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Achievement of the company's goal is the ultimate aim of the employers in the company. For this effective utilisation of human resources is very important .Here in the present scenario people coming from different backgrounds such as from different nations, different states, different religions works together in the same company or they works on a partnership basis..nowadays its very common that many companies merge together and they do the business together .Differences of opinion may arise here .
Management of these differences of opinions effectively and motivating the employees of different walks of life to work together for achieving the organisational objective is the most important function a company has to undergo and perform on a daily basis. A successful manager is a person who carries out these operations.
A manager is a person who should be aware of the complexities of various cultures with which he deals with also the manager must understand the various phases and methods of preparing the employees of the organisation to work in a single group besides their cultural differences .only by having a sound knowledge about managing the people from different cultures, the company can satisfy the employees need which in turn helps the whole company to perform to the full extend.
Culture is the eye through which a person views the scenario. It may be defined as set of ideas beliefs and thoughts by which a person acts. Culture in an individual is shaped up through different sources .They may be family, friends, nationality, community and that individual's religion or the person's backgrounds. There is unique identity for an individual which is identified by others through that particular person's culture. Every individual is ethnocentric. This means a person consider his/her culture as superior to other cultures.
Ethnocentrism creates problem between persons who hails from different cultures. In the rapidly growing global economy it is usual that people from different cultures need to interact frequently and work together in the same company or in the same organisations. There are several points to keep in mind by a person before handling various people who comes from different cultures. This report helps in understanding some of the key factors which need to be remembered while making cross cultural interactions and communications.
One of the important aspects of successful management is proper communication. Effective management of human resource can be done only with good communication between the employees and their superiors. Earlier management of people in the organisation were much easier compared to the present day situation because in the past organisation comprised of people from same culture that means they came from same country and they had similar taste and preference but now the scenario has changed the number of countries engaged in international trade has rapidly increased. This also increased the diversification of companies and the number of employees working in the organisation hails from different countries has also been increased enormously. Here the task of manager to perform his duties is comparatively tough.
Differences of opinion may come up among employees, sometimes it may lead to conflict between them also it will affect the company's overall performance. Due to the differences of taste and preference or the different attitudes or behavioural pattern of the people, the person handling them or their superior should be very careful while making a decision which directly or indirectly affects them. The decisions made by the superiors should never hurt the people's feelings or sentimence in the organisation and also it should not be a biased one. Favouring a particular culture and making decisions to help a particular group will only do harm to the company. So the understanding of each and every culture which the company deals with is very important factor.
Company need to respect every culture and should try to avoid the differences of opinions as quickly as possible. They also should try to bring mutual respect among people who comes from different cultures For e.g.: in some part of the world looking into the eyes of the person to whom one speak is considered as wrong but in some other parts it is viewed as honesty.
Meaning of a gesture in different parts of the world:
In the above shown image, one can understand the differences in meaning of a simple gesture in various parts of the world. This makes management across cultures make so hard and worth understanding.
In the present scenario, world can be addressed as a shrinking world because nowadays travelling to any part of the world has become much easier than ever before and so the business has become more global. Business man will have to deal with various persons from different backgrounds. Without understanding the culture of others, if an individual deal with a group of individuals who comes from different cultural backgrounds he may suffer cultural shock, which can affect the individual very adversely that means in a negative way.
It can make a feeling of anxiety, loneliness, worry, helplessness, nervousness, reduction in job's performance etc. It can directly affect the performance of an individual, which will definitely affect the whole company's performance.
SYMPTOMS OF CULTURAL SHOCK:
DISSAPPOINMENT AND HELPLESSNESS
REDUCTION IN JOB'S PERFOMANCE
Trying to understand other cultures and respecting every cultures and adjusting with different situations will reduce cultural shock. The number of managers who does the management across cultures in different companies are increasing. In the multinational companies where the employees will be from different backgrounds so there is obvious need of skilled managers who can deal with different cultures.
FOUR CULTURAL DIMENSIONS
NATIONAL AND ORGANISATIONAL DIMENSIONS;
CROSS CULTURAL COMMUNICATION:
Communication is the method of exchanging opinion, ideas, information, thoughts from one person to another in the form of writing, words, signs, gestures. Communication is considered complete when the required information is exchanged in true sense that means from the speaker to the listener.
Communication is much easy between individuals who come from the same surroundings or backgrounds. It becomes hard when persons from different environment communicate with each other, even though both talk the same language. As mentioned earlier, the implication of one's language may vary from place to place. Thus misinterpretation takes place between them. This misunderstanding can be avoided if both the parties show empathy. For this one should come out of ethnocentrism and should be ready to agree to and understand the other cultures. By doing this people can work in a friendly environment and they will have good time ahead besides whatever differences arises between them.
Cross cultural communication helps to generate new ideas thoughts. Another main important aspect of cross cultural communication is to build new relations among people. Respecting each other's cultures is also important.
Few of the advantages and disadvantages are mentioned below.
ADVANTAGES OF CROSS CULTURAL COMMUNICATION:
Chance to considerate others thoughts.
Ideas can come across cultures.
Relations can be built.
Better environment for effective communication.
DISADVANTAGES OF CROSS CULTURAL COMMUNICATION
Misunderstanding may lead to bigger issues.
Very hard to avoid ethnocentrism.
Sometimes it is not easy for the individuals to understand the other cultures if proper training is not given.
4.More chances of miscommunication
Six fundamental patterns of cultural differences:
2.Attitude towards conflicts
3.Approaches to completing tasks
4. Decision making style
5.Attitude towards disclosure
6.Approaches towards knowing
Chances for misunderstanding is very high where people from different cultures work together. In order to decrease and remove these indifferences everyone must be given special training and also educate them with the complexities of other cultures. The easiest way to understand other cultures is to think from other's point of view. Willingness of the people to receive and accept the information regarding other cultures is important. Managers who are skilled to handle these types of indifferences coming across in cross cultural communication need to be highly educated or need to be informed.
Training sessions in the organisation can be provided for the employees and managers which educate them with knowledge of different cultures with which they have to deal with.
Incorporation of cross cultural communication sessions in schools and colleges can be conducted which will benefit the mankind in future.
To make the people understand and teach them to respect other cultures.
Management needs to understand the problems which an employee faces while interacting in a cross culture and should do all necessary steps to support and protect them.
As a result of cultural shock people 's performance will be affected ,at this time motivation and all kind of support system should work in favour of the affected employees.
Unless and until people stop discrimination ,racism and ethnocentrism managing across cultures will be very difficult task .understanding various complexities of cultures and implementing them in the various departments of organisation will help in managing people from different cultures to work together in unity.
From the side of employees and management there should be mutual cooperation for the betterment of the organisation. To reduce the differences of opinions and irregularities among the people who hails from different backgrounds should practice the art of empathy and should respect and love the world and their diversified cultures present here and hence to make the world a better place to live.