Collecting the data on candidates; Clearly this is a key stage and one that decided the outcome of your recruitment in terms of finding the right job candidate for you. Your ability to build an accurate picture of the candidate both in terms of experience and capability but also motivation and behaviour will make the difference between an acceptable (or poor) hire and an exceptional one.
The process is all about filtering down the number of candidates until you get to the number you wish to appoint.
Medical Checks of prospective employees; this part is just to clarify whether the candidates have any critical condition and if they are perfectly fit for the job physically.
Medicals are a good idea but must be conducted by a professional.
Information arising from a medical review, needs to be used appropriately.
References; this should be the priority one to cross check the references provided in the application to check their past history whether they have any disturbing history which will help the recruitment team to come to a decision.
Internal references can be an excellent source of information if completed accurately.
If a manager is recommending a number of candidates it is good HR practice to get them to rank them in terms of suitability
Bear in mind that one person's 'very good', is another person's 'fantastic' and take this into account when evaluating internal references
Consider the benefits of using an external pre-employment checking bureau - they are set up to check qualifications, job history and other key but critical facts and can do so very effectively
Feedback; this is a aspect that can be overlooked or delayed. For internal candidates giving feedback is an essential part of their growth and development and to not do so means a real development opportunity is missed.
Appointing; Getting this process right can require some careful logistics. Nobody wants to find out they were the back-up job candidate but equally it is sensible to have one.
This is also the phase where the negotiations start, candidates want to have information on job salary and terms and conditions and other 'stuff'. Be prepared for this and avoid getting into a negotiation - use your HR partner if you have one, if not be clear yourself where you are and where you are not flexible. Remember the process/experience will be critical to candidate's decision but equally you cannot just say yes to everything. Be prepared for a candidate wanting to come back in to meet people and have a look around.
Agree the terms and conditions in advance with HR
Consider the timing carefully especially if you have an internal appointment and need to manage the back up candidates
Consider giving a 'respond by' date on your letter (to avoid having to chase things and impose one later). Candidates are sometimes juggling a number of offers and potential offers and you need to be clear about when you expect to hear so you are not kept waiting indefinitely. Clearly you can be flexible with this following discussion with the candidate but being clear up front makes this much easier
Performance evaluation and selection process validation; If you are serious about ensuring you consistently attract, select and retain the best talent you will give this stage the focus it deserves. You need to validate you selection methodologies and your decision making.
Compare subsequent assessments of performance by the successful individual against your evaluation of likely strengths and areas for development - this is useful learning. Make notes at the time of appointment (do not rely on your memory) about where you think the weaknesses and strengths of the work candidate lie and check against this at regular intervals. It is critical to honing your recruitment skills
Induction; There is a lot of evidence to support the correlation between a good induction process and the time a new employee takes to become fully effective. It can also play a role in the retention of that individual.
Yet interestingly it is often an overlooked or badly managed process. Frequently an employer will spend lots of time and money hiring someone and yet are happy for them to turn up to a workspace with no stationary or computer and be left to 'read about the company' for hours on end.
Identify something tangible and useful the individual can do in their first week which they can do during any 'down time'. Frequently something which benefits from a fresh view can be useful - or something that is needed but has just never managed to be fit in