In this essay I will be talking about the company in which I have worked for about 2 years as an English GD (Group Discussion) faculty. Basically, I have divided this assignment into four major parts. In first part I will be going over company's background, goals, objectives, structure etc. Then in the second part I will be going over the two theories and how it is co-related with my company. In the third part I will be discussing my experience that I had over the two years. And finally in the fourth and last part I will be giving my recommendations and conclusion.
I have divided this part into two aspects. One will be about the company's background, goals, objectives, management style, leadership style, approaches it use, and in the second part I will be going over its structure.
The name of the institute is British Lingua School of Language. It's an institute where students come to learn, write, and speak English. The seeds for British Lingua were sown in 1993, when the owner started thinking about the students who were from Hindi background and due to that reason they were not getting equal share of career opportunities like others. This was only because of the reason that they didn't have good communication skills in English. Moved by their situation, the company owner (Mr. Birbal Jha) decided to help them by opening British Lingua Institute for English language.
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The organization is well-equipped with nice and clean classrooms, auditorium, cafeteria and a highly structured computer networking for the students and faculties. The company has more than 150 well-qualified language trainers and experts in the areas like grammar, accent, group discussion, etc.
British Lingua has helped many students to achieve their goals by providing them with the best English speaking and writing courses. The company has setup its teaching centre in many parts of India, such as in Delhi, Patna and many small, non-metropolitan cities so that students can have best education. Courses that it provides are as follows:
Aim and Objective
The main aim and objective of British Lingua is to provide students and the other sections of society with the unfettered access to the study of English.
The management system is like an autocratic style. By this I mean that the owner makes all the decision for the group or the company. Though our opinion and recommendation had been asked few times, but at the end owner is the person who takes the final call. Therefore, I do not like the management system at all, because this kind of management system will always lead company to the negative side. It's because the employees will always have grudges inside them for one or the other reason, which is not good for the company.
Approach it use
The company has a Classical approach. By this I mean that the company has a same formal structure and hierarchy of management for years. The company's only emphasis is on purpose; which is to get as many students as it can to make huge profit. Therefore, company doesn't care about the quality of information that it should provide to the students, but instead has whole concentration on generating profits.
Therefore, we can see from the above diagram that the company is very much interested in putting inputs, and then processes it to get to the output. But at the same time company is not paying attention towards the middle part, i.e. process. The organization just wants to create big bucks without being bothered about the process that it should have to maintain its long relationship with customers and employees.
In this Part I will be talking about the 3 theories and how it is co-related to my organization where I use to work.
Douglas McGregor's Theory X&Y
Out of Theory X&Y I would say that my organization is more suited and goes along with Theory X. The reason I choose Theory X over Y is because of the following reason;
Always on Time
Marked to Standard
In our organization faculties use to come late to class which shows that they don't care about the organization and showing that they are lazy towards their work. For an example; one time Mr. Jain's Grammar class had to start at 9am. But Mr. Jain came around 9.25am and gave an excuse that there was a huge traffic jam due to which he got delayed. For a day this could be understandable but you can't keep coming late and have an excuse every single time. And this used to happen at least 3-4 times a week. Therefore this shows that Mr. Jain is not concerned about the organization and trying to avoid his work by making excuses all the time.
How to improve or change current problem in my organization (solution)?
To avoid these kinds to problems management should have very narrow span of control at each and every level. And according to me what they can do is that, they should get an electronic time punching machine. So now whenever you come to organization you have to punch your time on a piece of paper and show it to the management at the end of the day before going home. By doing this management can keep a track of you in personal. At the same time they should come up with an attendance policy, which is that you can't be late for more than 4 times a month. And even on the day which you will be coming late, you have to call in the organization and let them know why you are coming late and how late you will be? And if an employee comes late for more than 4 times in a month a certain amount of money should be deducted from their salary. So that from the next time if the person's think about coming late, he better remember the consequences he or she might have to face. So as you can see how common man wants to get directed and tends to avoid responsibility which he or she supposes to do.
Why people do it (adapt to theory X)?
Because of not getting appealing incentives, people tend to avoid work.
Have some severe family problem or issue which is bothering them, and therefore it's tough to concentrate on work.
They have a misconception that everybody in an organization is for his or her own good and benefit. Therefore, people just start thinking about themselves and care less about the organization.
The main purpose to employee might be just in money. And with no raise or promotion it's bothering them.
Employee has a misconception that they don't have to work hard. It's manager's job to assign them their work and tell them everything step by step.
According to me, I think that it's an organization's responsibility and concern that employee don't adapt to Theory X approach. Therefore, organization should pay special attention to employee's needs and wants. And they can do this by either having group discussions where each and everyone can share his or her problem. If for some reason person is not comfortable with this, organization could hire a counselor from outside who will be doing one to one discussion with employees and give them solution to their problems after consulting with management. Hence, everybody would be happy and would start work on a positive note. Because now both sides have cleared their grudges and can therefore work towards the organizational goal and objectives.
What can organization do to make it Theory Y (more productive)?
Have sessions where they can teach employees how to be self motivated and ambitious towards work.
There should be trust maintained within the employees and management. Ex, management should keep up with its promises that it does with its employees. Because if management breaks its promise, employee will feel cheated, and this will end up in creating miss-trust between both.
There should be open communication and ideas sharing between the manager and employees. By doing this there will be a comfortable environment within the organization and employees will feel that they are being heard and are not left out.
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After achieving the target or goal employee should give positive feedback and pat once in a while, so that employee feels nice. Ex, (Zara Case Study)- the stores employees listens to the customer's changing opinion and tastes, and then explain this valuable information too Zara's fashion industry people. Therefore with help to its employees it gets new items every week to meet its customers need. Zara also said that "Thanks to our store teams we have change the rules of the fashion gameâ€¦(they are).. teams of entrepreneurs with initiative, who take fashion into the streets every day."
Therefore you can see from the diagram below that how the employees have a goal (to meet customer tastes) which affects on them as a person and their performance. Hence with their good performance they get a good feedback or get appreciated (like, staff got the credit) by the management, which again affects them as a person and their performance increase.
My opinion about Theory X and Y
For an organization it's very important to keep on growing on a constant pace. But we all know that this is very hard to do in today's growing competition. Therefore, you can never say that you are either Theory X or Theory Y, because nobody is perfect or can be on one side forever. In my opinion you never want to stay on either side for too long. You should stand somewhere in the middle for the betterment of your company.
This is because if you have Theory X in your organization, the productivity level of employee and organization would be very low. This is because employee would be lazy, de-motivated, self-centered etc, due to which his or her concentration towards tasks will start declining, and which is not good for any company. And if you Theory Y implemented in your organization, though the productivity and motivation level of employee would be high, but at the same time ego will arise. Because now the employee thinks that he is really smart and can't be wrong in anything, therefore would not listen to his or her fellow mates or superior in some cases. And due to this, problems will start arising one time or the other, and ultimately company will suffer.
So as you can see from the above explanations that why either Theory X or Theory Y implemented alone is not good for an organization. Therefore, you have to have a mix to both theories in order to succeed and stay ahead in this stiff market competition. At last I would like to say that mix of these models ends up towards positive approach to management, organizational culture, and organizational development.
Frederick Herzberg Two Factor Theory
According to me Herzberg Two Factor Theory is related with the organization's mental health. It basically says that one aspect of its theory deals with the work satisfaction due to the job characteristics or incentives given to employees. And the other aspect deals with the other job characteristics which could lead to dissatisfaction at work. Job characteristics should relate to the nature of work the employee performs- apparently have the capacity to gratify such needs as achievement, competency, status, personal worth, and self-realization, thus making him happy and satisfied.
Following is the diagram which shows that how these two factors are co-related. In the first box you can see how employees are dissatisfied and unmotivated in the starting. With the hygiene factors, such as; salary, security, working conditions, etc coming in, they are not dissatisfied anymore, but are still unmotivated. And finally, after getting the motivation factors, such as; achievement, recognition, responsibility, etc they are completely satisfied and motivated as well. Therefore, it shows that both Hygiene and Motivation factors are important for the company.
Hygiene factor and its example;
It's a job-related factor as company's policies, supervision, technical problems, salary, interpersonal relations on the job, and working conditions. Thus, if management wishes to increase satisfaction on the job, it should be concerned with the nature of the work itself - the opportunities it presents for gaining status, assuming responsibility, and for achieving self-realization. If, on the other hand, management wishes to reduce dissatisfaction, then it must focus on the job environment - policies, procedures, supervision, and working conditions.
There were many issues which led to the hygiene factor within the company. Factors like;
Relationship with boss
Relationship with peers
These all factors do not lead to higher levels of motivation but without them there is dissatisfaction. For example; there was this time when an employee who was working as a faculty in an organization just got raise 4 times in last 6 years which is nothing to what he devoted to the organization. And when he went to management regarding this issue, he was turned down by telling that it's a tough year for management therefore he can't get a raise this year. And it was not like the person was asking for extra increase in salary. It was under the company's policy that every year an employee would get 12% increase in his salary. Therefore it was his basic need and requirement, and without this there would be dissatisfaction within himself, due to which he wouldn't be also to work properly. Besides this his salary is a basic need of his, it doesn't motivate him to do any better than what he is already doing.
There should be some kind of extrinsic factor that should motivate him. By this I mean that there should be some kind of tangible rewards given to the employee to motivate him. Rewards such as; bonuses, fringe benefits, etc. These all factors will help in motivating the employees and therefore they would be able to work efficiently.
Motivation Factor and its example;
It is something that comes from inside. It's an intrinsic factor which leads to be feeling of getting something. By this I mean that it's a psychological rewards, such as; opportunity to use our ability, achievement, or sense of challenge which gets us motivated.There are many factors which led to motivation factors with in organization. Like;
These all factors in the organization lead to employee satisfaction. For example, when I use to teach in British Lingua I always use to get the feed back from the students that how good they feel after my class and my class really helps them. This use to make me very happy, that students appreciate my hard work. This recognition and achievement was very much intrinsic to me. This is what that motivated me to teach better and better every day.
Therefore by getting highly motivated I use to concentrate better in my work. So it shows how simple words and recognition can help you to perform better. Due to getting recognized I felt satisfied and motivated towards my task, which is good for me and as well as the organization. As now I will be more productive and task oriented.
My Overall experience & Views
In the following paragraphs I will be talking about the observations that I have made at my workplace. The place that I am working was British Lingua institute of language. In this institute I was appointed as an English faculty. In this institute we teach students how to improve their communication skills and grammar. Now I will be going over my perception of the organizational climate of my company. In this discussion I will be emphasizing over the three main topics, and they are communication, culture, and conflict.
As in our company there were many levels of people due to which there were always problems in communication. This is because there were people from different ethics and background and therefore it's very hard to communicate with people, as other were not familiar with their way of interaction or working.
Another reason was because of the fact that there were people from different background; there was always problem in gender bias, discrimination, fairness and equality. This all happened due to the lack of communication within the company. As there was lack of transparency in the company due to which people were facing problems in communication.
Every company or organization needs to get their employees motivated for the betterment of the organization. This is because employees also have needs and expectations, which they want to be met. But in our company there is no such thing like motivation. In order for organization to succeed there has to be some kind of extrinsic motivation for the employees, such as raise in salary, awards, recognition, etc. But in our organization there was no such thing like extrinsic motivation. There was no competition or jealousness between the employees, to do their work better than the other. Therefore without extrinsic motivation employee will never get courage to perform better and beat his or her competitor to get fame and rewards. Because he knows that there is no such thing like reward in the organization. So this factor really brings down the employees work dedication towards the organization, which is not good for any organization. Therefore there should be a combination of extrinsic motivations followed by intrinsic in order for company or organization to succeed and survive in today's competition. In the following diagram you will see what happens when employee's needs and expectations are not met.
So as you can see from the above diagram that if employee's needs are not met by the organization it either leads to frustration or goal achievement. But in most cases it leads to frustration, which creates problem for the company. Because of this company will face loses and minimum growth. But on the other side if company removes these barriers, such as; incentives, promotion, award, appraisal, etc, and give employees what they need, it could end up towards achieving its goal. This will help company as well as the employees, as both are happy now. Therefore, you should know how to motivate your employee, if you want them to achieve goal and perform better.
There were lots of conflicts in our organization that we use to face everyday. Following are the 2 main conflicts that I feel were there in the organization;
Group conflict -
In our organization there were people from different parts of the country. Therefore each of them had their own groups, according to their culture, geographical areas, norms, values, or background they were from.
Though, this could lead to either constructive or destructive towards the organization. But in this case it was destructive. As each group was thinking about their own good and progress, rather than the company's, as whole. This could be the reason which leads to the downfall of company and its long term goals. So it is very important that management pays special attention to group formation, and make sure that even if they do form it should only result towards the constructive and betterment of the company.
Workplace conflict -
Another major conflict was workplace conflict. This conflict could also be of two types; conflict within the two employees or conflict between the management and employees. In this case it was more kind of towards the management and the employees.
There were many reasons for this, but few of them were;
Long working hours with no extra pay( no recognition for working extra)
The hierarchical structure of the organization(no freedom of speech)
Financial consequences (employees had to leave firms because of salary and raise issues)
Therefore these unresolved issues could lead to further miscommunication between the employees and management, which could result in; employees not willing to cooperate, missing work deadlines and getting delayed, more stressed employees, poor work results, decreased customer satisfaction and finally employees end up quitting.
Good reputation in market
Has many centers in different states
Affordable prices for students
Innovative programs for students
Highly skilled faculties
Difficult to retain employees
No extrinsic motivation
Poor work environment
Poor management(autocratic style)
No respect and trust on employees
Real brand image (could divert more students to its institutions due to its high brand image)
Expansion (Could open more branches around the country for future growth and recognition)
Huge market to tap (in today's society there are more and more students who wants to learn English for wider job opportunities)
Health concern due to bad food (due to unhealthy food students can stop taking admissions)
Increasing outside competition(as more and more English speaking institutes are opening)
Unhappy Work force (due to overtime without getting extra benefits or pay, employees can start quitting the job)
Conclusion and Recommendation:
At last I would like to say that the current organizational climate of my company was good, but could be improved further in many aspects. Therefore I have divided my conclusion and recommendation in two different parts.
In first part I will be talking about my intrinsic view towards organization and what I feel about organization should do to improve within. And in the second part I will be talking about my extrinsic views, which are basically how as an organization it should think in terms of; organizational planning, supervisory planning, and stating SMART objectives.
This is the part where I will be presenting my views how the changes that should take place within the organization. Following are my recommendations:
Manager should communicate in terms of one to one conversation, between him and staff. So that there is no miscommunication with in the staff and organization. For example; if manager wants to convey a message to all the faculties about new rules or guidelines, he or she must have a meeting where this should be discussed. Rather then just telling someone to convey this message to everyone. Because this could lead to miscommunication between the management and staff.
As people are from different backgrounds there should be a cultural sensitivity and considerateness among the people. For example, being a Sikh I use to be picked upon and commented upon, because of the way I look.
There should be proper guidelines available for the staff and students to follow. For example, there should a proper time table given to faculty and students, which should mention the holidays, which class they have on which day, and what time class is going to start, etc. By doing this there will be a better understanding between the students, employees, and management.
There has to be a time limit available for each class so that the next batch won't have to wait for long. By this I mean that there should be a proper time frame. For example, if a class starts at 9am and suppose to end at 1pm. It should stop rite on time so that the next class can start on time.
But this was never use to happen. Say that the class supposes to start around 9am, but the faculty is late for some reason, and starts the class at 9.30am. Then obviously he is going to leave the class late, which creates problem for the next batch or class to start. Therefore a lot of student's and faculty's time got wasted, because now they have to wait until the class gets finished.
To avoid the conflict within the company people shouldn't be prejudice and bias. They should clear their emotional baggage before entering the organization. For example, equal job raise and appraisal should be given to the staff that got same competency work skills. Therefore, manager should not be bias or prejudice towards a particular employee because he or she is from the same background, culture, or have similar likes.
Organization should have some pay and pension benefits for the trustworthy employees who are being working for years with them.
In the second part I will be going over SMART objectives that the company should have if they want to survive in today's stiff competition. Therefore, with the changing time there should be changing innovations. By SMART I mean;
Organization should know how many students they want to enroll and how many franchisees they want to open each year?
By opening new franchisees they are expanding their business territory and hence giving tough competition to its competitor.
Yes, by having an enrollment list in which they could mention how many seats are available each year?
For franchisees they can first see if the location is suitable to open and will they generate profit?
Their admissions would be full in advance because students know that it's a first come first serve situation if they want to get admission.
Can they achieve their goal of generation profit and seeking customers (students)
Their franchisee might not be able to generate profit, due to which the whole business suffers, and revenue declines.
Is it important to open a franchisee during this period of time?
There might be another economic crisis coming your way. Therefore study market well before investing.
How soon can they open the franchisee and start generating profits.
Could either help company in generating more profits or end up in loss?
Besides this there should be contingency planning. By this I mean that organization should be prepared for disaster or problems and therefore, should always have answer to the following question;
1. What must be done?
2. Why must it be done?
3. When should it be done?
4. Where should it be done?
5. Who should do it?
6. How should it be done?
At the end I would like to say that these are all the changes that I would like to recommend to the organization where I use to work. I not only presented the recommendations but also a new a better concept of how they can run their business more successfully. This is by looking at my new business model and recommendations I have provided to them.
I will also try to use this model in my project, which is to open a restaurant in States after completing my MBA program.
http://www.accel-team.com/human_relations/hrels_05_herzberg.html hygiene factor
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Two-factor_theory two fac theory