Career Development Among Employees Commerce Essay

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Career development among employees have been seen as very important especially in the turbulent environment in which changes in the economic, technological and business have significantly impacted employee's perspective towards career attitudes and experiences. The environment change that has characterized by intense competition and globalization has contributed to less loyalty, shorter employment tenure, flatter and less hierarchical organizational structures. Thus, employees have to determine their own career planning to ensure employability within the organization in long terms. Furthermore, the responsibilities in making decisions about future career path no longer held by the organization that lead to changes in the nature of the employment relationship. Hence, the purpose of this study was to examine the organizational and individual roles toward career development on career satisfaction.

Career development can be defined as "an ongoing process by which individuals progress through a series of stages, each of which is characterized by a relatively unique set of issues, themes, and tasks." (Werner and DeSimone, 2006). Career development can only be effective if careful consideration is given to career paths and opportunities for promotion and progression. Career development program should view as dynamic process that matches the needs of the organization with the needs of employees. Although some organizations play a role in the planning of their employee's careers, somehow employees are responsible for initiating and managing their own career planning. In the past, career development very depended on more traditional organizational structure and cultures such as hierarchical progression was seen to be upwards through clearly defined positions roles based on tenure and the possession of specialist skills. However, employee needs to creating own career path that not longer just following a path that has been establish by the organization.

Career planning involves activity such as assistance from counselors, supervisors and others within and outside the organization can be helpful, but the focus of career planning is on the individual. Beside that, managers encourage employee take own career plan by offering continuing assistance in the form of feedback on individual performance and provide some useful information about the organization, job and career opportunities. Organization is responsible to supply information about it mission, policies and plan to support employee self-assessment, training and development. Combined efforts are significant for employee to advances in career growth provided organizational opportunity within it. Career development programs benefits employees by increased skill in managing own careers, greater retention of valued employee, increased understanding of the organization and better job satisfaction.

Research Background

TRW Automotive is an international company which had several branches in Malaysia which responsible to manufacturing different parts of automotive components (braking system, suspension and chassis system). Researcher have been choose Johor branch which located at Senai Industrial Estate as research area, instead of including all the branches in Malaysia. Furthermore, this research is about the impact of organizational and individual roles towards career development on career satisfaction.

Significant of this study is to focus on what type of career development programs will be provided by the organization in the effort to develop their employee's skills, knowledge and ability to achieve more competitive advantage ahead of their competitor within the industrial. In addition, employees itself must play a crucial roles to increase their own employability within the same organization and future career development in the other company as the collapsed of traditional ways of career development which previous trend focus on vertical upward promotion have been seen as not relevance in today's working environment.

Both of the organizational and individual roles in career development has great influence in the employee's career satisfaction such as lower intention to quit, intrinsic motivation, enhance employee career success and etc in which will bring positive effects and benefits to the organization as well as employees themselves in long term. Hence, both of the effort from organization and employees is very important towards career development.

1.3 TRW Automotive at a Glance

TRW Automotive is a global technology, manufacturing and service company that provide technology, systems and services to customers worldwide. TRW Automotive operating in 27 countries and more than 200 locations around the world such as North America, South America, Europe and Asia Pacific. TRW is designing and producing world-class products for the automotive market. TRW focus on technological and systems engineering expertise sets the standards for innovation, quality and performance. TRW Automotive became an independent automotive organization in 2003, and began trading on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) in 2004.

At its beginning, TRW and its founding companies developed a vast array of products for the fledgling auto industry. These included fasteners and cap screw technology that was eventually adapted to create the first two-piece engine valve, as well as wooden wheels for Henry Ford's Model T in North America, and lighting and other electrical products in Europe.

TRW Automotive is a global leader in automotive safety, producing one of the largest arrays of active and passive safety technologies. It continues to be at the forefront of developments in vehicle dynamics, driver assist systems, foundation brakes, inflatable restraints, seat belt technologies and the electronics and software advancements that will enhance the safety, convenience and comfort of tomorrow's vehicles.

1.4 Research problem

Many researches about this area has been done in another countries mostly from Western, however in Malaysia perspective still lack of a comprehensive research about the impact organizational and individual roles towards career development on career satisfaction. Therefore, this research will mainly focus on executive level in the manufacturing company to find out what really matter to employees to achieve career satisfaction.

1.5 Research Objectives

In specific, the objectives of this research are as follows:

To identify the impact of organizational roles towards employee's career development.

To identify the individual roles toward career development on career satisfaction.

Research Question

This study addresses the following research questions:

How organization roles in career development contribute to employee's career satisfaction?

To what level organization able to provide career development programs to enhance employability within the organization?

How individual roles in career development contribute to employee's career satisfaction?

Is there any relationship between the effective and the impact of the career development programs?

To what extent career development programs enable employee to assist their career planning?

Research Scope

This scope of study will be focus primarily on the impact of organizational and individual roles towards career development on career satisfaction. Research will be conducted at TRW Automotive, Senai, Johor in the nature business of manufacturing. The study is to identify the career development programs that had been implemented by the organization and its impact on career satisfaction among the employees. Besides that, proactive initiative by the employee in managing their own career development will be prove to enhance career satisfaction in the positive ways will be one area of the study as well. Thus, the targeted respondents that will be participating in this study are from executive employees' level across several departments in the TRW Automotive.

Research Limitation

There are some limitations that need to be considered in this study. The limitations are stated as below:

The scope of this study is confined to the employees in TRW Automotive Senai, one of the subsidiaries in charge of the manufacturing business. It does not involve other employees in the other divisions or subsidiaries within the TRW Automotive due to limitation of time to conduct the more comprehensive study.

The respondents are from different departments, which are executive level that divided into two categories - technical and non technical, hence, their level of perception about career management and career planning program might be different.

The use of TRW Automotive employees' as a sampling of study may not reflect the population of employee in other divisions in TRW Automotive Malaysia.

The findings of this study are limited in terms of the honesty and thoroughness of the respondents in completing the questionnaire.

Significance of the Study

The implication of this study can be significant value to the company especially for TRW Automotive as they can plan to further enhance the career development program implementation within the organization. The findings could help the company to assess the likelihood that implementation of career development program will be successful or will increase the employee's skill, knowledge and ability, has assisted employee in their personal and career development.

The implementation of some career development program require the company to makes significant investments of time, financial resources and planning by the in charge department of developing an appropriate training and development when they start on the program initiatives. A better understanding of the impact of the career development in the organization's perspective on their employees may increase company's willingness to invest in such program, thus enable to make wise decision regarding how the resources are be fully utilized.

1.10 Conceptual Definition

1.10.1 Career Development

Career development become increasingly significant as there is strong interest in the idea of nontraditional career paths. In today's flatter organizations, there is a need to increase the value attached to alternatives to promotion: lateral or rotational moves, non management career roles (for example, engineer), temporary assignments, downward moves and early and phased retirement (pg.8). Thus, top management has realized that the organization alone cannot possibly provide all of the career rewards an employee may seek. Hence, it is necessary to encourage employees to be proactive in assessing what they want most (values, needs, interests) and in planning ways to achieve those desires. (pg.9)

Career development thus is comprised of two separate but interrelated functions: career planning, which is an individual process, and career management, which is an institutional process. In turn, career planning consists of those activities in which individuals must engage in order to make informed choices as to occupation, organization, job assignment, and self-development. This includes such activities as self-assessment, the evaluation of available career opportunities, and the preparation of a career strategy with an implementation plan, all of which are key in order for employees to enhance their personal career development. While, career management refers to specific human resource activities, such as job rotation, performance appraisal, career counseling, and training and education that are designed to help match employee interests and capabilities with organizational opportunities (Hall, D. T and Asssociates, 1986 pg.55).

A balanced approach to organizational career development requires the use of both of these activities. The two facets complement and reinforce each other quite well. If individual employees have failed to plan for their own development, they may not be ready to respond to opportunities presented through organizational career management activities. Similarly, no amount of individual career planning and preparation can be effective if organizational opportunities for career movement are not available (Gutteridge, T, 1986 pg 3).

1.10.2 Career Planning

Career planning is a deliberate process of

Becoming aware of self, opportunities, constraints, choices, and consequences,

Identifying career-related goals, and

Programming work, education, and related developmental experiences to provide the direction, timing, and sequence of steps to attain a specific career goal. (Storey, 1976 pg.3).

1.10.3 Career Management

Career management can be defined as is an ongoing process of preparing, implementing, and monitoring career plans undertaken by the individual alone or in concert with the organization's career systems. (Storey, 1976 pg.3).

Importance of career management

Career management is the process through which employees

Become aware of their own interests, values, strengths, and weaknesses.

Obtain information about job opportunities within the company.

Identify career goals.

Establish action plans to achieve career goals. (noe, pg 407)

Career management is important from both the employees' perspective and the organization's perspective. In the point of organization's view, the failure to motivate and encourage employees to plan their careers can caused in shortage of employees to fill open positions, lower employee commitment, and inappropriate use of resource allocation for training and development programs. While employee's perspective, lack of career management can causing frustration, feelings of not being valued in the organization or do not appreciated, and being unable to find suitable employment should a job change internally or externally due to mergers, acquisitions, restructuring or downsizing.

Pressure for change

Increased organizational interest in employee career development is a response to a diverse set of external and internal institutional pressures as well as to express employee interest. Nowadays, employees throughout the organizational hierarchy and at all career stages are demanding more from their employers than simply a paycheck and job stability. Increasingly, employees are seeking such psychological rewards as challenging work, personal fulfillment, self-respect, and the opportunity to grow and develop. Furthermore, many employees are seeking to obtain a better balance between their work life, family life, and personal life. While other employees, career planning is viewed a way of alleviating the problem of professional obsolescence and a means to maximize their prospects for career growth (pg. 56&58).

According to Walker and Gutteridge (1979) concluded three other issues were more important influences in program development. First, career development may be viewed as an effective response to a series of human resource problems, such as excessive turnover among managers and professionals, plateaued employees, the need to increase work force productivity, and the necessity of reconciling unrealistic employee career expectations with stabilizing or declining employment opportunities. A second institutional pressure is the increased desire on the part of senior management in many firms to develop and promote employees from within. For most of the organizations, the increased reliance on promotion from within has been difficult to achieve because of a perceived shortage of high-quality promotable talent. A final factor has been management's expressed desire to assist employee career planning as a mean of increasing individual commitment and to help ensure that the right person is in the right job, both of which are assumed to bear a positive relationship to work force productivity (pg. 58).

Barriers of career development program

Potential obstacles also can be divided into individual and organizational categories. For individual category, not all employees will enthusiastically endorse career development programs as some will perceive that career development is primarily or exclusively an organizational responsibility. Furthermore, some employee will conclude that their career progress is simply a matter of luck and some individuals will find the self-assessment process inherent in career planning threatening and/or may be reluctant to make the changes required to implement a career strategy. While some organizational barrier could be seen in a number of organizational practices and beliefs that mitigate against the successful implementation of a career development program. In addition to those negative attitudes, there are also likely to be concerns that career development will be too expensive, that it will place an unreasonable strain or will create unrealistic employee expectations. Beside that, many supervisors may be unwilling to assume the responsibilities often demanded of them in organizational career development programs. Changes in organizational will effect top management to push for immediate results from the career development program and will scrap it if the results are not achieved as intended (pg 59).

Employee's Role

The new psychological contract has forced employees to increase their value to their current employer and their employment opportunities by taking responsibility for career planning. Companies with effective career management system expect employees to take responsibility for their own career management. Participation in the program is voluntary. The employee must also approach their manager to initiate career-related discussion as part of the personal development planning process. Thus, employees should engage in several career management actions:

Take the initiative to ask for feedback from managers and peers regarding their skill strengths and weaknesses.

Identify their stage of career development and development needs.

Seek challenges by gaining exposure to a range of learning opportunities.

Interact with employees from different work group inside and outside the company.

Create visibility through good performance.

Manager's Role

Managers play a crucial role in the career management process. Mostly, employees look to their managers for career advice because managers usually evaluate employees' readiness for job mobility such as promotion or transfer. Plus, managers are often the primary source of information about position openings, training courses, and other developmental opportunities. However, many managers avoid becoming involved in career planning activities with employees because they do not feel qualified to consult employees' career-related matters, have limited time for helping employees deal with career issues and lack the interpersonal skills needed to fully understand career issues.

Furthermore, manager can provide accurate information about career paths and opportunities within the organization, support the employee's career plans (nominate the employee for training, adjust the employee's schedule to permit attendance in a training program), and serve as a key source of feedback to the employee on career progress.

Four roles that managers should be trained to perform in order to fulfill their responsibility as career developers

Coach - one who listens, clarifies, probes, and defines employee career concerns

Appraiser - one who gives feedback, clarifies performance standards and job responsibilities

Adviser - one who generates options, helps set goals, makes recommendations, and gives advice

Referral agent - one who consults with the employee on action plans and links the employee to available organizational people and resources. (Desimone, R. L, 2002 pg 477)

Company's Role

Companies are responsible for providing employees with the resources needed to be successful in career planning. These resources include specific programs as well as processes for career management:

Career workshop (seminar on such topic as how the career management system works. Self-assessment, goal setting, and helping managers understand and perform their roles in career management).

Information on career and job opportunites (places such as career center or newsletters, electronic databases, or websites where employees can find information about job openings and training programs).

Career planning workbooks (printed guides that direct employees through a series of exercises, discussions, and guidelines related to career planning).

Career counseling (advice from a professionally trained counselor who specializes in working with employees seeking assistance with career issues).

Career path (planning job sequences and identifying skills needed for advancement within and across job families, such as moving from technical jobs to management jobs). Pg428

Research Hypothesis

Based on the research questions, two research hypotheses have been determined to test the impact of organization (organizational support) and individual (proactive personality, career management behavior) roles towards employee's satisfaction.

H1: Organization roles in career development will be positively related to career satisfaction.

H2: Individual roles in career development will be positively related to career satisfaction.

Theoretical Framework

Organizational roles

Mentoring

Performance appraisal

Training and development

Coaching

Career satisfaction

Career commitment

Intention to quit

Objective career success

Subjective career success

Individual roles

Seminar

Conference

Self-help workbook

Networking

Models of Career Development

Super's Life Span, Life Space Approach

Super's theory developed over a lifetime of research and currently the theory consists of fourteen basic propositions (Super et al., 1996). It is the most complex career development model, many elements are included in the propositions. Fundamentally, it includes these basic components;

Self concept - Development through life is a process of defining, developing and implementing one's self-concept, which will change over time.

Life space -A person's life is comprised of a constellation of work and non-work roles, the balance of which change over life.

Life span - Life also consists of a macrostructure of development stages as described in adult development theory.

Role changes in life - A person's self-concept changes as life roles change, in turn resulting in career changes as a person fits work to their changes in life roles and self-concept.

Unlike more traditional trait approaches to career choice and development, Super's theory is focused on change. Super sees adult life as built upon change and development (the adult development perspective), which in turn changes a person's self-concept. A person's work and career are then places where the self-concept is acted out. (Swanson R, A & Holton E, F).

The life-cycle models suggest that employees face certain developmental tasks over the course of their careers and that they move through distinct life or career stages. This model focuses on career development particularly from employee's life to adaptability in their career. One's career actually do proceed through a series of stages that career development involves employees' learning to perform certain activities. Each stage involves changes in activities and relationship with peers and managers. Thus, career stage consists of four stages which are started from exploration, establishment, maintenance and disengagement. Each career stage is characterized by developmental tasks, activities, and relationship. Employee retention, motivation, and performance by affected by how well the organization manages the development tasks at each career stage.

Exploration stage

First of all, in the exploration stage, individual attempt to identify the type of work that interests them. They will take into consideration heavily based on their interests, values, and work preferences. As this behavior will lead them to seek various important information about the jobs, careers, and occupation from friends, family members, reading material, internet sources and co-workers. Once they identify the type of work or occupation that interests them, individuals can start to focus on the needed education or training. Typically, exploration occurs in the mid-teen to early-to-late 20s such as individual is still pursuing their education in secondary school, college or university. This process continues when the individual starts a new job. Usually, employees who are new to a job are less prepared to take on work roles without the assistance and direction from seniors. Thus apprenticeship is the best way to help new employee to works under the supervision and direction of a more experienced colleague or manager. From this perspective, organizational role are more on provide orientation and socialization programs to help new employees get familiar with their new job and colleagues as well as working environment.

Establishment stage

In the establishment stage, individual find their suitable place in the company in which they make an independent contribution, achieve more responsibility and financial success and establish a desirable lifestyle. In this stage, individual was able to performed their work independently and produce satisfactory result and they are less dependent on more experienced employees than those in the exploration stage. Hence, individual shows highly understanding about organization culture, values and norms. Furthermore, they learn how the company views their contributions from informal interactions with peers and managers and from formal feedback received through the performance appraisal system. From employees in this stage, the organization needs to develop policies that help balance work and non-work roles. While the individual need to take charge of their career planning activities and play more active roles.

Maintenance stage

In the maintenance stage, the individual is concerned with keeping their skills, knowledge and ability up to date. Those core skills could help them to increase their promoability to certain position within the organization and must be acquire periodically. Individuals in the maintenance stage have many years of working experience and in-depth understanding of how the company operated. Thus, they are valuable trainers or mentors for new employees who teach or assist less experienced employees. Furthermore, individual in this current stage have great influence in develop company policies or goals, work system, problem and important issues. This stage was seen as most critical in one's career because company needs to ensure that employees' skills do not become obsolete and heading to career plateau. Thus, organization will emphasizes career development programs such as performance appraisal, formal training and development programs, succession planning and etc to addresses particular problems.

Disengagement stage

In the disengagement stage, individual prepare for a change in the balance between work and non-work activities. They may take on the role of sponsor which provides direction to other employee, represents the company to customers, initiates actions, and participation in the decision making. Disengagement usually refer to older employees who near to retire age and they will concentrate entirely on non-work activities such as hobbies, sport and travelling. Employees tend to reduce their work hours gradually during the disengagement phase which mean reduction in job responsibility, roles and etc. Organization can induce some retirement programs help both the employee and the organization mean that they have the opportunity to choose retirement in a way that meet their financial and emotional needs. While in exchange, organization gets to take advantage of the employees' knowledge and core skills. (Noe, R. A).

An individually oriented career management model

Greenhaus and Colleagues Career Management Model

This career management model was introduced by Greenhaus at 1978 that shows that effective career management started from how an individual responds to the need to make a career decision. This model includes eight main activities such as career exploration, awareness of self and environment, goal setting, strategy development, strategy implementation, progress towards goal, feedback and non-work sources and career appraisal. This model particularly focus on how should individual take an appropriate steps to manage own career decision. Typically, in order to choose a wise decision about their career, an individual will use information, opportunities, family support, as well as from educational, work, and societal institution to perform those activities more effectively.

The model suggests that career management occurs in a series of steps, though the order of progression through these steps may vary. (Werner J, M & DeSimone R, L pg. 473). In the career exploration, individual try to obtain as much information related to their self interest and working environment as possible to indentify potential opportunities and obstacles or barriers that would exist the environment. Thus, this able to help an individual to set a career goals and develop a strategy to accomplish the objective.

Once the strategy has been established, the next step is to implement the strategy. Individual can try to get feedback from the superior in the work place or outside because it is helpful to give clear information of personal advancement in their career. Feedback can help individual to evaluate how well his or her performance and what kind of improvement needed in the future. As a conclusion, Greenhaus model generally projecting organization roles to assist employees in managing their career management process.

Information, Opportunities, and Support from

Need to make

Goal setting

C

C

Strategy development

D

Strategy implementation

E

Feedback: work/non work

G

Awareness of self and environment

B

Progress toward goal

F

Career appraisal

H

Career exploration

A

decision

Educational, Family, Work and Societal Institutions

Figure 1: Greenhaus Career Management Model

Source: Werner J. M & De Simone R. L (2006), "Human Resource Development" 4th Edition, Thomson South-Western, pg 474.

Career exploration. Career exploration involves gathering information about one's self and the environment.

Awareness of self and environment. Successful career exploration will lead the individual to a deeper self-awareness and an understanding of both opportunities and constraints present in the environment. This awareness of self and environment can lead the individual to set or revise career goals, or if such goals already set, it would lead to strategy development.

Goal setting. A career goal is an outcome the individual decides to try to obtain. Such goals may be specific or general. To the extent career goals are based on an awareness of the self and environment, they are likely to be realistic.

Strategy development. A career strategy is an action plan for accomplishing the career goal. An effective strategy should include the actions that should be carried out and a timetable for performing them.

Strategy implementation. Strategy implementation involves carrying out the strategy the individual has developed. Following a realistic strategy as opposed to acting without a clearly defined plan increases the likelihood of attaining the career goal. It is easier to get where you want to go if you have a plan to follow. However, some people may develop elaborate plans, but then fail to implement them. Strategy implementation can lead to progress toward the goal and feedback from work and non work sources.

Progress toward the goal. This is the extent to which the individual is nearing the career goal.

Feedback from work and non work sources. Valuable information about the progress toward the career goal can be obtained from both work sources - such as coworkers, supervisors, and specialists, and non work sources - such as friends, family, and teachers.

Career appraisal. Feedback and information on progress toward the career goal permit the individual to appraise his or her career. This appraisal leads to reengagement in career exploration, and the career management process continues with another cycle to activities.

Source: from J. H. Greenhaus, G. A. Callanan, & V. M. Godshak (2000). Career management (3rd ed). Fort Worth, TX: Dryden Press, 25-33.

Organizationally oriented career management model

The pluralistic approach

This model was introduced by Brousseau and colleague that state at least four career concepts that represent patterns employee's career can take such as linear, expert, spiral and transitory. An organisation's career culture is defined by the organization's structure, what forms of performance it values, and the rewards it offers employees. At the same time, the organization's career culture should support its strategic direction (e.g an organization seeking diversification should adopt a spiral career concept culture).

Brousseau and colleagues present a pluralistic approach as a way to align the organization and individual by combining varied amounts and types of organizational structure with an array of quite different experience opportunities. Organization would retain sufficient structure to maintain certain core competency and organizational leadership, while utilizing less structured arrangement to meet the demands of external change and flux.

Operationally, there are three types of career management methods: (1) counseling, (2) individual career development program contracts, and (3) a cafeteria approach that includes a variety of "career-track options, training opportunities, performance evaluation schemes, and reward system", from which employees may choose to fit their own career goals. Designing and managing a pluralistic career culture involves an ongoing process of assessing the gaps between the organization's strategy and employees' career concept and motives, identifying the optimal organizational structure, and then identifying and implementing the proper career management practices.

Career concepts

Linear- A progression of movement up an organizational hierarchy to positions of greater responsibility and authority; motivated by desire for power and achievement; variable time line and traditional view of a career.

Expert- A devotion to an occupation; focus on building knowledge and skills within a specialty; little upward movement in a traditional hierarchy, move from apprentice to master; motivated by desire for competence and stability; rooted in the medieval guild structure.

Spiral - A lifelong progression of periodic moves across related occupations, disciplines, or specialties; sufficient time to achieve a high level of competence in a given area before moving on; motives include creativity and personal growth.

Transitory- A progression of frequent moves across different or unrelated jobs or fields; untraditional; motives include variety and independence. (Werner J. M & De Simone R. L (2006).

Social cognitive career theory (SCCT)

According to Roziah Mohd Rasdi, Maimunah Ismail, Jegak Uli and Sidek Mohd Noah (2009) and Barnett and Bradley (2007), this theory was proposed by Lent et which predicts how contextual and individual personality, cognitive and behavior variables predict vocational satisfaction. Current trend of career development largely emphasized organizational elements (e.g training and development programs, performance appraisal, organizational support) and individual roles or factors (e.g networking, motivation, personal attributes). These factors are very significant to affect learning experiences and the application in the job or task and ultimately determine and influence career choice, decisions and success.

Grounded in Albert Bandura's (1986) social cognitive theory proposes that outcome and self-efficacy expectations affect individual performance. An outcome expectation is a person's belief that performing a given behavior will lead to given outcome. Self-efficacy can be defined as "people's judgments of their capabilities to organize and execute courses of action required to attain designated types of performances. It is concerned not with the skills one has but with judgments of what one can do with whatever skills one possesses".(Bandura, A, 1986) pg.55.

The major prediction of the social learning theory is that a person's self-effeicacy expectation will determine

Whether a behavior will be performed,

How much effort will be spent, and

How long the person will continue to perform the behavior.

Thus, Bandura argues that individual who has high self-efficacy for a particular task will focus their attention on the challenges of the situation or environment and use greater effort in mastering them, hence increasing the chances of successful task performance. In contrast, individual who have low self-efficacy for a particular task will focus their thoughts on obstacles and shortcomings, and as a result, reduce their chances of successful task performance.

According to Roziah Mohd Rasdi, Maimunah Ismail, Jegak Uli and Sidek Mohd Noah (2009), SCCT recognizes that learning occurs through interactions with others and the environment. It also acknowledges an individual's capacity for self-regulation, motivation, self-directed learning and goal setting in affecting behavior change. Furthermore, SCCT incorporates the influences of personal, environment, learning experiences and reciprocal interactions of both person factors and environmental elements in shaping career behaviors. SCCT also addresses the importance of context in which the individual engaged with. According to Lent and Brown (1996), the model is a base for unifying existing career theories and for conceptualizing developmental and remedial career interventions. The framework emphasized the importance of personal agency in career decision making process and the influence of the internal and external factors on personal agency, formulation, pursuit and attainment of career goals (Lent et al. 1994). SCCT postulates that career-related interests, goals, and choices develop from relevant self-efficacy beliefs and outcome expectations. SCCT asserts that self-efficacy beliefs and outcome expectations are determined and modified largely by four sources of information:

personal success experience;

exposure to successful role models;

social and verbal persuasive communication; and

positive affective reactions (Lent et al., 1994)

The definition of career success

The definition of career success has different meanings over the past several years whereby it was influenced by various factors and depends on whom interpreted it whether from individual or the organization perspective. Generally, career success can be defined as what kind of individual career achievement throughout his or her career life and reflecting a movement in individual's occupation. Based on the career literatures, career definition have transformed from traditional definition, which is based on an individual' hierarchical progression or movement, to contemporary definitions that have included the psychological elements of how one views his or her career success. According to Whymark and Ellis (1999), written employment contract states the terms agreed between the individual and the organization, there is also the widely recognized concept of psychological contract. Hence, indirectly indicate that employees are responsible to do something about their own career beyond what stated inside of the contents of employment contract.

According to Judge et al.(1995), Nabi (1999) Seibert et al. (2001), Heslin (2003) and Ng et al. (2005), career success is described as the positive psychological or work-related outcomes or personal and professional achievements one has accumulates as a result of work experiences. Moreover, career success was divided into objective and subjective components (Whymark and Ellis, 1999; Callanan, 2003; Brauch, 2004 and Vos et al., 2007). Objective career success refer to the eternal categories in a profession, which are defined by society, one's peers or culture, and illustrates the typical steps towards success (Roziah Mohd Rasdi et al., 2009). Objective indicators of career success include such factors as total compensation, number of promotions, status, level of responsibility and other tangible trapping of accomplishment (Callanan, 2003; Vos, Dewettinck and Buyens, 2007).

In contrast, subjective career success indicates increases in competence, recognition from peers and learning opportunities hereby become more important than the traditional indicators (Vos, Dewettinck and Buyens, 2007). While, Callanan (2003) stated that subjective side of career success is viewed as a function of the individual's perception of satisfaction with the job and with career progress. Psychological success is the feeling of pride and accomplishment that comes from achieving life goals that are not limited to achievement at work such as raising a family, good physical health and work life balance. (Noe, R.A, 2008). The change in focus to subjective career success, where the criterion for success is internal rather than external, is also consistent with the change in the career context where individuals are expected to self-manage their own career rather rely on organizational direction (Hall and Chandler, 2005; Hall and Mirvis, 1995).

The definition of career satisfaction and employee satisfaction

Generally, satisfaction is an important goal for organizations to reach as it has been shown that profitability, productivity, employee retention, and customer satisfaction are linked to employee satisfaction (Hooi Lai Wan, 2007). Employee satisfaction has great impact to the organization performance because satisfied, motivated employees will create high quality of work and productivity which enhance customer satisfaction and result in positive outcome. According to past research, employee satisfaction tend to increase if they are working with friendly people, fair rewards, opportunities for mobility within organization, and working for supervisors who actively assist their subordinate to address job-related problems. On the contrary, employees are dissatisfied when they have alternate jobs, do not have information needed to perform tasks adequately, and receive incomplete requests from their supervisors.

Furthermore, research indicated (Goldfarb Consultant, 1999) that employees satisfaction have more to do with interpersonal relationship (quality of decision makers, communication and relations between managers and employees), atmosphere at the workplace (work ethic, level of innovation and physical environment) and sense of personal achievement (personal growth opportunities and level and range of responsibility) than it has to do with attributes that can be measured (amount of time off, benefits, work hours and salary). According to Lee (2000), organizations that invest in career management are more likely to increase employee satisfaction. Moreover, career development programmes positively influence employee satisfaction, professional development and productivity (Chen et al., 2004).

Career Development Programs

Mentoring

A mentor is an experienced senior employee who helps develop a less experience employee (the protégé) in their tasks. Most mentoring relationship establish informally as a result of interests or values shared by mentor and protégé. Mentoring relationship can also develop as part of formal company effort to bring together successful senior employees with less experienced employees.

Performance Appraisal

A performance appraisal can be defined as a periodic evaluation of the output of an individual measured against certain expectations. A performance has a process and content. The process determines its implementation which invariably includes the people involved and the procedures, while the content of the performance appraisal decides what needs to be assessed. A performance appraisal is an evaluation and grading exercise undertaken by the organization on all its employees either periodically or annually, on the outcomes of performance based on the job content, job requirement and personal behavior in the position.(Alex KB Yong)

Career counseling

Individual career counseling involves one-on-one discussions between the employee and manager or supervisor as career counselor. Counseling session can be brief informal talks to the annual performance appraisal discussion with manager or counseling professional. Counselor can suggest actions to the employee and provide appropriate support and feedback about what steps that needs to be taken by the employee. According to Desimone R. L., individualized counseling can be used to answer a wide range of questions and can either stand alone or supplement other career development activities. The career counseling process can be seen as consisting of three stages:

Opening and probing - this stage establishes rapport and determines the employee's goals for the counseling session.

Understanding and focusing - this includes providing assistance in self-assessment and establishing career goals and strategies.

Programming - the stages provides support for implementing the career strategy. (pg. 483)

Job rotation

Job rotation involves assigning an employee to a series of jobs in different functional areas of the organization. These assignments are typically lateral rather than vertical moves, and can involve performing on several tasks or moving from line to staff positions. Job rotation is a good platform to introduce a range of tasks to employee's career especially if the employee has become bored with the current work assignment. Furthermore, it provides opportunity for employee with a chance to learn and use new skills and to better understand different work functions. Thus, it also serve to help the employee to build networks within the organization, and be better prepared for future promotion opportunities when vacancy available.

on the job training (OJT)

On the job training usually involves conducting training at a trainee's regular workstation. This type of training very common to technical skill employee whereby operating a machine need one-on-one instruction between coworkers or between the employee and the supervisor.

CHAPTER 3

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Introduction

Research methodology is an important part of the study that explains all aspects about how the study will be conducted, beginning from the data collecting process to the analysis of the data. It is also a systematic and complete process to ensure that adequate and reliable data is collected for achieving the objectives of the study. An effective data analysis results with a proper research methodology contributes to obtaining accurate study outcome. In this chapter, the following will be outlined:

Research Design

Research Framework

Population and Sampling

Research Instrument

Pre-Test

Administration of Questionnaires

Data Analysis

The researcher will summarize the chapter at the end of this chapter.

Research Design

This study examined the impact of organization and individual roles toward career development conducted in TRW Automotive. Based on the research question namely:

How organization roles in career development contribute to employee's career satisfaction?

To what level organization able to provide career development programs to enhance employability within the organization?

How individual roles in career development contribute to employee's career satisfaction?

Is there any relationship between the effective and the impact of the career development programs?

To what extent career development programs enable employee to assist their career planning?

The researcher, thus, employed a quantitative research approach for this study as this approach is able to "describe current conditions, investigate relationship, and study cause-effect phenomena" (Gay & Airasian, 2000). The quantitative research is a formal, objective, systematic process in which numerical data are utilized to obtain information about the identified research. Quantitative research is selected due to following reasons;

Objective in the analysis and interpretation of data, which does not involve judgment in interpreting the respondents' responses.

Quantitative designs of research tend to produce results that can be generalized. The quantitative research is to determine the relationship between independent variable and a dependent variable or outcome variable in the population (Merriam, 19998).

This research is a quantitative descriptive and correlational study as it identifies the relationship between organization and individual roles in career development toward career satisfaction that impact to employee's career satisfaction.

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