It is a comprehensive analysis of vacancy in company, in which we review the requirements and qualifications for the position in question. This analysis can include drawing up a personal profile and a recommended search method that is the most efficient way of finding the right candidates: search, advertising or skills database.
A job analysis is the process used to collect information about the duties, responsibilities, necessary skills, outcomes, and work environment of a particular job.
The job analysis may include these activities:
Reviewing the job responsibilities of current employees,
Doing Internet research and viewing sample job descriptions online or offline highlighting similar jobs,
Analyzing the work duties, tasks, and responsibilities that need to be accomplished by the employee filling the position,
Researching and sharing with other companies that have similar jobs, and
Articulation of the most important outcomes or contributions needed from the position.
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Job analysis provides important inputs to the recruiting function in two ways. First, job analysis provides job specifications, the personal requirements deemed necessary to perform each job in an organization. This tells planners and recruiters exactly what skills, abilities, experience, and other physical characteristics will be needed for certain jobs. Second, complete and accurate job descriptions are essential for the preparation of recruiting materials, which convey information to potential applicants about the nature of the job.
RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION
Recruitment is an important part of an organization's human resource planning and their competitive strength. Competent human resources at the right positions in the organization are a vital resource and can be a core competency or a strategic advantage for it.
Recruitment refers to the process of screening, and selecting qualified people for a job at an organization or firm, or for a vacancy in a volunteer-based organization or community group.
To obtain the number and quality of employees that can be selected in order to help the organization to achieve its goals and objectives
To create a pool of prospective employees for the organization so that the management can select the right candidate for the right job from this pool.
To facilitate the selection of the best candidates for the organization.
In this is competitive global world and increasing flexibility in the labor market, recruitment is becoming more and more important in every business. Therefore, recruitment serves as the first step in fulfilling the needs of organizations for a competitive, motivated and flexible human resource that can help achieve its objectives.
Sources of Recruitment
All the sources of recruitment can be broadly classified into two types. They are external and internal sources.
Internal sources: these includes filling up of vacancy using a person who is already in the company's payroll. The vacancy is advertised within the company and on the basis of responses within the company, a selection is made.
1. Transfer: The employees are transferred from one department to another according to their efficiency and experience.
2. Promotions: The employees are promoted from one department to another with more benefits and greater responsibility based on efficiency and experience.
3. Upgrading: Others are Upgrading and Demotion of present employees according to their performance.
4. Retired employees or Retrenched employees: Retired and Retrenched employees may also be recruited once again in case of shortage of qualified personnel or increase in load of work. Recruitment such people save time and costs of the organizations as the people are already aware of the organizational culture and the policies and procedures.
5. The dependents and relatives of Deceased employees and Disabled employees are also done by many companies so that the members of the family do not become dependent on the mercy of others.
6. Employee referrals: some companies also encourage their current employees to refer their friends or acquaintances for positions in the organization. This system has the advantage that the new employees have also had a fair idea about the organization and its culture. The downside is that this system tends to create nepotism and allow cliques of friends and relatives to form in an organization.
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The company is able to obtain accurate information about the candidate as he has already been working with them.
It boosts the morale of the workforce who sees that the company is able to provide them with the opportunity for future growth.
The cost of recruitment is relatively less.
The employees being acquainted with the company already do not require job training.
The choice of candidate is greatly limited.
Selection of candidate over others results ill feeling among those who were not chosen.
The selection of candidate involves great deal of subjectivity amongst the superior and hence they may not always be transparent.
The external sources are those sources of recruitment that are found outside the employment.
The general sources of recruitment are:
1. Advertisement: This is the common method of recruitment. The advertisements usually appear in newspaper, website or magazine. It is important that the company pays attention to how the advertisement drafted. For the advertisement to draw the right candidates, it has to be drafted properly with clarity and should present the favorable picture of the company and the working culture.
2. Campus recruitment: These are some cases where recruiters contact educational institutions such as colleges and universities for a list of prospective candidate. The campus recruitment has the advantage of meeting all the candidate at a single place and hence saves time and effort.
3. Unsolicited applicants: Many candidates send these resume without any explicit request. Companies usually file these resumes and refer to them when the need for a position arises.
4. Web sites: with the advent of internet, searching for candidate has acquired a whole new dimension. Web portals dedicated to finding jobs has been setup. The candidate keys in their details and post their resumes. Employer have to just browse through these resume or use the site search engine to list out people with specific skills.
5. Placement agencies: Placement agencies maintain database of resumes from prospective candidate. Companies in need of personnel contact these agencies with their profile. The agencies provide them with the list of potential candidates. The placement agencies can also assist in the recruitment process.
6. Employment Exchanges: There are certain Employment exchanges which are run by government. Most of the government undertakings and concerns employ people through such exchanges. Now-a-days recruitment in government agencies has become compulsory through employment exchange.
7. Head hunting: A "headhunter" is industry term for a third-party recruiter who seeks out candidates, often when normal recruitment efforts have failed. Headhunters are generally considered more aggressive than in-house recruiters or may have preexisting industry experience and contacts. They may use advanced sales techniques, such as initially posing as clients to gather employee contacts, as well as visiting candidate offices. They may also purchase expensive lists of names and job titles, but more often will generate their own lists. They may prepare a candidate for the interview, help negotiate the salary, and conduct closure to the search. They are frequently members in good standing of industry trade groups and associations. Headhunters will often attend trade shows and other meetings nationally or even internationally that may be attended by potential candidates and hiring managers.
New blood brings new perspective.
Cheaper and faster training professionals.
Fewer groups of the political supporters in the organization.
May bring new industry inside.
May not select someone who will "fit" the job or organization.
May cause the morale problems for the internal candidate not selected.
Longer adjustment or orientation time.
RECRUITMENT SEVEN STEPS
Prepare job description and person specification
Advertising the vacancy through internal and external sources
Managing the response
Conducting interview and decision making
The recruitment process is immediately followed by the selection process i.e. the final interviews and the decision making, conveying the decision and the appointment formalities.
a) Need to recruit
The need for any recruitment activities should be evaluations in the context to the business overall resource requirements;
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This should include both short, mid and long term plans and requirements for your business and consider both likely resource level requirements (numbers of staff) and business skill requirements (capability of staff) in order to best decide first if recruitment is required at all, and if so what skills and experience you need to bring into the business.
b) Carefully defining the vacancy pays dividends
Start with a description of the job - its responsibilities and deliverables;
the necessary skills, experience and competencies required by the job holder to fulfill the required responsibilities;
Plus the ideal qualities to be a successful contribution to the business.
c) Creating a talent pool by attracting the right candidates
Think carefully about your internal sources of candidates: seek candidates from inside the business via internal job boards, succession plans etc; identify staff for whom it would be a sensible career development move;
Think about the different sources of external sources of candidates: Advertise the vacancy (online or print); your internet career page; search generalist and specialist job boards; speak to the local job centre; encourage existing employees to make contacts for you; make contact with universities and colleges; use a recruitment agency or head hunter;
d) Focus on collecting all relevant information on candidates
Collect the information necessary to make a selection decision
Interview data (including behavioral interviews);