Changes In Organization And Retirement Policy Commerce Essay


As per Edwin B. Flippo, Recruitment is the procedure of identifying the applicants for occupation and inspiring them to submit an application for jobs in the administration. It is an activity that links the employers & the occupation seekers. Definitions of recruitment are:

It is a procedure for finding & attracting the capable candidates for employment. The course begins when new recruits are sought and ends when their applications are submitted. The result is a pool of applications from which new employees are selected.

Fig 2: recruitment process


It is the process to discover sources of manpower to meet the requirement of staffing schedule and to employ effective measures for attracting that manpower in adequate numbers to facilitate effective selection of an efficient working force. Recruitment of candidates is the function preceding the selection, which helps create a pool of prospective employees for the organisation so that the management can select the right candidate for the right job from this pool. The main objective of the recruitment process is to expedite the selection process.

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Recruitment is a continuous process whereby the firm attempts to develop a pool of qualified applicants for the future human resources needs even though specific vacancies do not exist. Usually, the recruitment process starts when a manger initiates an employee requisition for a specific vacancy or an anticipated vacancy. 

2.2.1 Recruitment needs are of three types

Planned: i.e. the needs arising from changes in organization and retirement policy

anticipated: Anticipated needs are those movements in personnel, which an organization can predict by studying trends in internal and external environment.

Unexpected: Resignation, deaths, accidents, illness give rise to unexpected needs.

2.2.2 Purpose & importance of recruitment

Attract and encourage more and more candidates to apply in the organisation.

Create a talent pool of candidates to enable the selection of best candidates for the organisation.

Determine present and future requirements of the organization in conjunction with its personnel planning and job analysis activities.

Recruitment is the process which links the employers with the employees.

Increase the pool of job candidates at minimum cost

Help increase the success rate of selection process by decreasing number of visibly under qualified or overqualified job applicants.

Help reduce the probability that job applicants once recruited and selected will leave the organization only after a short period of time.

Meet the organizations legal and social obligations regarding the composition of its workforce.

Begin identifying and preparing potential job applicants who will be appropriate candidates.

Increase organization and individual effectiveness of various recruiting techniques and sources for all types of job applicants 

2.2.3 Sources of recruitment

Every organisation has the option of choosing the candidates for its recruitment processes from two kinds of sources: internal and external sources. The sources within the organisation itself (like transfer of employees from one department to other, promotions) to fill a position are known as the internal sources of recruitment. Recruitment candidates from all the other sources (like outsourcing agencies etc.) are known as the external sources of recruitment

The different sources of recruitment are classified into two categories, viz,

Internal: sources of recruitment are from within the organisation.

External: sources of recruitment are from outside the organisation.

internal external sources of recruitment

Fig 3: sources of recruitment


Internal Sources of Recruitment

The internal sources of recruitment are:-

Promotions: Promotion means to give a higher position, status, salary and responsibility to the employee. So, the vacancy can be filled by promoting a suitable candidate from the same organisation.

Transfers: Transfer means a change in the place of employment without any change in the position, status, salary and responsibility of the employee. So, the vacancy can be filled by transferring a suitable candidate from the same organisation.

Internal Advertisements: Here, the vacancy is advertised within the organisation. The existing employees are asked to apply for the vacancy. So, recruitment is done from within the organisation.

Retired Managers: Sometimes, retired managers may be recalled for a short period. This is done when the organisation cannot find a suitable candidate.

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Recall from Long Leave: The organisation may recall a manager who has gone on a long leave. This is done when the organisation faces a problem which can only be solved by that particular manager. After he solves the problem, his leave is extended.

Merits of Internal Sources

The benefits / advantages / merits of using internal sources of recruitment:-

It is time saving, economical, simple and reliable.

There is no need of induction training because the candidate already knows everything about the organisation, the work, the employee, the rules and regulations, etc.

It motivates the employees of work hard in order to get higher jobs in the same organisation.

It increases the morale of the employees and it improves the relations in the organisation.

It reduce executive turnover.

It develops loyalty and a sense of responsibility.

Demerits of Internal Sources

The limitations / demerits of using internal sources of recruitment:-

It prevents new blood from entering the organisation. New blood brings innovative ideas, fresh thinking and dynamism into the organisation.

It has limited scope because it is not possible to fill up all types of vacancies from within the organisation.

The position of the person who is promoted or transferred will be vacant.

There may be bias or partiality in promoting or transferring persons from within the organisation.

Those who are not promoted will be unhappy.

The right person may be promoted or transferred only if proper confidential reports of all employees are maintained. This involves a lot of time, money and energy.

External Sources of Recruitment

The external sources of recruitment are:-

Management Consultants: Management consultants are used for selecting higher-level staff. They act as a representative of the employer. They make all the necessary arrangements for recruitment and selection. In return for their services, they take a service charge or commission.

Public Advertisements: The Personnel department of a company advertises the vacancy in newspapers, the internet, etc. This advertisement gives information about the company, the job and the required qualities of the candidate. It invites applications from suitable candidates. This source is the most popular source of recruitment. This is because it gives a very wide choice. However, it is very costly and time consuming.

Campus Recruitment: The organisation conducts interviews in the campuses of Management institutes and Engineering Colleges. Final year students, who're soon to get graduated, are interviewed. Suitable candidates are selected by the organisation based on their academic record, communication skills, intelligence, etc. This source is used for recruiting qualified, trained but inexperienced candidates.

Recommendations: The organisation may also recruit candidates based on the recommendations received from existing managers or from sister companies.

Deputation Personnel: The organisation may also recruit candidates who are sent on deputation by the Government or Financial institutions or by holding or subsidiary companies.

Advantages of External Sources

The benefits / merits / advantages of using external sources of recruitment:-

It encourages young blood with new ideas to enter the organisation.

It offers wide scope for selection. This is because a large number of suitable candidates will come for the selection process.

There are less chances of bias or partiality.

Here there is no need to maintain confidential records.

Limitations of External Sources

The demerits / limitations of using external sources of recruitment:-

It is very costly. This is because advertisements, test, medical examination etc., has to be conducted.

It is very time consuming. This is because the selection process is very lengthy.

It may not develop loyalty among the existing managers.

The existing managers may leave the organisation if outsiders are given higher post.


2.2.4 Factors Affecting Recruitment

The recruitment function of the organisations is affected and governed by a mix of various internal and external forces. The internal forces or factors are the factors that can be controlled by the organisation. And the external factors are those factors which cannot be controlled by the organisation. The internal and external forces affecting recruitment function of an organisation are: the internal factors and external factors.

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The internal forces i.e. the factors which can be controlled by the organisation are:


The recruitment policy of an organisation specifies the objectives of recruitment and provides a framework for implementation of recruitment programme. It may involve organizational system to be developed for implementing recruitment programmes and procedures by filling up vacancies with best qualified people.

Factors affecting recruitment policy

Organizational objectives

Personnel policies of the organization and its competitors

Government policies on reservations

Preferred sources of recruitment

Need of the organization.

Recruitment costs and financial implications


Effective human resource planning helps in determining the gaps present in the existing manpower of the organization. It also helps in determining the number of employees to be recruited and what qualification they must possess.


The size of the firm is an important factor in recruitment process. If the organization is planning to increase its operations and expand its business, it will think of hiring more personnel, which will handle its operations.


Recruitment incur cost to the employer, therefore, organizations try to employ that source of recruitment which will bear a lower cost of recruitment to the organization for each candidate.


Organization will employ or think of employing more personnel if it is expanding its operations.

The external forces are the forces which cannot be controlled by the organisation. The major external forces are:


The availability of manpower both within and outside the organization is an important determinant in the recruitment process. If the company has a demand for more professionals and there is limited supply in the market for the professionals demanded by the company, then the company will have to depend upon internal sources by providing them special training and development programs.


Employment conditions in the community where the organization is located will influence the recruiting efforts of the organization. If there is surplus of manpower at the time of recruitment, even informal attempts at the time of recruiting like notice boards display of the requisition or announcement in the meeting etc will attract more than enough applicants.


Image of the employer can work as a potential constraint for recruitment. An organization with positive image and goodwill as an employer finds it easier to attract and retain employees than an organization with negative image. Image of a company is based on what organization does and affected by industry. For example finance was taken up by fresher MBA's when many finance companies were coming up.


Various government regulations prohibiting discrimination in hiring and employment have direct impact on recruitment practices. For example, Government of India has introduced legislation for reservation in employment for scheduled castes, scheduled tribes, physically handicapped etc. Also, trade unions play important role in recruitment. This restricts management freedom to select those individuals who it believes would be the best performers. If the candidate can't meet criteria stipulated by the union but union regulations can restrict recruitment sources.


One of the factors that influence the availability of applicants is the growth of the economy (whether economy is growing or not and its rate). When the company is not creating new jobs, there is often oversupply of qualified labour which in turn leads to unemployment.


The recruitment policies of the competitors also affect the recruitment function of the organisations. To face the competition, many a times the organisations have to change their recruitment policies according to the policies being followed by the competitors.

Factors Affecting Recruitment

Fig 4: factors affecting recruitment




Employee Selection is the process of putting right men on right job. It is a procedure of matching organizational requirements with the skills and qualifications of people. Effective selection can be done only when there is effective matching. By selecting best candidate for the required job, the organization will get quality performance of employees. Moreover, organization will face less of absenteeism and employee turnover problems. By selecting right candidate for the required job, organization will also save time and money. Proper screening of candidates takes place during selection procedure. All the potential candidates who apply for the given job are tested.

But selection must be differentiated from recruitment, though these are two phases of employment process. Recruitment is considered to be a positive process as it motivates more of candidates to apply for the job. It creates a pool of applicants. It is just sourcing of data. While selection is a negative process as the inappropriate candidates are rejected here. Recruitment precedes selection in staffing process. Selection involves choosing the best candidate with best abilities, skills and knowledge for the required job

The Employee selection Process takes place in following order-

Preliminary Interviews- It is used to eliminate those candidates who do not meet the minimum eligibility criteria laid down by the organization. The skills, academic and family background, competencies and interests of the candidate are examined during preliminary interview. Preliminary interviews are less formalized and planned than the final interviews. The candidates are given a brief up about the company and the job profile; and it is also examined how much the candidate knows about the company. Preliminary interviews are also called screening interviews.

Application blanks- The candidates who clear the preliminary interview are required to fill application blank. It contains data record of the candidates such as details about age, qualifications, reason for leaving previous job, experience, etc.

Written Tests- Various written tests conducted during selection procedure are aptitude test, intelligence test, reasoning test, personality test, etc. These tests are used to objectively assess the potential candidate. They should not be biased.

Employment Interviews- It is a one to one interaction between the interviewer and the potential candidate. It is used to find whether the candidate is best suited for the required job or not. But such interviews consume time and money both. Moreover the competencies of the candidate cannot be judged. Such interviews may be biased at times. Such interviews should be conducted properly. No distractions should be there in room. There should be an honest communication between candidate and interviewer.

Medical examination- Medical tests are conducted to ensure physical fitness of the potential employee. It will decrease chances of employee absenteeism.

Appointment Letter- A reference check is made about the candidate selected and then finally he is appointed by giving a formal appointment letter.



Before determining who to attract and select, it is essential that the organisation has a clear idea about what the job requires and the attributes of the person who will best meet these requirements. Traditionally, job or role descriptions and person specifications have been devised to enable the organisation to do this.

Job or role descriptions detail information about the job purpose, its position within the organisation and the work tasks and outputs. A person specification tends to set out in more detail what sort of skills, attributes, experience and qualifications are needed for an individual to meet the requirements of the job and how the organisation will assess the individual during the recruitment and selection process to determine whether they meet these requirements.

The process of job analysis is a good opportunity to have a thorough review of a job. The tendency is to look at the old job description and person specification and to re-issue them or at the most make marginal changes. This can be a missed opportunity. In particular, where an authority is engaged in a process of modernisation and is rethinking the way services are delivered, roles might need to change and/or different skills and experience might be required.

Organisations should also consider on what basis the post should be filled (e.g. full-time or part-time) and indeed, whether it needs filling at all.

2.4.1 Internal or external recruitment?

Internal candidates can be given the opportunity to apply for any vacancy.  Potential advantages of internal recruitment are:

Internal appointments may be good for morale, sending a message that there are opportunities for advancement within the organisation;

The organisation will have more information about an internal candidate's capabilities and attitude;

An internal candidate may require less time to adjust to a new job, because they will already know about the organisation;

Appointing an internal candidate can speed up the selection process and reduce the costs involved.

However, there are also circumstances where external recruitment is felt to be necessary, for example:

The necessary skills and expertise may not already exist within the organisation and might require a substantial investment in training to achieve;

Where it is desired to change the culture and values of the organisation, it may only be possible to do this by bringing in someone externally from a different environment;

External applicants bring in the skills and knowledge of other organisations and thereby can encourage a cross-fertilisation of ideas and approaches;

Recruiting internally can restrict the pool of candidates and could be discriminatory if the existing mix does not match that of its catchment area, or if there are internal perceptions about who is able to carry out particular jobs.

2.4.2 Sources of recruitment


In many cases organisations will have a policy of redeployment where employees under notice of redundancy or unable to perform their current job because of health considerations will receive preferential treatment. Redeployment helps to retain the skills and experience of such employees. Considering redeployment is also necessary under the DDA where a disabled employee is unable to continue in his or her current role. However, a disadvantage is that it can slow up the recruitment process if redeployed having priority over all other candidates.


Job advertisements need to:

Attract a good response from suitably qualified people;

Discourage those people who would be unsuitable;

Promote a positive image of the organisation;

Comply with discrimination legislation.

Newspapers and Specialist Press/Magazines

Newspapers and specialist media are frequently used.  However they can be expensive and it is therefore important to carefully consider the target audience.  For example, national newspapers will probably only be used for managerial, professional or specialist jobs or where the local employment market is particularly buoyant.

Specialist magazines/press can be specialist in terms of specific professions, such as People Management or Computer Weekly or for particular groups of people, such as the ethnic press. Using these types of publication can ensure that the advertisement attracts those from within the profession/particular group.

Jobcentre Plus

The service includes:

Advice on recruitment methods and procedures;

Information about the availability of suitable applicants;

Circulation of the vacancy locally, nationally, or internationally via the Jobcentre Plus website, telephone helpline and interactive touch screens within Jobcentres;

Advice on employing people with disabilities;

Advice on New Deal.


if the organisation is frequently in need of the same type of skills it may be useful to retain the details of unsuccessful but suitable candidates, should a potentially suitable vacancy arise in the future. This can be a relatively speedy and inexpensive way of identifying suitable candidates as the marketing process has worked and these candidates are already potentially interested in working for the authority. To comply with the requirements of the Data Protection Act candidates must give their consent to their details being held.

Using external organisations

External recruitment agencies may be useful to the organisation if it does not have adequate recruitment resources in-house or if it is looking for a particular type of person. 

Agencies and consultants provide the following services:

Advertising agencies design advertisements or campaigns and advise and arrange for adverts to be placed in the appropriate media;

Employment/recruitment agencies supply details of candidates held on their records to the organisation;

Recruitment consultants find candidates by advertising on behalf of the organisation and after assessing the response, provide the organisation with a final shortlist (known as executive selection).

Executive search (head-hunters)

With equalities issues at the forefront of many organisations' practices, it is recommended that executive search should follow from open recruitment, unless it is already clear that the skills required are not available and that this has already been tested.  Executive search may provide the answer to recruitment difficulties.


Does the firm belong to a professional body (Recruitment and Employment Confederation, Management Consultancies Association (MCA), etc.)?  If so, request a copy of the professional code of conduct. If not, ask what quality procedures are in place and how client disputes are resolved;

Check whether there will be a dedicated consultant for the post through whom all queries can be answered;

Check the consultant's availability throughout the process;

Find out whether the consultants have experience in working in the  sector;

Find out what level of posts they specialise in;

Ask what their level of success is like in filling a post and how they measure that success;

Find out how long it takes on average to fill a vacancy;

Ask what happens if they cannot find a suitable candidate or if the candidate proves unsuitable after they have started work;

Find out about their fees and whether there are any other expenses, e.g. advertising rates, interviewing expenses;

Ask what guarantees you will have that they will not seek to poach your new employee for another company in the future;

Speak to recent past clients (ask them to provide names).

Using the Internet

The Internet can be used during the recruitment and selection process to:

Advertise jobs;

Provide information on the job and its requirements (such as copies of the job description and person specification);

Provide information on the organisation;

Enable applicants to send their CV or complete and send an application form online;

Enable the organisation to respond to the application online.

Use of the Internet to advertise jobs can provide the following advantages:

It provides easy access to information by potential applicants;

It allows a speedy response by applicants and the authority which can help to speed up the whole recruitment process;

It is much cheaper than, for example, placing an advertisement in the national or local press;

It may provide a larger potential recruitment market;

It may help to streamline the recruitment process, for example through less paper, reductions in collating and posting job packs, etc;

It provides the authority with a more up-to-date image;

It provides global coverage, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.

However, there may also be disadvantages in using this method, such as:

It involves time, finances and other resources to set up effectively (if using the organisation's own website);

It may be viewed as impersonal by some potential applicants;

It may require changes in staffing roles and responsibilities.

Where can jobs are advertised on the Internet?

Jobs can be advertised on the Internet via:

The organisation's website - which is quick to set up and relatively inexpensive.  However potential job applicants will probably only see the jobs advertised if they are already interested in working for the organisation (or is an internal applicant).

A recruitment site - this is a specialist site, usually linked to a recruitment agency. This approach will generally attract more potential job applicants, particularly if the site is well known and focuses on the types of jobs that the organisation wishes to advertise. However this approach can be more expensive.

A media site - this is a website, which is linked to traditional press advertising. The site may carry full details of the advertisement, or just a copy of the advertisement that appeared in the publication.  This may be helpful in attracting a wider number of candidates, but is also dependent on the publication's promotion of its website and jobs normally have to be advertised in the publication (with its related costs) before being placed on the website.

It is also possible to link between sites.  For example, a job could be advertised on a recruitment site and when the job is selected, it links with the organisation's own website.

Overseas recruitment

The recruitment of workers from other countries can be a useful recruitment source, particularly where there are specific skills shortages. A wider audience of potential workers is established, who may bring new ideas and skills to the organisation.

However, this approach can prove costly and time consuming to implement, because of, for example, the levels of paperwork and administration required and the training and support the overseas worker will require. In addition, it is important to consider how the recruitment and selection process will be undertaken and how the individual will be integrated into the existing team. Work permits will also need to be obtained for some overseas workers.

Developing the local workforce

For some organisations, a major problem in recruitment is the fact that the local workforce does not have the skills and experience necessary for the types of employment available. This may be a general problem or concentrated in particular groups, for example, women who have been out of the workforce for some time. Initiatives which aim to help these groups find work may also have the effect of helping alleviate an organisation's own recruitment difficulties.

A marketing opportunity - Employer branding

An important part of attracting the best candidates is to promote the organisation as an 'employer of choice'. Employer branding is the concept of applying to the recruitment process the same marketing process used in the management of customers. 

Influences on the development of an employer brand come from the organisation itself, its competitors and the community which it serves. An organisation can market its vision, culture and values during the recruitment process to differentiate it from its competitors and attract the right sort of candidates.

Promotion of organisation's employment package

Employer branding is not just a marketing exercise - it is the beginning of an employment relationship. Highly talented graduates can always find work, even in an economic slowdown. Organisations looking to tap into this talent and recruit excellent people must ensure they have an excellent recruitment process. Employer branding is the company's image as seen through the eyes of its associates and potential hires. It is concerned with the need for employees to 'live the brand'. This is centred on engaging employee loyalty to the brand and developing commitment to the organisation. Your employer brand is the voice and image of the communication you implement to attract and retain employees.

The employer brand is defined by the three stages of the attraction process; reputation (emotional), career offer (rational) and corporate culture (emotional). The key messages are:

Reputation = Successful international company, growth industry popular in an applicant's home country

Career offer = Challenging job, international work, career development opportunities, good pay

Corporate culture = Fair and open, non-hierarchical, inspiring people.

A brand is an announcement- it provides and advances calling card for the customer and also for potential applicants. Employer branding tells the labour market something that might otherwise be hidden, or takes time to find out. Brands attempt to take the choice out of choosing.

'Employer brand power' adds value to the recruitment process and real money to organisations. It gets you noticed and creates the 'employer of choice'. As the number of possible choices graduates can make is becoming even greater in the marketplace and as globalisation impacts increasingly, employer branding strategies prove critical. Employer brands act as a psychological trigger in candidate's heads. These are very powerful triggers in the job market and can play a key role in candidate's job choice.

Job applicants are attracted by a strong employer brand. This is essentially a sub-set of the general corporate brand, encompassing the organisation's values, systems, policies and behaviours with a view to attracting, motivating and retaining good people. The aim is to convey the personality of the organisation as that external candidates can develop a sense of what it might be like to work there. It is critical for HR and recruiting staff to develop a compelling story for existing and potential employees about working for the organisation.

Employer branding strategy must be aligned with your product branding, and deliver every aspect of its implementation. Strengthen your employer brand by presenting consistent, positive messages and images about life inside the organisation, whether in job adverts, recruitment presentations, brochures, applicant literature, or interviews- in fact, throughout the recruitment process. For example, if your employer brand claims that the organisation is a fun and dynamic place to be, your recruitment process must be efficient, slick and involved the kind of interviewers and assessors who present the appropriate image and style of working.

The most believable forms of communication are the adverts, literature and websites but also the behaviours of employees and the accounts of their own work experience. So, the greatest risk for an employer is too invest too much on mass media promotion and too little on ensuring that personal contacts are effective and that they can actually 'deliver on promises'. In the so-called 'weightless economy' the brand has become the critical source of competitive advantage.

The job pack

The most frequently used method of getting information to potential applicants is via recruitment packs, often sent out with application forms. These packs may include information about:

The job: the job description, a copy of the person specification, the key objectives and targets;

The section or department in which the job is located;

Terms and conditions of employment, including an indication of the salary range, and, if the job is being advertised nationally, what the organisation's policy is on relocation;

The organisation: its size, services it provides, history, values, people, etc;

The location of the organisation and details about the surrounding area.

It is important to consider the 'employer brand' and promotion of organisation's employment package when putting together the job pack. Producing job packs can be time consuming and expensive. Therefore, the cost of sending this information needs to be balanced with the benefits it accrues. It is therefore important to monitor and review the success of the job pack.

It may also be possible to use other methods of getting information to potential candidates in order for them to determine whether they wish to apply for the job and whether they are suitable. Information placed on the Internet, for example, can provide a more cost-effective approach, although it is important to remember the target audience and that not all potential candidates may have access to the Internet.



The buzzword and the latest trends in recruitment is the "E-Recruitment". Also known as "Online recruitment", it is the use of technology or the web based tools to assist the recruitment process. The tool can be either a job website like, the organisation's corporate web site or its own intranet. Many big and small organizations are using Internet as a source of recruitment. They advertise job vacancies through worldwide web. The job seekers send their applications or curriculum vitae (CV) through an e-mail using the Internet. Alternatively job seekers place their CV's in worldwide web, which can be drawn by prospective employees depending upon their requirements

Fig 5: E-Recruitment Needs Improvement or Future use


The internet penetration in India is increasing and has tremendous potential. According to a study by NASSCOM - "Jobs is among the top reasons why new users will come on to the internet, besides e-mail." There are more than 18 million resume's floating online across the world.

The two kinds of e- recruitment that an organisation can use is

Job portals - i.e. posting the position with the job description and the job specification on the job portal and also searching for the suitable resumes posted on the site corresponding to the opening in the organisation. 

Creating a complete online recruitment/application section in the company's own website - Companies have added an application system to its website, where the 'passive' job seekers can submit their resumes into the database of the organisation for consideration in future, as and when the roles become available.

Fig 6: online recruitment


2.5.1 Resume Scanners

Resume scanner is one major benefit provided by the job portals to the organisations. It enables the employees to screen and filter the resumes through pre-defined criteria's and requirements (skills, qualifications, experience, payroll etc.) of the job. Job sites provide a 24*7 access to the database of the resumes to the employees facilitating the just-in-time hiring by the organisations

Also, the jobs can be posted on the site almost immediately and is also cheaper than advertising in the employment newspapers. Sometimes companies can get valuable references through the "passers-by" applicants. Online recruitment helps the organisations to automate the recruitment process, save their time and costs on recruitments.

Online recruitment techniques

Giving a detailed job description and job specifications in the job postings to attract candidates with the right skill sets and qualifications at the first stage.

E-recruitment should be incorporated into the overall recruitment strategy of the organisation.

A well defined and structured applicant tracking system should be integrated and the system should have a back-end support.

Along with the back-office support a comprehensive website to receive and process job applications (through direct or online advertising) should be developed.

Therefore, to conclude, it can be said that e-recruitment is the "Evolving face of recruitment." 



There are many benefits - both to the employers and the job seekers but the e-recruitment is not free from a few shortcomings. Some of the advantages and the disadvantages of e- recruitment are as follows:

Advantages of E-Recruitment are: 

Lower costs to the organisation. Also, posting jobs online is cheaper than advertising in the newspapers.

No intermediaries.

Reduction in the time for recruitment (over 65 percent of the hiring time)

Facilitates the recruitment of right type of people with the required skills

Improved efficiency of recruitment process

Gives a 24*7 access to an online collection of resumes

Online recruitment helps the organisations to weed out the unqualified candidates in an automated way.

Recruitment websites also provide valuable data and information regarding the compensation offered by the competitors etc. which helps the HR managers to take various HR decisions like promotions, salary trends in industry etc

Disadvantages of E-Recruitment

Apart from the various benefits, e-recruitment has its own share of shortcomings and disadvantages. Some of them are:

Screening and checking the skill mapping and authenticity of millions of resumes is a problem and time consuming exercise for organisations.

There is low Internet penetration and no access and lack of awareness of internet in many locations across India.

Organisations cannot be dependant solely and totally on the online recruitment methods.

In India, the employers and the employees still prefer a face-to-face interaction rather than sending e-mails.


Recruitment advertising choices

Fig 7: recruitment advertising choices



While the online recruitment market today is worth over $7.1 billion, according to, many organizations are still relying on outdated, expensive methods such as newspaper classifieds and search firms to locate candidates.  Newspaper advertisements may have worked to find top talent in the past but Internet recruitment sites are where the skilled individuals of the present and future are looking for jobs.


According to a study conducted by Gerry Crispin, principal of staffing for Career roads, an HR consulting firm, "The use of the Internet for job searches has grown… and will continue to grow."  His research shows that in the past 4 years the number of employees hired from ads posted on the Internet has grown from 10 percent of all hires to almost 33 percent. 

Still not convinced the Internet is the right place to find your next star employee?  Here are six more reasons you should be putting your company's job postings online:

Cost - Cost can be measured two ways - the actual dollar amount paid for the recruitment advertisement and the cost associated with the amount of time a recruiter spends identifying a potential candidate. Newspaper prices average anywhere from $60 to $150 for a three-line advertisement that runs one-time for one-day.  To get full coverage, four Sundays per month, you could pay over $600 for one position.  On the Internet, most job boards have posting packages that help bring down your cost per position if you purchase in larger quantities.  Online, a single job posting that runs for at least 30 days if not longer, costs anywhere from $99 to $250.  Additionally, the online advertisement allows the recruiter unlimited space and text to describe their organization and the open position. The cost of the posting is not the only way recruitment affects a company's bottom line. estimates at least 20 percent of all recruiters' time is spent sorting through resumes.  What if you could streamline this process by adding screening questions to your job postings?  Candidates could answer a short series of questions and automatically be screened "in or out" and automatically receive a response depending on the criteria you've established.  This could free up your recruiters time for more productive, revenue generating tasks. 

Content - No more paying per line like traditional newspaper classified ads.  Most online recruitment companies allow unlimited space in their job description categories, allowing you to be more specific about the type of person you are looking to hire.  This also provides more space for you to sell your organization to potential job seekers.  The more information a candidate has about your organization before they apply the better.  People who are not interested will self-select out and leave you with a talent pool of more specified candidates.  By saving your recruiters the time of weeding through these candidates, it saves your organization money!

Convenience - Although your recruiters might not be available 24 hours per-day, 7 days a week to accept resumes, your online job postings are.  Many job seekers are currently employed and looking to make a change.  It can be difficult for these "passive" candidates to apply for positions not posted online as their present employers fill their time during traditional business hours.

Communication - Almost every job board has the functionality for job seekers to apply for positions instantaneously.  Frequently online recruitment companies allow job seekers to store their resumes and cover letters online, meaning they only need to click a button to be able to send their information to a potential employer.  This increases ease of communication between the job seeker and the recruiter, no longer is applying for a job such a long and tedious process.

Changes - What happens when the Sunday newspaper misprints your ad or forgets to include it in the classified listings?  You have to wait for the next edition to be printed, pushing your search back by an entire week. If you have a misprint on the Internet, you can go in and change it yourself - instantly.  No more waiting for someone else to get it right.

Cross Posting - There are several services available that will cross post the same position between several different job boards, again saving your recruiters time.  Instead of having to submit the position to several different newspapers, recruiters can enter the job posting into a centralized system and choose which job boards should receive the posting.

Internet recruitment doesn't end with the job posting.  There is a trend throughout the entire recruitment process of using the Internet to streamline the process. Talent management solutions, online assessment tests and Internet background investigation companies are just some of the tools available to help recruiters make sure they identify the best candidate available. By utilizing the Internet recruitment and selection tools available, you can make sure you help save your organization time and money.  Making you one of your company's star employees


online recruiting chart image

Fig 8: Online recruiting strategy



Graduate recruitment and selection forms an essential part in the central activities underlying the management of human resources within many organizations. These activities include the acquisition of talent, training and developing the talent, and eventually rewarding the performance of the acquired talent. As such, the recruitment and selection process forms an integral part of the works undertaken by human resource management and other specialists involved in the graduate and recruitment process. According to Mohamed Branine (2008, p. 500) "graduate recruitment and selection process refers to the process of searching for and obtaining potential job applicants from graduates in sufficient quantity and quality so that potential employers can select the most suitable candidates to fill in their job vacancies (p. 500)." Universally, there is commonly accepted strategy or commonly agreed procedure of recruiting and selecting graduates due to the different recruiting needs and selection methods among many employers. The differences and variations in recruiting and selection methods among employers are dependent on the operations, size, and needs (Sackett & Lievens, 2008). The graduate recruitment and selection process is structured in such a manner that it involves planned rational activities comprising of particular sequentially linked phases within the employee resourcing process.

Graduate recruitment and selection process comprises of two aspects that can be broken down to its constituent parts. Having defined 'graduate' to refer to undergraduate and postgraduate degree holders, the terms 'recruitment' and 'selection' can be defined as separate constituent parts. 'Recruitment' entails the process of generating a pool of capable people who qualify to apply for employment positions in certain organizations. On the other hand, 'selection' refers to the process of whereby managers and recruiting officials utilize specific instruments to choose particular individuals from a pool of applicants in which a person or persons are more likely to succeed in that particular job position and this is mainly dependent on the goals of management and respective legal requirements. Raybould, and Sheedy, (2005, p. 63) posit that, however the two functions (recruitment and selection) are closely connected, each function calls for the application of different sets of skill and expertise, and they are fulfilled different members within the hiring process. As such, the recruitment activity can be outsourced to outside agencies but the selection cannot be outsourced and this explains the reason as to why it is advantageous to treat the two items separately.

Speaking of the roles, the recruitment and selection process plays a pivotally important role in any organization as far as shaping the performance and effectiveness is concerned. For instance, if organizations are capable of acquiring workers with the requisite skills, knowledge, and aptitudes, then, it becomes obvious that these organizations are capable of making accurate predictions regarding the future abilities of the selected employees/workers. This premise suggests that following an effective and efficient strategy in recruiting and selecting workers enables organizations to avoid undesirable costs such as high staff turnover costs, poor performance among workers, and dissatisfied customers (Raybould, and Sheedy, 2005). Eventually, it engenders a mutually beneficial employment relationship within the organization and it can be evidenced by increased commitment among the involved workers. To this purpose, the recruitment and selection process forms an integral part in the organizational process of leading and managing people and the recruitment and selection process is increasingly important in the strengthening of competitive advantage within that organization.

(SOURCE: and-selection.html)


With increase in social networking and online sites, some companies are choosing to use these platforms as low cost solutions for finding talents. So, are the days of traditional recruitment firms numbered? Without face-to-face meetings, don't count on it, says Susan Macdonald, Managing Director of RSA Singapore, an executive search consultancy that focuses on the life sciences industry.

With economies around the globe seeing some recovery, companies within the pharmacy and medical device sectors in Asia, continue to see growth in head count requirements. Nevertheless, the pressure remains to keep the cost of recruitment as efficient as possible. Because of this, recruitment consultancies and executive search firms are feeling pressure from both sides of the equation.

If the economic downturn was a thorn in the life sciences sector's side, online recruitment could be a knife in the back. More websites are emerging that link life sciences professionals, or match candidates to pharmaceutical job openings. These online recruitment methods provide hiring managers with a quick and seemingly low cost option for identifying potential candidates. With the ability for these online methods to link potential employee and employer directly, is this a better option? Unfortunately, finding the perfect placement is usually not so simple.

The importance of face-to-face interactions

Online recruitment software typically works by matching a candidates' CV with an existing database. However, for quality recruitment consultancies, sorting the good CVs from the great CVs is just the beginning of the process. One of the most important steps is for the consultant to physically interview prospective candidates, ideally face-to-face or by Skype/telephone {something not possible in online recruitment. These discussions help manage the candidate's expectations and establish a positive contact - important factors in a niche sector, such as the life sciences.

More importantly, is the insight that this dialogue brings, which can never be achieved by online recruitment. To a trained recruitment professional, body language, tone of voice and facial expression provide more information than the spoken words. In fact, evidence indicates that only seven percent of the meaning is conveyed by the language used, compared to 38 percent conveyed due to the way words are spoken; and a massive 55 percent due to body language.

This means a greater understanding of the candidate can be gleaned from direct interaction. For example, a recruiter may be able to tell when the candidate is excited about the job description, or disappointed with the package, and how much more effort is going to be needed to convince him or her. By denying the opportunity to read these tell-tale signals due to online recruitment methods, companies are less able to gauge how suitable a candidate really is for a role. At the end of the day, this can waste a significant amount of time and resources for the candidate and the recruiter.

Honesty is the best e-policy

Relying on online recruitment has other pitfalls. Since communication through e-mail may lack depth, the message can often be misunderstood. The individuals involved are typically unaware that the message might be misinterpreted, as they do not have the benefit of seeing a confused facial expression, or hear the questioning tone of voice.

More worryingly, electronic communications may even encourage dishonesty. Researchers at business schools in the US found that work colleagues were more likely to be dishonest with each other in an online setting, than in actual meetings. Another study showed that business teams cooperate less and act more self-servingly, when they communicate online instead of through direct verbal communication. These studies make it clear that in a recruitment setting, where a candidate has everything to gain from over-marketing, direct verbal communication is a crucial step in quality control.

Building the complete picture

A good recruitment consultant will make the necessary quality checks, by challenging a candidate on their motivations and interests. This helps to build a more complete picture of the individual for the recruiter. Recruitment consultancies should be most concerned about placing the right person in the right job, rather than chasing a placement fee for a match that ultimately will not work. This means walking away from a potential placement, if the "fit" is not right.

Even when the right candidate is found, consultants have an important reassuring role to the new employee, who is taking the risk of moving to a new job. In the life sciences sector in Asia Pacific, it is common that the employee could be moving to a new country. New employees will want to hear affirmation that they are making the right decision - not just for themselves, but to justify the decision, both to current employers who may counter-offer, and to others close to them. Quality recruitment firms can provide this support, something that can never be met by detached online solutions.

Therefore, the next time a new job opportunity within your life sciences company arises, stop to consider what you want to achieve before sending out a job description. If you decide to choose a consultancy, they should feel like a partner - one you can trust to represent you and your company's values; because finding the perfect placement can rarely be done by numbers.



This chapter focuses on a theoretical study of recruitment and selection. In this chapter, attention is given first to policy formulation for recruitment and selection, then the recruitment strategy and techniques and the selection process will be analysed. According to Edwin B. Flippo, "Recruitment is the process of searching the candidates for employment and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organisation". Recruitment is the activity that links the employers and the job seekers. Recruitment and selection forms a core part of the central activities underlying human resource management: namely, the acquisition, development and reward of workers. It frequently forms an important part of the work of human resource managers - or designated specialists within work organisations. However, and importantly, recruitment and selection decisions are often for good reason taken by non-specialists, by the line managers. There is, therefore, an important sense in which it is the responsibility of all managers, and where human resource departments exist, it may be that HR managers play more of a supporting advisory role to those people who will supervise or in other ways work with the new employee.