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Across the world, women's are not seen in top level management, executive positions. Women's are employed in middle-level, not raise to upper management in corporate companies due to the culture and the internal barriers. The internal barriers acts as glass ceilings and prevent women from raising top position.
Women's still continue to aspire for leadership positions in public and private sectors. They face many challenges and cultural barriers to attain the leadership position. This report explains about some of the cultural barriers women faces in many corporate organizations, which does not make them to raise to top positions.
Glass ceilings is an unacknowledged barriers or invisible barriers that keep women from raising to top postions. Glass ceilings is a concept applied to women, which made them very hard, impossible to reach upper management positions. Despite of their best effort, an invisible barriers seems to stop them from proceeding to top position. This invisible barriers is mainly due to our culture and cultural expectations.
Even today leadership is followed as masculinity and the belief that men make better leaders than women. Men and women have different leadership styles, men view leadership as leading and women view leadership as facilitating, that should not make men to be dominant over the women. Generally consider the leadership positions require hard work, long hours and stressful, which women cannot perform. Women in workplace paid less wages than men, gender wage gap still persist. Women are also insecure in workplace due to sexual harrasement. Some of the issues related to cultural barriers and have been explained in this report.
Early it was believed that leaders were born with leadership traits. Now the current scenario is leadership can be attained by taught and learned. There are many leadership training program to train the communication skills, decision making, problem solving, confidence. When its possible to develop all this skills in any individual regardless of gender, male societies consider male leadership styles as more acceptable forms of leadership.
While women gain more freedom in social and cultural challenges, still other freedoms are lost. They can't attain upper management position, due to the cultural barriers. When recruitment the compnies fail to recruit women as equal as men. They recruiters not preferring women even though they have same talents as men, neglecting women to reach top positions. Leadership is attained by proper management trainings even for men, but for women they fail to provide effective and efficient management training. Every organization investing money for providing management trainings for their senior executives, organization wants the men to avail those trainings. While men and women perform the same level, but men performance is evaluated differently and consider superior. Actual performance is not evaluated based on the ability and experience, instead evaluated based on gender. This factor acts as barriers for women to raise top positions in organizations. This factor states there is gender discrimination in all organizations and act as a barrier for women.
Women's are sexually harassed in their workplace . Nine in ten womens suffer from sexual discrimination. Majority of women workers have experienced 'gender harassment ', which prevent them from doing their work efficiently. In 2010, Australian Human Rights commission received 88% complaints related to sex discrimination in the workplace, due to new technologies such as email, mobile phones and social networking websites. Sexual harassment causes depression, post-traumatic disorder, blood pressure, sleep problems, neck pain and suicide. Since the women's are presented in less numbers in an organization, it is easy for the men for gender harassment on women.
Due to the increase in reports of sexual violence towards women in their workplace Singapore's AWARE women's group launched a new campaign against sexual harassment. The AWARE will explain the fact that sexual harassment problem in Singapore is crying out of adequate law and corporate policies. The campaign started from 25 November 2012 on International Day for the Elimination of Violence Against Women. Singapore women's are excited about campaign will feel useful. Due to effective anti - sexual harassment legislation Singapore falls short of the world's top business cities.
Women paid less wages:
Women paid less wages compared to men for the same work. Women continue to earn less due to the gender discrimination. The male - female income difference is called 'gender gap in earnings', or 'gender wage gap'.Women possibly leave jobs for a period of time to nurse a baby is considered to be important factor for women paid less wages, common reason for women in middle level management.
Male National Median Pay
Female Controlled Median Pay
Ratio of Female to Male Controlled Pay
Chief Executive Officer
Vice President of Operations
Chief Operating Officer
Chief Financial Officer
Marketing & Business Development Manager
General Sales Manager
Women provide parental care, which consider to be other factor for women paid less wages than men. The top level management provides the reason for recruiting men over women in upper management, which makes women to be middle level jobs.
Women on an average make only 77 cents from every dollar earned by men. Obama on in campaign, equal pay for womens will be provided. Women should be paid same as men,'Not women's issue, this is family issue'.
Cultural barriers Global impact:
Even though both men and women working for advancement of academic medicines, fewer women achieve leadership positions. According to American medical college, it has 43 female professors compared with 192 male professors. Only few women advance to the level of dean, 38 of 534 is appointed as dean 1980 to 2006.
According to European nations the female board members lag with less than 14 percent of these positions. In Italy only 6 percent of board members are women, in Germany 16 percent.
UK is trying to increase the women's ration in senior management but still the women;s ratio is less. In UK's 100 largest-listed companies, women hold 16 percent of directorships. Ten years ago it was 7.2 percent.
In Asia 6 percent of seats on corporate boards and executive committees contains 8 percent of women's. This is strictly very low when compared with Europe and United States.
Women enter the corporate world, they often fail to progress very far. China have the world's largest female labour participation rates, but still women's occupy only 8 percent corporate board members and 9 percent of executive board memebers. Even India, Taiwan, Malaysia have female participation rate less than 50 percent, but still failed to raise to top positons.
In India Only 3 percent of women's there in legislative, management, and senior official positions. Women need to work harder to prove themselves. Men do not prefer to respect women bosses and prefer to have them as subordinates.
Country like Pakistan which has a different set of social norms, there only 3 out of 97 companies have women CEOs.
Leadership traits is both for men and women, recruit based on their abilities not by gender. Due to hormone changes women develop oxytocin, which produce a feeling of relexation and reduces fear needed for management position. Women's take decision in buying house hold products, it makes them to take proper decision in buying products in organization, if they provided with right job. The women's not able to raise in top management level position due to cultural barriers. This barriers should remove to make work in top level position, get same wages as men, provide equal rights. Virgin money and Virgin Holidays are run by female CEOs, many women work as senior management executives in Virgin organizations. When women's can work, take decision, in top level management at Virgin company, even other women's can perform the similar task, if they given an right opportunity based on their abilities not by gender.
Women's face this cultural barriers across of the world which prevent them from reaching the top management positions. Our organization provides support for
business women's only on United States. Women cultural barriers is global issue and our organization ultimate objective to provide work place comfortable for women, we can consider upon and prevent this issue across the world.
Women's barriers not consistently monitored, inadequate reporting of problems, cause women not to reach top level position. Problems faced by women due to barriers in their work place can be reported to particular women's council in their organization. Our organization should request every corporate companies to form women council, where the problems in work place can be reported. The council can discuss with their senior management and resolve the problem. If, still problem not resolved by council, problem can be reported to our organization.
Women labour participation rate is very less compared to men, contribute less than 50 percent across the world. Overall women workers need to increase, which will increase the women in top level position.
Leadership trainings provided to attain certain leadership skills, it should provide for both women and men. Every organization should make their skilled managers, executive managers, top level managements to participate in trainings regardless of gender.
Women feel insecure in workplace due to sexual harassment. It need to be prevented, ensure women feel confident and comfortable in work place, which makes women work for long hours.
Our organization Business and Professional Womes's foundation (BPW) need to provide support for business women across the world.
Request each corporate companies maintain a Womens council.
Women's problem in work place can be reported to council.
Council discus with companies senior management to resolve the problem.
Further, the problem can reported to BPW.
BPW discuss with companies senior management to resolve, still exists then reported to particular country government to appropriate actions.
BPW need to request or insist corporate women council to conduct leadership program for both gender.
Insist to increase the women workers participation rate and women senior executives.
Conduct special awareness programs about women equal rights in work place.