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In this journal, the researcher, Alfonsus B. Susanto had made a study on change readiness in a manufacturing company located in Indonesia. As we know the readiness of change is vital factors to implement change process. If the organization or the employees are not ready, it be such a wasteful effort to implement the change and can be a potential threat to the organization because change is action that need to be actively taken by an organization to be in an competent with the rival in the industry. For a successful change to be implemented, readiness of the organization members can be recognized by their intention, attitudes and behaviors.
Based on this journal, the researcher list down seven criteria of change readiness for employee to change. There are several criteria of change readiness for employee to change is perception toward change efforts, mutual trust and respect, change initiatives, management support, management acceptance ,vision for change, and how the organization handle the change process.
The first criteria, employee perception toward change efforts is important because their behavior, attitudes, skills, motivation and basic knowledge with interaction of employee past experience is factor that influences for an effective change process attempt with the guidance from altered organization flexible policies and procedures.
Next is vision for change. Vision as all know is the long term objectives that the organization forecast to achieved in the future. The employee indeed need to inspired, well understand and clearly sees the future implication of change with adequate information and well guidance about the change provided by their leader. If there are clearly sees and understand they could avoid from confusion and take wrong action with ambiguous vision.
Third criteria are mutual trust and respects. Mutual trust and respect among all parties included management team and co-workers are vital to be as a base for an effective organizational readiness and capacity for change. Better customer need, quality of work life, better overall organizational effectiveness are some of the good positive outcomes from mutual trust and respects from each others.
Next criteria are initiative to change. Everything needs to be change to be higher in ability to compete in nowadays high complexity world. Organization could avoid to face difficult times and have better ong term survival is the organization implement the adequate change in term of timeliness and with the right way to be change. The leader of the organization need to analyzing on the organization itself in scope of internally and externally, it can be linked to grab an opportunity and avoiding future crises will transforming it to a successful change effort using their skill, ability and knowledge. However, the change is only can be succeed if all the linkage is well integrated and with sufficient opportunity to be involved and giving necessary feedback required to be more effective and efficient. Resistance to change is not mainly about people resist to adapt new thing but it is because the uncertainties of the change result and the possible result from change.
Fifth criteria are management support. Management can support successful change attempt with flexible policies, procedure, practice, logistic and system support with highly level of trust of each others. Leader need to be involving in monitoring, takes corrective action and timely initiate new vision to be implement efficiently. Then other support by management is by how the accommodation practices through realignment of performance evaluation and also employee compensation with change initiative program , and the other support can be in dealing with obstacle arise in change attempts.
Sixth criteria are acceptance from the employee to change. Objectively to increase organization overall performance, there need a change to be implement, not every single employee can adapt a change drastically, so it can be pressurized the employee to be stress and tension due to uncertainty and confusion. As we know change benefit and advantage are usually not clearly be defined by management that implement a change and the result canâ€™t be shown in short time period thus employee are not convinced at all to change because it being argue if it resulting benefit for them or not. Then the organization needs to developed a capable and committed change agent by using development of all resources and system and applied consistently and also creates sense of motivation and commitment to help to build good acceptance from their employee. Change result is not clearly, so it created risk to be taken or not by organizations. Thus to it is important to reduce the risk from change because it can creates resistance to change that give higher risk on the successful to be implement the change and it incurred a lot of time consuming to convinced employee to accept the change and also incurred a lot of cost.
Last criteria that highlighted by the researchers is how to manage the change. It means that the ability from the leader of the organizations (with skill, knowledge and experience) to manage the change with alignment with other factors included producing ongoing change process. Organization change readiness can be reflected by confidence level in dealing with a challenging change and anticipating and identified any future threat and obstacles may be arise.
So from the research, the result found that the change implementation attempt would be easier when the organization is ready for the change process. It can be shown by the result, the company X that achieves the higher index of 3.00 out of scale 4. So it can be concluded that the organization are ready to accept or implement a change process instantly. The result is help by the good perception from the organization members of the confidence level to facilitate the change and clearly see the effectiveness of the change program. Thus, for successful change attempt , the organizations need a commitment to be change among the members from a clearly information toward the member of positive result for the change and with the change initiatives will created sense of urgency in the organization.
In this journal, the methodology that be used for collecting data in measuring the organization readiness for change is using stratified random sampling technique and the researcher use structured questionnaires where confidential being kept of the respondent name. By then, it is a good procedure because the respondent can express their own thought freely.
The questionnaires is based on the seven aspect that being list by the researcher. The aspect is that being taken to consideration is perception toward change efforts, mutual trust and respect, change initiatives, management support, management acceptance, vision for change, and how the organization handle the change process. The data collection is only rely on the survey based on the questionnaire only. By the way, main sources and only data sources is only from the questionnaires. There are a lot of pro and con to be considered when using questionnaires. Although the pro of questionnaires is a lot of data can be collected, not time consuming and others, but the data being collected can be argued to be inadequate to understand some form of information. For example is the question is about the feeling of the employee and some employee are felt restricted to be answer the questionnaires because they felt lack of confidentiality of the questionnaire survey. Then another disadvantages of questionnaire is respondent can argued what the question back what the main data that want to be collected due to the wording, knowledge of the respondent, own interpretation and question is have problem of double barrel question or leading question and there are no further explanation about the question can be refer by respondents. Then, the respondent answer is lack of reliability and they answer the question just only to completed the form and not by their own true feeling. For the last is, the questionnaire may missing the main aspect to be asked in the research.
By the way, to increase the reliability of the data, the researcher can use another method of data collection. The method can be suggested is conducting an interview with executive managers or the one who handled the change process. There are a lot of advantages using interview session to collected data because the data collection can be more accurate because the interviewee tend to share a lot of information to the interviewer and interviewee can be more understand to the question because they can asked back anything related to the topic and the reliability of the data can be increase. Then another advantage is the interviewer can know the body language and the information that being answered is have high validity or not because with interview session the interviewer can know the way the interviewee answered, their feeling and reaction. That all can add more to the data reliability and validity.
By the way, the aspect is a good list of aspect to measure readiness for change for the organization however it can be added some more aspect to be added for increase the reliability of the data that be more accurate information in measuring employee readiness. The lot of other aspects that should also be added and to be taken into consideration in this research. First is the strategic alignment in the change process. Strategic alignment is the integration between all parties that involved in the change process to give their commitment to the change attempt through the support and they understand what the change result in future. By all the integration, it increase the chances of successful for the change attempt.
Next is the effective communication between the management team and the job incumbent that involved in the change process. Communication is the shared among the parties about the change with adequate related information. By the way, the management team that attempt to manage the change process should communicate with the involved job incumbent or employee about what is change is about and what are the result in the future if the change process is successful. By the way, employee without knowing the actual result of the change will resist to change because they felt there are no big advantages for them involving the change process. They felt the vision of the change is ambiguous .