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He trained me how to price the products, how to put security tags on the computers and all other products in the store, how to fill out the list of the different product to bring down from the warehouse. He told me the code for the wear house door. He explained to me how to print out the tickets for all products. He taught me to deal with customers and how to organise the stock for the next day. Bassically Ken Flynn introduced me to all working procedures in the shop.
No discipline policy can be expected to address each and every situation requiring corrective action that may arise in the workplace. Therefore, the Company takes a comprehensive approach regarding discipline and will attempt to consider all relevant factors before making decisions regarding discipline.
Most often, employee conduct that warrants discipline results from unacceptable behavior, poor performance or violation of the company's policies, practices or procedures. However, discipline may be issued for conduct that falls outside of those identified areas. Equally important, the company need not resort to progressive discipline, but may take whatever action it deems necessary to address the issue at hand. This may mean that more or less severe discipline is imposed in a given situation. Likewise, some company polices like sexual harassment and attendance, contain specific discipline procedures.
Progressive discipline may be issued on employees even when the conduct that leads to more serious discipline is not the same that resulted in less sever discipline. That is, violations of different rules shall be considered the same as repeated violations of the same rule for purposes of progressive action.
Probationary employees are held to the highest standards for behavior and job performance. Progressive discipline is the exception rather than the rule for probationary employees.
The Company will normally adhere to the following progressive disciplinary process:
1. Verbal Caution: An employee will be given a verbal caution when he or she engages in problematic behavior.
2. Verbal Warning: A verbal warning is more serious than a verbal caution. An employee will be given a verbal warning when a problem is identified that justifies a verbal warning or the employee engages in unacceptable behavior during the period a verbal caution is in effect. Verbal warnings are documented and placed in the employee's personnel file.
3. Written Warning: A written warning is more serious than a verbal warning. A written warning will be given when an employee engages in conduct that justifies a written warning or the employee engages in unacceptable behavior during the period that a verbal warning is in effect. Written warnings are maintained in an employee's personnel file.
4. Suspension: A suspension without pay is more serious than a written warning. An employee will be suspended when he or she engages in conduct that justifies a suspension or the employee engages in unacceptable behavior during the period that a written warning is in effect. An employee's suspension will be documented and, regardless of the length of the suspension issued.
5 Decision Making Leave: Generally following a suspension, an employee will be reprimanded them sent home for the day on decision making leave. This is intended to help the employee decide whether they should continue employment with the company. If the employee returns, they will be expected to work harder than before to follow the Company guidelines and continue their employment without interruption. The other option with this leave is the employee may choose to resign because employment with the Company is not a match.
6. Termination: An employee will be terminated when he or she engages in conduct that justifies termination or does not correct the matter that resulted in less sever discipline.
Again, while the Company will generally take disciplinary action in a progressive manner, it reserves the right, in its sole discretion, to decide whether and what disciplinary action will be taken in a given situation.
Disciplinary procedures are meant to correct and change unsatisfactory behavior, rather than to punish.
Because of the seriousness of the procedure, (implication of disciplinary action), only senior manager is normally permitted to carry out suspension, demotion or dismissal.
2. G..A. Cole, 2004, Management Theory and practice, Geraldinline Lyons
3.drucker,p. (1954),The practice of management, Heinemann.
c) Behavioural Theory
The behavioral management theory is often called the human relations movement because it addresses the human dimension of work. Behavioral theorists believed that a better understanding of human behavior at work, such as motivation, conflict, expectations, and group dynamics, improved productivity.
The theorists who contributed to this school viewed employees as individuals, resources, and assets to be developed and worked with - not as machines, as in the past. Several individuals and experiments contributed to this theory.
Elton Mayo's contributions came as part of the Hawthorne studies, a series of experiments that rigorously applied classical management theory only to reveal its shortcomings. The Hawthorne experiments consisted of two studies conducted at the Hawthorne Works of the Western Electric Company in Chicago from 1924 to 1932. The first study was conducted by a group of engineers seeking to determine the relationship of lighting levels to worker productivity. Surprisingly enough, they discovered that worker productivity increased as the lighting levels decreased - that is, until the employees were unable to see what they were doing, after which performance naturally declined.
A few years later, a second group of experiments began. Harvard researchers Mayo and F. J. Roethlisberger supervised a group of five women in a bank wiring room. They gave the women special privileges, such as the right to leave their workstations without permission, take rest periods, enjoy free lunches, and have variations in pay levels and workdays. This experiment also resulted in significantly increased rates of productivity.
In this case, Mayo and Roethlisberger concluded that the increase in productivity resulted from the supervisory arrangement rather than the changes in lighting or other associated worker benefits. Because the experimenters became the primary supervisors of the employees, the intense interest they displayed for the workers was the basis for the increased motivation and resulting productivity. Essentially, the experimenters became a part of the study and influenced its outcome. This is the origin of the term Hawthorne effect, which describes the special attention researchers give to a study's subjects and the impact that attention has on the study's findings.
The general conclusion from the Hawthorne studies was that human relations and the social needs of workers are crucial aspects of business management. This principle of human motivation helped revolutionize theories and practices of management.
Abraham Maslow, a practicing psychologist, developed one of the most widely recognized need theories, a theory of motivation based upon a consideration of human needs . His theory of human needs had three assumptions:
Human needs are never completely satisfied.
Human behavior is purposeful and is motivated by the need for satisfaction.
Needs can be classified according to a hierarchical structure of importance, from the lowest to highest.
Maslow broke down the needs hierarchy into five specific areas:
Physiological needs. Maslow grouped all physical needs necessary for maintaining basic human well-being, such as food and drink, into this category. After the need is satisfied, however, it is no longer is a motivator.
Safety needs. These needs include the need for basic security, stability, protection, and freedom from fear. A normal state exists for an individual to have all these needs generally satisfied. Otherwise, they become primary motivators.
Belonging and love needs. After the physical and safety needs are satisfied and are no longer motivators, the need for belonging and love emerges as a primary motivator. The individual strives to establish meaningful relationships with significant others.
Esteem needs. An individual must develop self-confidence and wants to achieve status, reputation, fame, and glory.
Self-actualization needs. Assuming that all the previous needs in the hierarchy are satisfied, an individual feels a need to find himself.
Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory helped managers visualize employee motivation.
Douglas McGregor was heavily influenced by both the Hawthorne studies and Maslow. He believed that two basic kinds of managers exist. One type, the Theory X manager, has a negative view of employees and assumes that they are lazy, untrustworthy, and incapable of assuming responsibility. On the other hand, the Theory Y manager assumes that employees are not only trustworthy and capable of assuming responsibility, but also have high levels of motivation.
An important aspect of McGregor's idea was his belief that managers who hold either set of assumptions can create self-fulfilling prophecies - that through their behavior, these managers create situations where subordinates act in ways that confirm the manager's original expectations.
As a group, these theorists discovered that people worked for inner satisfaction and not materialistic rewards, shifting the focus to the role of individuals in an organization's performance.
c)Behavioral Theory and HRM
A broad spectrum of theories from different disciplines is portrayed in contemporary HRM (as a discipline of business administration). Theories from psychology, sociology and economics correspond to the variety of problems addressed in HRM which are again situated at different levels of analysis, namely on the individual, group and organizational level. A narrow focus solely on economic approaches, as sometimes suggested in personnel economics, is therefore not sufficient.
Instead, the contemporary "rational choice" approach may serve as a "new" basis for the discipline. The approach stems from economics and sociology and, as an offspring of these, combines elements of action and structure in its basic explanatory models. Also it is able to explain effects that emerge on the system or macro level. Indepth explanations allow model building at different levels of analysis, namely on an environmental, organizational and individual level, which can be seen as a major prerequisite of explanations in HRM. In addition "rational choice" is conscious of the ignorance of its underlying action theory and this exposes it to the body of physiological and psychological knowledge. Anomalies of classic economic theory can therefore be restricted, for instance by using the method of decreasing abstraction. The method of decreasing abstraction serves as a basic principle or heuristic device for model building, in order to separate "rational choice" from traditional anti-reductionism.
This article introduces basic elements of the modern "rational choice" approach: the macro-micro-macro model of explanation, homo socio-oeconomicus as a model of man and exchange theory as a baseline model of aggregation. A final summary discusses research questions and applications of "rational choice" in HRM.
Key words: Rational Choice, Economic Sociology, Micro-macro-link, Homo Socio-oeconomicus
Ever since Pareto's (1935) distinction, it has generally been agreed, that the field of economics should concentrate on rational action; other areas of social science, i.e. sociology should concentrate on irrational behavior. However, economics is a broad field. Therefore it is hardly surprising that economists who are confronted with irrational human behavior or deviations from the perfect model of purposeful and rational behavior wrangle with Pareto and, in particular, with his line of distinction. Critical calls were confronted with only modest appreciation, if they were heard at all, when they suggested that unrealistic assumptions about behavior were required in order to deliver economic or normatively speaking "good" explanations (Friedman 1953). Academics in Business Administration, dealing with innovation, marketing, organization or human resources and phenomena like decision behavior, informal organizations or HRM abandoned the economic paradigm and searched for more feasible theories in other disciplines.
The historical development of HRM is not the topic of this article. However, we need to stress that we are talking about a process of convergence towards neighboring disciplines, notably (social) psychology and (organizational and industrial) sociology, which represent a "long wave" of historical ideas: Simon's (1955) revolutionary work "A behavioral model of rational choice" was published half a century ago. Since then, considerable progress has been made in both theory and empirical knowledge. And this holds true for all levels of HRM research - for the individual, group and organizational level. Worth mentioning amongst others are motivation, learning and stress theories, theories about group dynamics, power and management as well as theories about organizations and their environments. Furthermore, it is worth emphasizing tendencies towards empirical social research which evolved at the same time as behavioral science.
Economic theory was "exported" once again into HRM with the rediscovery of institutions in economic research and the development of appropriate models, such as property rights, transaction costs and information asymmetry, which all facilitated the explanation of the failure of the free market model of traditional economics (Coase 1960, Alchian/Allen 1972). Criticism from business administration that human resources academics lacked economic background and that the adaptation of theories from other disciplines caused little more than interdisciplinary dilettantism only increased the influence of economics.1 Personnel economics (Lazear 1996; Sadowski 2002) may be called the rearguard of this new "economic imperialism."
Conquerers are usually confronted with resistance. While representatives of New Institutional Economics tried to keep in touch with HRM, above all via the psychology of individual decision behavior and economic sociology (Kabst 2004), most personnel economists remained ignorant to the theoretical and empirical fund of knowledge of their own discipline. Whether this is - in the long-run - a successful strategy to attain hegemony in the field of ideas will be left up to scientific historians. However, in my modest view success is much more likely if one bases his arguments in an agreable way without always expecting agreement. As there were and still are good reasons why some disciplines of business administration, and especially such ones like HRM, are no longer willing to rely on economics unconditionally, it may be a reasonable proposal to underpin HRM with a theoretical basis which takes into account the fragmentation of the discipline and the individual results of each fragment. What we are talking about, finally, is nothing less than the "unity of social science.
Blanchardstown PC WORLD's goal is to sell quality product and satisfy fully its customers' needs. Company policy is designed to ensure that the company can attract, recruit, develop and retain people of the type and calibre it requires to achieve this aim
Blanchardstown PC WORLD policy is to recognise and reward the potential of each individual employee and to encourage personal development and career progression. Therefore promote internally wherever possible.
Blanchardstown PC WORLD's aim to exceed customer expectations. The vision of PC WORLD is to be the best and most exciting Department Store in Ireland. It is their mission to ensure that PC WORLD in the Department Store of first choice for discerning Electronics middle market customer
I have to say that I was extremely happy with my experience in PC WORLD shop. The customer service staff which seem to be the same people working every weekend I dealt with seem to be pleasant and helpful every time. I found high value goods for little money. I would recommend other student if they can use the opportunity to work in this shop as this is a rich experience in business field.
Diagram 1.1- Basics of Motivation
Diagram 1.2- Illustrates the stages of how Equity and Inequity affects employees and the types of responses workers take to ineq