Business Strategies For Technology Commerce Essay

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CORPORATE STRATEGY - is concerned with the overall purpose and scope of the business to meet stakeholder expectations. This is a crucial level since it is heavily influenced by investors in the business and acts to guide strategic decision-making throughout the business. Corporate strategy is often stated explicitly in a "mission statement".

BUSINESS UNIT STRATEGY - is concerned more with how a business competes successfully in a particular market. It concerns strategic decisions about choice of:

Products

meeting needs of customers

gaining advantage over competitors

exploiting

creating new opportunities.

OPERATIONAL STRATEGY - is concerned with how each part of the business is organised to deliver the corporate and business-unit level strategic direction. Operational strategy therefore focuses on the issues of:

Resources

Processes

people.

STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT

In its broadest sense, strategic management is about taking "strategic decisions" - decisions that answer the questions above.

In practice, a thorough strategic management process has three main components.

Strategic analysis

Strategic choices

Strategy implementation

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STRATEGIC ANALYSIS

This is all about the analyzing the strength of businesses' position and understanding the important external factors that may influence that position. The process of Strategic Analysis can be assisted by a number of tools, including:

PEST ANALYSIS:

It is a technique for understanding the "environment" in which a business operates

SCENARIO PLANNING:

It is a technique that builds various plausible views of possible futures for a business

FIVE FORCES ANALYSIS:

It is a technique for identifying the forces which affect the level of competition in an industry

MARKET SEGMENTATION:

It is a technique which seeks to identify similarities and differences between groups of customers or users

DIRECTIONAL POLICY MATRIX:

It is a technique which summarizes the competitive strength of a businesses operations in specific markets

COMPETITOR ANALYSIS:

It is a wide range of techniques and analysis that seeks to summarize a businesses' overall competitive position

CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTOR ANALYSIS:

It is a technique to identify those areas in which a business must outperform the competition in order to succeed

SWOT ANALYSIS:

It is a useful summary technique for summarizing the key issues arising from an assessment of a business's "internal" position and "external" environmental influences.

 

STRATEGIC CHOICE:

This process involves understanding the nature of stakeholder expectations (the "ground rules"), identifying strategic options, and then evaluating and selecting strategic options.

STRATEGY IMPLEMENTATION:

Often the hardest part. When a strategy has been analyzed and selected, the task is then to translate it into organizational action.

ANSOFF'S PRODUCT / MARKET MATRIX

The Ansoff Growth matrix is a tool that helps businesses decide their product and market growth strategy.

Ansoff's product/market growth matrix suggests that a business' attempts to grow depend on whether it markets new or existing products in new or existing markets.

http://tutor2u.net/business/images/Ansoff%20Matrix%20w500.gif

The output from the Ansoff product/market matrix is a series of suggested growth strategies that set the direction for the business strategy. These are described below:

MARKET PENETRATION

Market penetration is the name given to a growth strategy where the business focuses on selling existing products into existing markets.

Market penetration seeks to achieve four main objectives:

Maintain or increase the market share of current products:

This can be achieved by a combination of competitive pricing strategies, advertising, sales promotion and perhaps more resources dedicated to personal selling

Secure dominance of growth markets

Restructure a mature market by driving out competitors; this would require a much more aggressive promotional campaign, supported by a pricing strategy designed to make the market unattractive for competitors

Increase usage by existing customers:

For example by introducing loyalty schemes

A market penetration marketing strategy is very much about "business as usual". The business is focusing on markets and products it knows well. It is likely to have good information on competitors and on customer needs. It is unlikely, therefore, that this strategy will require much investment in new market research.

MARKET DEVELOPMENT

Market development is the name given to a growth strategy where the business seeks to sell its existing products into new markets.

There are many possible ways of approaching this strategy, including:

New geographical markets; for example exporting the product to a new country

New product dimensions or packaging: for example

New distribution channels

Different pricing policies to attract different customers or create new market segments

PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT

Product development is the name given to a growth strategy where a business aims to introduce new products into existing markets. This strategy may require the development of new competencies and requires the business to develop modified products which can appeal to existing markets.

DIVERSIFICATION

Diversification is the name given to the growth strategy where a business markets new products in new markets.

This is an inherently more risk strategy because the business is moving into markets in which it has little or no experience.

For a business to adopt a diversification strategy, therefore, it must have a clear idea about what it expects to gain from the strategy and an honest assessment of the risks.

PRODUCT PORTFOLIO STRATEGY - INTRODUCTION TO THE BOSTON CONSULTING BOX

INTRODUCTION

The business portfolio is the collection of businesses and products that make up the company. The best business portfolio is one that fits the company's strengths and helps exploit the most attractive opportunities.

The company must:

Analyze its current business portfolio and decide which businesses should receive more or less investment.

Develop growth strategies for adding new products and businesses to the portfolio, whilst at the same time deciding when products and businesses should no longer be retained.

METHODS OF PORTFOLIO PLANNING

The two best-known portfolio planning methods are from the Boston Consulting Group and by General Electric/Shell. In each method, the first step is to identify the various Strategic Business Units ("SBU's") in a company portfolio. An SBU is a unit of the company that has a separate mission and objectives and that can be planned independently from the other businesses. An SBU can be a company division, a product line or even individual brands - it all depends on how the company is organized.

THE BOSTON CONSULTING GROUP BOX ("BCG BOX")

http://tutor2u.net/business/images/Boston%20Matrix.gif

Using the BCG Box a company classifies all its SBU's according to two dimensions:

ON THE HORIZONTAL AXIS RELATIVE MARKET SHARE:

This serves as a measure of SBU strength in the market

ON THE VERTICAL AXIS MARKET GROWTH RATE:

This provides a measure of market attractiveness

By dividing the matrix into four areas four types of SBU can be distinguished:

STARS:

Stars are high growth businesses or products competing in markets where they are relatively strong compared with the competition. Often they need heavy investment to sustain their growth. Eventually their growth will slow and, assuming they maintain their relative market share, will become cash cows.

CASH COWS:

Cash cows are low-growth businesses or products with a relatively high market share. These are mature, successful businesses with relatively little need for investment. They need to be managed for continued profit so that they continue to generate the strong cash flows that the company needs for its Stars.

QUESTION MARKS:

Question marks are businesses or products with low market share but which operate in higher growth markets. This suggests that they have potential, but may require substantial investment in order to grow market share at the expense of more powerful competitors. Management have to think hard about "question marks" - which ones should they invest in? Which ones should they allow to fail or shrink?

DOGS:

Unsurprisingly, the term "dogs" refers to businesses or products that have low relative share in unattractive, low-growth markets. Dogs may generate enough cash to break-even, but they are rarely, if ever, worth investing in.

Conventional strategic thinking suggests that there are four possible strategies for each SBU:

BUILD SHARE:

Here the company can invest to increase market share (for example turning a "question mark" into a star)

HOLD:

Here the company invests just enough to keep the SBU in its present position

HARVEST:

Here the company reduces the amount of investment in order to maximize the short-term cash flows and profits from the SBU. This may have the effect of turning Stars into Cash Cows.

DIVEST:

The company can divest the SBU by phasing it out or selling it - in order to use the resources elsewhere (e.g. investing in the more promising "question marks").

BENCHMARKING STRATEGY

The objective of benchmarking is to understand and evaluate the current position of a business or organization in relation to "best practice" and to identify areas and means of performance improvement.

THE BENCHMARKING PROCESS

Benchmarking involves looking outward (outside a particular business, organization, industry, region or country) to examine how others achieve their performance levels and to understand the processes they use. In this way benchmarking helps to explain the processes behind excellent performance. When the lessons learnt from a benchmarking exercise are applied appropriately, they facilitate improved performance in critical functions within an organization or in key areas of the business environment.

Application of benchmarking involves four key steps:

Understand in detail existing business processes

Analyze the business processes of others

Compare own business performance with that of others analyzed

Implement the steps necessary to close the performance gap

Benchmarking should not be considered a one-off exercise. To be effective, it must become an ongoing, integral part of an ongoing improvement process with the goal of keeping abreast of ever-improving best practice.

TYPES OF BENCHMARKING

There are a number of different types of benchmarking, as summarized below:

STRATEGIC BENCHMARKING:

Where business need to improve overall performance by examining the long-term strategies and general approaches that have enabled high-performers to succeed. It involves considering high level aspects such as:

core competencies

developing new products

services and improving capabilities for dealing with changes in the external environment.

PERFORMANCE OR COMPETITIVE BENCHMARKING:

Business considers their position in relation to performance characteristics of key products and services. This type of analysis is often undertaken through the trade associations or third parties to protect confidentiality.

PROCESS BENCHMARKING:

Focus on improving specific critical process and operations. This type of benchmarking often results in short term benefits

FUNCTIONAL BENCHMARKING:

Business look to benchmark with partners drawn from different business sectors or areas of activity to find ways of improving similar functions or work processes. This type of benchmarking can lead to innovation and dramatic improvement.

INTERNAL BENCHMARKING:

This involves benchmarking business or operations from within the same organizations. The main advantage of internal benchmarking are:

Access to sensitive data and information is easier

Standardized data is often readily available

Usually less time and resources are needed

EXTERNAL BENCHMARKING:

It involves analyzing outside organizations that are known to be best in class. External benchmarking provides opportunities of learning from those who are at the "leading edge". This type of benchmarking can take up significant time and resource to ensure the comparability of data and information, the credibility of findings and the developments of sound recommendations.

INTERNATIONAL BENCHMARKING:

Best practitioners are identified and analyzed elsewhere in the world, perhaps because there are too few benchmarking partners within the same country to provide valid results.

Globalization and advances in information technology are increasing opportunities for international projects. However, these can take more time to resources to setup and implement and the result may need careful analysis due to national differences.

COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE STRATEGY

COMPETITIVE STRATEGIES

Michael Porter suggested four "generic" business strategies that could be adopted in order to gain competitive advantage. The four strategies relate to the extent to which the scope of a businesses' activities are narrow versus broad and the extent to which a business seeks to differentiate its products.

The four strategies are summarized in the figure below:

http://tutor2u.net/business/images/competitive_strategies.gif

 

The differentiation and cost leadership strategies seek competitive advantage in a broad range of market or industry segments. By contrast, the differentiation focus and cost focus strategies are adopted in a narrow market or industry.

DIFFERENTIATION STRATEGY

This strategy involves selecting one or more criteria used by buyers in a market - and then positioning the business uniquely to meet those criteria. This strategy is usually associated with charging a premium price for the product - often to reflect the higher production costs and extra value-added features provided for the consumer. Differentiation is about charging a premium price that more than covers the additional production costs, and about giving customers clear reasons to prefer the product over other, less differentiated products.

Examples of Differentiation Strategy: Mercedes cars; Bang & Olufsen

COST LEADERSHIP STRATEGY

With this strategy, the objective is to become the lowest-cost producer in the industry. Many (perhaps all) market segments in the industry are supplied with the emphasis placed minimizing costs. If the achieved selling price can at least equal (or near) the average for the market, then the lowest-cost producer will (in theory) enjoy the best profits. This strategy is usually associated with large-scale businesses offering "standard" products with relatively little differentiation that are perfectly acceptable to the majority of customers. Occasionally, a low-cost leader will also discount its product to maximize sales, particularly if it has a significant cost advantage over the competition and, in doing so, it can further increase its market share.

Examples of Cost Leadership: Nissan; Tesco; Dell Computers

DIFFERENTIATION FOCUS STRATEGY

In the differentiation focus strategy, a business aims to differentiate within just one or a small number of target market segments. The special customer needs of the segment mean that there are opportunities to provide products that are clearly different from competitors who may be targeting a broader group of customers. The important issue for any business adopting this strategy is to ensure that customers really do have different needs and wants - in other words that there is a valid basis for differentiation - and that existing competitor products are not meeting those needs and wants.

Examples of Differentiation Focus: any successful niche retailers; (e.g. The Perfume Shop); or specialist holiday operator (e.g. Carrier)

COST FOCUS STRATEGY

Here a business seeks a lower-cost advantage in just on or a small number of market segments. The product will be basic - perhaps a similar product to the higher-priced and featured market leader, but acceptable to sufficient consumers. Such products are often called "me-too's".

Examples of Cost Focus: Many smaller retailers featuring own-label or discounted label products.

COMPETITOR ANALYSIS STRATEGY

Competitor Analysis is an important part of the strategic planning process. This revision note outlines the main role of, and steps in, competitor analysis

COMPETITOR ANALYSIS HAS SEVERAL IMPORTANT ROLES IN STRATEGIC PLANNING:

To help management understand their competitive advantages/disadvantages relative to competitors

To generate understanding of competitors' past, present (and most importantly) future strategies

To provide an informed basis to develop strategies to achieve competitive advantage in the future

To help forecast the returns that may be made from future investments (e.g. how will competitors respond to a new product or pricing strategy?

SOURCES OF INFORMATION FOR COMPETITOR ANALYSIS

Davidson (1997) describes how the sources of competitor information can be neatly grouped into three categories:

RECORDED DATA:

This is easily available in published form either internally or externally. Good examples include competitor annual reports and product brochures;

OBSERVABLE DATA:

This has to be actively sought and often assembled from several sources. A good example is competitor pricing;

OPPORTUNISTIC DATA:

To get hold of this kind of data requires a lot of planning and organization. Much of it is "anecdotal", coming from discussions with suppliers, customers and, perhaps, previous management of competitors.

The table below lists possible sources of competitor data using Davidson's categorization:

WHAT BUSINESSES NEED TO KNOW ABOUT THEIR COMPETITORS

The tables below lists the kinds of competitor information that would help businesses complete some good quality competitor analysis.

You can probably think of many more pieces of information about a competitor that would be useful. However, an important challenge in competitor analysis is working out how to obtain competitor information that is reliable, up-to-date and available legally.

WHAT BUSINESSES PROBABLY ALREADY KNOW THEIR COMPETITORS

Overall sales and profits

Sales and profits by market

Sales by main brand

Cost structure

Market shares (revenues and volumes)

Organization structure

Distribution system

Identity / profile of senior management

Advertising strategy and spending

Customer / consumer profile & attitudes

Customer retention levels

WHAT BUSINESSES WOULD REALLY LIKE TO KNOW ABOUT COMPETITORS

Sales and profits by product

Relative costs

Customer satisfaction and service levels

Customer retention levels

Distribution costs

New product strategies

Size and quality of customer databases

Advertising effectiveness

Future investment strategy

Contractual terms with key suppliers

Terms of strategic partnerships

PORTFOLIO ANALYSIS - GE MATRIX STRATEGY

The business portfolio is the collection of businesses and products that make up the company. The best business portfolio is one that fits the company's strengths and helps exploit the most attractive opportunities.

The company must:

Analyze its current business portfolio and decide which businesses should receive more or less investment, and

Develop growth strategies for adding new products and businesses to the portfolio, whilst at the same time deciding when products and businesses should no longer be retained.

The two best-known portfolio planning methods are the Boston Consulting Group Portfolio Matrix and the McKinsey / General Electric Matrix (discussed in this revision note). In both methods, the first step is to identify the various Strategic Business Units ("SBU's") in a company portfolio. An SBU is a unit of the company that has a separate mission and objectives and that can be planned independently from the other businesses. An SBU can be a company division, a product line or even individual brands - it all depends on how the company is organized.

THE MCKINSEY / GENERAL ELECTRIC MATRIX

The McKinsey/GE Matrix overcomes a number of the disadvantages of the BCG Box. Firstly, market attractiveness replaces market growth as the dimension of industry attractiveness, and includes a broader range of factors other than just the market growth rate. Secondly, competitive strength replaces market share as the dimension by which the competitive position of each SBU is assessed.

The diagram below illustrates some of the possible elements that determine market attractiveness and competitive strength by applying the McKinsey/GE Matrix to the UK retailing market:

http://tutor2u.net/business/images/ge_matrix.gif

FACTORS THAT AFFECT MARKET ATTRACTIVENESS

Whilst any assessment of market attractiveness is necessarily subjective, there are several factors which can help determine attractiveness. These are listed below:

Market Size

Market growth

Market profitability

Pricing trends

Competitive intensity / rivalry

Overall risk of returns in the industry

Opportunity to differentiate products and services

Segmentation

Distribution structure (e.g. retail, direct, wholesale

FACTORS THAT AFFECT COMPETITIVE STRENGTH

Factors to consider include:

Strength of assets and competencies

Relative brand strength

Market share

Customer loyalty

Relative cost position (cost structure compared with competitors)

Distribution strength

Record of technological or other innovation

Access to financial and other investment resources

PEST ANALYSIS STRATEGY

PEST analysis is concerned with the environmental influences on a business.

The PEST stands for the:

Political

Economic

Social

Technological

Identifying PEST influences is a useful way of summarising the external environment in which a business operates. However, it must be followed up by consideration of how a business should respond to these influences.

The table below lists some possible factors that could indicate important environmental influences for a business under the PEST headings:

Political / Legal

Economic

Social

Technological

Environmental regulation and protection

Economic growth (overall; by industry sector)

Income distribution (change in distribution of disposable income;

- Government spending on research

Taxation (corporate; consumer)

- Monetary policy (interest rates)

- Demographics (age structure of the population; gender; family size and composition; changing nature of occupations)

- Government and industry focus on technological effort

International trade regulation

- Government spending (overall level; specific spending priorities)

- Labour / social mobility

- New discoveries and development

Consumer protection

- Policy towards unemployment (minimum wage, unemployment benefits, grants)

- Lifestyle changes (e.g. Home working, single households)

- Speed of technology transfer

Employment law

- Taxation (impact on consumer disposable income, incentives to invest in capital equipment, corporation tax rates)

- Attitudes to work and leisure

- Rates of technological obsolescence

Government organization / attitude

- Exchange rates (effects on demand by overseas customers; effect on cost of imported components)

- Education

- Energy use and costs

Competition regulation

- Inflation (effect on costs and selling prices)

- Fashions and fads

- Changes in material sciences

- Stage of the business cycle (effect on short-term business performance)

- Health & welfare

- Impact of changes in Information technology

- Economic "mood" - consumer confidence

- Living conditions (housing, amenities, pollution)

Internet

ANALYSING COMPETITIVE INDUSTRY STRUCTURE STRATEGY

The most influential analytical model for assessing the nature of competition in an industry is Michael Porter's Five Forces Model, which is described below:

http://tutor2u.net/business/images/five_forces.gif

 

Porter explains that there are five forces that determine industry attractiveness and long-run industry profitability. These five "competitive forces" are

The threat of entry of new competitors (new entrants)

The threat of substitutes

The bargaining power of buyers

The bargaining power of suppliers

The degree of rivalry between existing competitors

THREAT OF NEW ENTRANTS

New entrants to an industry can raise the level of competition, thereby reducing its attractiveness. The threat of new entrants largely depends on the barriers to entry. High entry barriers exist in some industries (e.g. shipbuilding) whereas other industries are very easy to enter (e.g. estate agency, restaurants). Key barriers to entry include

Economies of scale

Capital / investment requirements

Customer switching costs

Access to industry distribution channels

The likelihood of retaliation from existing industry players.

THREAT OF SUBSTITUTES

The presence of substitute products can lower industry attractiveness and profitability because they limit price levels. The threat of substitute products depends on:

Buyers' willingness to substitute

The relative price and performance of substitutes

The costs of switching to substitutes

BARGAINING POWER OF SUPPLIERS

Suppliers are the businesses that supply materials & other products into the industry.

The cost of items bought from suppliers (e.g. raw materials, components) can have a significant impact on a company's profitability. If suppliers have high bargaining power over a company, then in theory the company's industry is less attractive. The bargaining power of suppliers will be high when:

There are many buyers and few dominant suppliers

There are undifferentiated, highly valued products

Suppliers threaten to integrate forward into the industry (e.g. brand manufacturers threatening to set up their own retail outlets)

Buyers do not threaten to integrate backwards into supply

The industry is not a key customer group to the suppliers

BARGAINING POWER OF BUYERS

Buyers are the people / organizations who create demand in an industry

The bargaining power of buyers is greater when

There are few dominant buyers and many sellers in the industry

Products are standardized

Buyers threaten to integrate backward into the industry

Suppliers do not threaten to integrate forward into the buyer's industry

The industry is not a key supplying group for buyers

INTENSITY OF RIVALRY:

The intensity of rivalry between competitors in an industry will depend on:

THE STRUCTURE OF COMPETITION:

for example, rivalry is more intense where there are many small or equally sized competitors; rivalry is less when an industry has a clear market leader

THE STRUCTURE OF INDUSTRY COSTS:

for example, industries with high fixed costs encourage competitors to fill unused capacity by price cutting

DEGREE OF DIFFERENTIATION:

Industries where products are commodities (e.g. steel, coal) have greater rivalry; industries where competitors can differentiate their products have less rivalry

SWITCHING COSTS:

Rivalry is reduced where buyers have high switching costs - i.e. there is a significant cost associated with the decision to buy a product from an alternative supplier

STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES:

When competitors are pursuing aggressive growth strategies, rivalry is more intense. Where competitors are "milking" profits in a mature industry, the degree of rivalry is less.

EXIT BARRIERS:

When barriers to leaving an industry are high (e.g. the cost of closing down factories) - then competitors tend to exhibit greater rivalry. 

STRATEGY - RESOURCES OF A BUSINESS

In our introduction to the topic of business strategy, we used Johnson & Scholes' definition stating that "Strategy is the direction and scope of an organization over the long-term: which achieves advantage for the organization through its configuration of resources within a challenging environment, to meet the needs of markets and to fulfill stakeholder expectations".

So, what are these "resources" that a business needs to put in place to pursue its chosen strategy?

Business resources can usefully be grouped under several categories:

Financial resources

Human resources

Physical resources

Intangible resources

FINANCIAL RESOURCES

Financial resources concern the ability of the business to "finance" its chosen strategy. For example, a strategy that requires significant investment in new products, distribution channels, production capacity and working capital will place great strain on the business finances. Such a strategy needs to be very carefully managed from a finance point-of-view. An audit of financial resources would include assessment of the following factors:

EXISTING FINANCE FUNDS:

Cash balances

Bank overdraft

Bank and other loans

Shareholders capitals

Working capital (stock, debtors)

Creditors (suppliers, government)

ABILITY TO RAISE NEW FUNDS:

Strength and reputation of the management team and the overall business

Strength of relationship

Attractiveness of the market in which the business operates.

Listing on a quoted stock exchange.

HUMAN RESOURCES

The heart of the issue with Human Resources is the skills-base of the business. What skills does the business already possess? Are they sufficient to meet the needs of the chosen strategy? Could the skills-base be flexed / stretched to meet the new requirements? An audit of human resources would include assessment of the following factors:

EXISTING STAFFING RESOURCES:

Number of staff by:

function

location

grade

experience

qualification

remuneration

Existing rate of staff loss means "Natural Wastage"

Overall standard of training and specific training standards in key roles.

Assessment of key "Intangible"

E.g. morale, business culture

CHANGE TO REQUIRED:

What changes to the organization of the business are included in the strategy For e.g.

Change of location

New location

New products

RESOURCES:

What incremental human resources are required?

How should they be sourced? (Alternative includes employment, outsourcing joint venture etc.)

PHYSICAL RESOURCES

The category of physical resources covers wide range of operational resources concerned with the physical capability to deliver a strategy. These include:

PRODUCTION FACILITIES:

Location of existing production facilities:

Capacity

Investment

Maintenance requirements

Current production process:

Quality

Method and organization

Extent to which production requirements of strategy can be delivered by existing facilities.

MARKETING FACILITIES:

Marketing management process

Distribution channels

INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY:

IT systems

Integration with customers and suppliers

INTANGIBLE RESOURCES

It is easy to ignore the intangible resources of a business when assessing how to deliver a strategy - but they can be crucial. Intangibles include:

GOODWILL:

The difference between the value of the tangible assets of t he business and the actual value of the business

REPUTATION:

Does the business have a track record of delivering on its strategic objectives? If so, this could help gather the necessary support from employees and suppliers.

BRANDS:

Strong bands are often the key factor in whether a growth strategy is a success or failure.

INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY:

Key commercial rights protected by trademarks may be an important factor in the strategy.

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