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April 2004, Bradford Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust became one of the first Foundation Trusts. After a year they became a teaching hospital to train the next generation of doctors. They made their hospitals some of the safest in the country.
Mainly individual distinguish the Foundation Trust through the two hospitals - Bradford Royal Infirmary and St Luke's Hospital, where they think about for the majority of local people. The hospital provides many services by a scope of health professionals in the area, such as doctors, nurses, midwives and physiotherapists. And also they provide these services in different locations such as GP practices, community hospitals and other neighbouring hospitals in Airedale, Halifax and Huddersfield.
April 1, 2011 a range of community and intermediate care services were integrated into Bradford Teaching Hospitals. Services which transferred included those delivered from the local community hospitals (Westwood Park and Eccleshill), a scope of services delivered by GPs with Special Interest in gynecology and urology, and services for stroke, TIA, sexual health, heart failure, cardiac rehabilitation, diabetes, Parkinson's and hemoglobinopathy.
Bradford hospital are well known for the specialist services like treating many different types of cancer, using specialist scanners for better investigations, treating children with metabolic problems, people with heart and circulation of blood problems and delivering the only cochlear implant service in Yorkshire for deaf people.
This organization has historically provided treatment very quickly compared to other hospitals in the country. They have significantly reduced the risk of infection through better facilities such as new wards, ensuring all of the staff is trained and making sure everywhere is thoroughly cleaned.
"Bradford hospital mission is to provide the best quality safe healthcare to the people of Bradford and West Yorkshire. We will secure major advances to future generations through innovation, education and research. In partnership with others we will work to improve the health of local people." (Bradfordhospitals.nhs.uk)
In this task you will need to analyze the impact of motivational theory and evaluate leadership styles and theory
Evaluate leadership theories within an organization of your choice
Theories of Leadership
Traits theory- this leadership theory is based on the personality of many leaders of the organization and used to predict the effectiveness of the leadership. This approach classify the physiological, demographic, personality, intellective, task related, and social characteristics with leader appearance and leader effectiveness. (managementstudyguide.com)
Behavioral theory- present a new viewpoint, one focuses on the behavior of the leaders as different to their mental, physical or social characteristics. This theory are separated the leaders in two categories one is concerned with the tasks and other is concerned with the people. (leadership_central.com)
Contingency Theories- leadership as being more flexible-different leadership styles used at different times depending on the circumstance.
States that leadership effectiveness depends on degree of fit between a styles and qualities of leaders specific context or situation
Transformational theories- the process by which an individual engages with others and is able to create a connection that results in increased motivation and morality in both leaders and followers.
It describes that how leaders can begin, improve and implement the important changes in organization
Leaders motivate followers by communicating a long term vision that is explained in clear objectives of the organization.
Invitational theories- this theory of leadership consider the notion of shared leadership and authority that is based on cooperation. Invitational theory scope is to gain a more harmonious team and a sense of belonging
Transactional theories: focuses on the interactions that take place between leaders and followers. This theory is often likened to the concept of and practice of management. (managementhelp.org)
Bradford Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust the organization which I choose the leadership theory I think they used transformational theory because they focus in the widespread changes in the organization. The leaders try to improve and implement the important changes in organization. They have a clear objective and the leaders motivate workers by communicating a long term vision. And leaders are motivated and adopting different important changes to fulfill the long term visions of the organization.
For example they have clear and equality objective for each organization
1. Improve EDS grades year on year:
2. Improve EDS process, year on year
3. Ensure that services better meet the needs of trans people
4. Make information more accessible - to better meet needs of visually impaired people, Deaf people and people with language / literacy issues
5. Improve the access andÂ experience of BME patients and service users
6. Reduce inequality experienced by BME staff and applicants
7. Increase the diversity of Trust / CCG boards / boards of governors and their understanding of equality issues:Â
8. Determine whether people from protected groups are disadvantaged by the Complaints process:Â (Bradford teaching Hospital.com)
Evaluate the impact of managerial styles on organizational effectiveness
Types of leadership styles
Autocratic style- leaders inform the staff what they want done and how they want to complete without getting the advice of the group. Some used when they have all the information to solve the difficulty, some are short on time and the employees are well-motivated.
Democratic style- the leader involves one or more member of staff in decision making process (what to do and how to do it). Still in the leader's authority the final decision making. This style used when the leaders have part of the information and the employees have other parts.
Laissez faire (free reign) - the leader of this leadership give the authority to the employee for decision making. However, the leader is in charge still for the decisions that are made. They used when the leader fully trusts and confidence in the people inferior to them. (nwlink.com)
Paternalistic style- Leader acts as a 'father figure'
Paternalistic leader makes decision but may consult
Believes in the need to support staff
The leadership style of Bradford hospital I think they used democratic leadership because the leader are looking for consultation on all major issues and decisions. The leader welcomes feedback on the result. They include the followers for the decision making process but still the leader have the control for final decision. Through this leadership style they assist the employees to widen their skills.
They draws on people's knowledge and skills, and creates a group obligation to the resulting goals
For example the directors and members work together to define key aspect of a future strategy for the foundation and they get opinion from the follower on this strategy before they lunch the revise version.
Analyze how motivational theory can inform employee motivation
Frederick Winslow Taylor (1856 - 1917) put forward the thought that workers are motivated mostly by pay. His Theory of Scientific Management argued the following:
Workers do not obviously enjoy job and so need close command and control. Therefore managers should break down production into a series of small tasks
Workers should then be given proper training and tools so they can work as efficiently as possible on one set task.
Workers are then paid according to the number of items they make in a set period of time- piece-rate pay.
As an effect workers are confident to work hard and make the most of their productivity.
Taylor's approach has close links with the theory of an autocratic management style (managers take all the decisions and simply give orders to those below them) and Macgregor's Theory X approach to labour (workers are viewed as lazy and wish to avoid responsibility).
However workers soon came to dislike Taylor's approach as they were only given boring, monotonous tasks to carry out and were being treated little better than human machines. Firms could also give to lay off workers as productivity levels increased. This led to an increase in strikes and other forms of industrial action by dis-satisfied workers.
Elton Mayo (1880 - 1949) believed that employees are not just worried about the money but could be better motivated by having their social needs met whilst at work (something that Taylor ignored). He introduced the Human Relation School of thought, which determined on managers taking more of an interest in the workers, treating them as individuals who have worthwhile opinions and realising that workers enjoy interacting together.
From Mayo theory concluded that employees are best motivated by: Better communication, Greater manager involvement, and working in groups or teams.Â
In practice therefore businesses should re-organise production to promote greater use of team working and initiate personnel departments to support greater manager involvement in looking after employees' welfare. Mayo theory most closely fits in with a paternalistic style of management. (Jim Riley, 2012)
Abraham Maslow (1908 - 1970) together with Frederick Herzberg (1923-) introduced the Neo-Human Relations School in the 1950's, which focused on the psychological needs of staff. Maslow theory put forward that there are five levels of human needs which employees need to have fulfilled at job.
All of the needs are structured into a hierarchy and only once a lower level of need has been fully met, would a member of staff be motivated by the possibility of having the next need up in the hierarchy satisfied. For instance, someone who is dying of hunger will be motivated to attain a basic wage in order to buy food before worrying about having a secure job agreement or the respect of others.
A business should therefore recommend different incentives to staff in order to help them accomplish each need in turn and progress up the hierarchy. Managers should also recognise that employees are not all motivated in the similar way and do not all move up the hierarchy at the same pace. They may hence have to propose a slightly different set of incentives from worker to worker.
Frederick Herzberg (1923-) had close links with Maslow and believed in a two-factor theory of motivation. He argued that there were definite factors that a business could establish that would directly motivate people to work harder (Motivators). However there were also factors that would de-motivate an employee if not there but would not in themselves actually motivate employees to work harder (Hygienefactors)
Herzberg understood that businesses should motivate workers by adopting a democratic approach to management and by improving the nature and content of the actual job through certain methods. Some of the methods managers could use to achieve this are: Job enlargement, Job enrichment and Empowerment (Jim Riley, 2012)
Several theories about motivation of the worker have developed from Leaders and management, particularly from HR managers. Motivation is best explained as the reason that cause and sustain behavior.
Motivational theory explains how the employee should be motivated and what it impacts on organization.
Motivational theories assist to inform managers about how they should care for
their staff in order to attain the highest levels of employee motivation.
Similar to other management theories, motivational theory has evolved from early approaches, which required the one "correct" model for motivating staff, to
more modern approaches, which understand that motivation arises from the interaction
of both individual and environmental factors. Motivational theoriesÂ will help the worker to turn into a successful leader or manager.
The motivational Theories are significant and are still well
regarded, the focus is mainly on worker needs and how those needs will motivate
behaviour. More existing approaches to motivational theory consider
not only worker needs but also such factors as the employees' abilities
as well as how employees perceive their roles in the workplace. The last two
theories that we will regard as are sometimes called process theories of motivation
because they consider the thought process that helps workers choose
how to act. Two key process theories are the expectancy approach and the equity
Analyze theories relating to work relationships and interaction
Working relationships and interaction
Power- "is a critical concept for those interested in organisational analysis. Theorists (Kahn, 1964; Jackson & Carter, 1991) suggest that the concept of organisation might not exist if it were not for relations of power; indeed that social life in general always features unequal power".
Power is definitely the most central feature of organizational life. Without it workers would whatever they wanted with no cost. In regards to a business authority stands out as the most common shape of power purely due to the fact of the way a business is structured i.e.: Hierarchy. There are many various perspectives that all have between similarities and differences.
Behavioural theories- A behavioural theory is comparatively easy to develop, as you merely assess both leadership achievement and the actions of leaders. With a large adequate study, you can then associate statistically important behaviours with success. You can also recognize behaviours which contribute to breakdown, thus adding a second layer of understanding.
For behavioral theorists, a leader behavior is the best analyst of his leadership influences and as a outcome, is the best determinant of his or her leadership achievement.
You have been engaged as a consultant and have been asked to review the organization's management in order to improve its structure and culture.
2.1 Analyze the characteristics of different organizational structure
Characteristic of Organizational structure
There are three types of bureaucratic structures:
This kind of organizations lacks the standards. Usually this kind of structures can be observed in small scale, start-up companies and the structure is centralized and there is just one key decision maker.
The communication is ended in one-on-one conversations. This structure is quite useful for small organizations due to the reality that the founder has the full control over all the decisions and operations.
These structures have a definite degree of standardization and are quite suitable for tall organizations. Once the organizations develop complex and large, bureaucratic structures are essential for management.
The organizations that pursue post- bureaucratic structures still inherit the strict hierarchies, but open to more modern ideas and methodologies. They follow techniques such as total quality management (TQM), culture management etc.
The organization is divided into segments based on the functions when managing. This allows the organization to enhance the efficiencies of these functional groups. As an example, take a software company.
Functional structures show to be successful in large organization that produces high volumes of products at low costs. The low cost can be achieved by such companies due to the efficiencies within functional groups..
These kinds of organizations divide the functional areas of the organization to divisions. Every division is equipped among its own resources in order to function independently. There can be various bases to define divisions.
Divisional structure defined based on the geographical source, products / services basis, or some other measurement.
The organization places the workers based on the function and the product when it comes to matrix structure.
This structure gives the best of the both worlds of functional and divisional structures.
The company uses teams to complete tasks in this kind of an organization .The teams are created based on the functions they belong to and product they involved in.
Each organization needs a structure in order to operate systematically. The organizational structures can be used by every organization if the structure fits into the nature and the maturity of the business.
In mainly cases, organizations develop through structures when they progress through and enhance their processes and manpower. One business may begin as a pre-bureaucratic company and may change up to a matrix organization.
2.2 Evaluate the importance of organizational culture theory in developing organizational effectiveness
Organizational Culture Theory is important to comprehend because it gives people insight to how a business functions because of the culture within.Â
In an organization the culture that exists is bound to differ from organization to organization. Nevertheless, to be a strong business, it should meet the criteria of a culture.
For instance, the organization should have shared values. The individuals within the organization must believe in, to a certain extent, the same things. The teams should have shared goals, ideas, values, and purposes. Similarly, the group must have shared norms. Those within the group must pursue the same moral code and stand for by the same set of rules whilst in the business - whether such policy be written or unwritten.
Mainly leaders, however, are unacquainted of the culture that exists within the company, even without accepting the different formal theories that go along with running a firm. Every organization, even with no formal, set-in-stone organizational culture, contains some kind of culture within. A manager tends to run a association or group with the way that he or she is most contented leading in, and although different person lead groups in different ways, these methods may not constantly work as well as one would expect, so it is essential to be not only an knowledgeable leader, but also a flexible leader.
Therefore the significance of organizational culture, hence, is understandable: to give an organization with shared beliefs, values, and cultural norms. If a company has shared beliefs, it will promote teamwork so that the people concerned with the business organization are working towards the same goals, rather than running towards individual goals and thus causing every one other unnecessary and unintentional for setbacks, and therefore will include what we can definitely call a solid organizational culture. (baruch,Y.2007)
2.3 Analyse the culture and structure of one organisation and evaluate how they impact on its effectiveness
Organizational Structure - is the formal system of employment roles and authority relationship that rule how associate and managers interrelate with one another.
Organizational Culture- involves the values, belief and norms shared by the managers and associates that influence behaviour. It is a very influence full force in an organization.
Organizational culture is more of a big picture, a more common word that refers to a large umbrella of smaller topics and issues within an organization. The structure refers to the infrastructure, and the various methods and practices within that infrastructure, that helps an organizational culture run with the efficiency and consistency that must be the trademark of some healthy organizational structure, whether it is in a corporation, sports team, or any other set up that is large enough to make its own organizational culture.
This makes the structure a vital part of each organizational culture, but also narrows out a very accurate segment of the culture as its own responsibility. Organizational structure will deal primarily with the set up of the culture. How organization works, which detailed responsibilities supervisors include, how a complaint is passed throughout the ranks-these are all issues within the organizational culture that are directly tied to how an organizational structure works. The structure is not limited to those three examples, but it would definitely include all of them.
Another general way to illustrate how structure works is to state that organizational structure is the way in which the consistent groups within an organization are set up to let them to function easily from a larger standpoint. The two main purposes of a successful organizational structure are to make sure effective communication between various parts of the company, as well as to increase coordination between different departments.
Some theorists have even broken down the perception of organizational structure into some categories to illustrate the phases which businesses go through as they develop in size and scope. The pre-bureaucratic structure is the first, which is mostly known for deficient a structure that standardizes responsibilities. For small businesses this set up is great, and ones that don't have many repeat scenarios, and as a result have to be adaptive.
Next is bureaucratic, which is where there is larger organization which requires a degree of consistency in paperwork, processes, etc. whereas bureaucracy has a negative connotation, it can be a good thing in small doses, particularly in tackling issues that will turn into recurring themes in larger businesses. And also the post bureaucratic, which has a more nebulous meaning and is seen as more of a theoretical term, but may be referred to more current, cultural based models of leading.
As the above discussion it is concluded that, the relationship between organizational culture and organizational structure can be hard to tell apart, but in a completely healthy culture that is exactly what have to be expected when all is functioning generally.
For this task produce a critical analysis assessing the likely future leadership requirements to facilitate innovation and creativity, then evaluate the effectiveness of team working.
3.1 analyze how organizational can facilitate innovation and creativity
Organizations are becoming gradually more interested in creativity and innovation, in part as a response to the pressures associated with globalization, competition, economic factors and technology changes. Lots of organizations see creativity as an opportunity to maintain a competitive advantage and most organizations and researchers alike, evaluate creativity in terms of an original or innovative result (Reiter-Palmon & Illies, 2004).
Essential is the fact that these "unusual" practices, moreover being themselves innovative and creative, at the same time act as catalysts of versatile Creativity within companies.
However, even though no one can make sure Innovation, there are more "down to Earth" practices, for companies to help their employees' Creativity and Innovation, (executivenewswire.com)
3.2 Asses the importance of learning in organization
Learning is not just essential to ensure that we stay up-to-date with developments in our particular field. It is also an important basis of motivation, stimulation and job satisfaction. For instance, individual who works in a particular place for two years and during that time continues to learn, grow and develop is likely to experience far greater job satisfaction than someone who stays in the same post for two years, just repeating the basic tasks in the same way without any growth or development over that time. Therefore learning should be seen as something positive and meaningful in its own right, not just something that individual have to perform to meet other people's expectations.
The people live and work in a changing world. New laws and new policies are introduced. New information and approaches come out. New problems happen and new solutions are required. Therefore the world of work is continually moving and developing one. What this means, then, is that, if individual are not continuously learning as people go about day-to-day business, then every day they are getting further and further out of touch with the demands of the modern working world.
In addition to the knowledge and skills, there is also the question of values. People need to make sure that their effort is constant with the value base on which it is premised.
Learning is hence important because it helps people to keep in tune with trends and developments in their own field. It provides motivation and job satisfaction and also it helps to keep on toes to make sure that people do not become blasé and thus more likely to make mistakes. Learning should thus not be seen as an additional trouble on top of what is already possibly a heavy workload, but rather something to be welcomed as a means of dealing as effectively as possible with that heavy workload.( Archna,2012)
3.3 Evaluate the effectiveness of team working
Some experts have argued that teamwork is truly an effective tool in organizations where work is extremely interrelated and demands up to date information sharing. For this reason, it is imperative to first create an effective team and second to motivate them in different monetary and non monetary ways to gain maximum output.
There are definite characteristics of an effective team that must be ensured for optimum output (Robbins & Coulter, 2002). It is argued that an effective team always have clear team goals that encourage team members to substitute priority of person goals with that of team one. Team must also include of people with related skills according to the context of goals. Mutual trust is also important among team members and that can be facilitated throughout open, honest and collaborative organizational culture. It was more argued that such hope may give rise to unified obligation that is directly linked with high level of intensity to attain team goals. Similarly good communications and negotiation skills during which every member can understand each other is also imperative and all these processes should be lead by an effective team leader who can motivate team members even in hard situations.
Separately from giving monetary incentives, sometimes organizations may pursue non monetary motivational incentives such as giving them sense of involvement and empowerment. According to Beardwell & Holden (2001) highlights Quality Circles (QCs) as one of such techniques where team of 6-10 employees in meeting held weekly or fortnightly identifies problems from their own area through data collection methods and statistical techniques. By same team these problems are then analyzed, solutions are devised and then officially present to the manager who may implement this circle's proposal. Thus a sense of power of their own fate is felt by team members.
Therefore effective team work can be achieved through effective team building and teamwork is constantly beneficial for organizations as it boost flexibility and speed as task is being completed by more than one person with different skills, effective use of different workforce is possible where more innovative information and efficient decision making is more likely due to heterogeneity in the team and more significantly provided by right set of motivation and support it can enhance productivity far more than what can be achieved on individual basis (Robbins & Coulter, 2002)
3.4 Analyze the effective management change in organizations
When a business makes a transition organizational change occurs from its current state to several required future state. Organizational managing change is the process of planning and implementing amend in organizations in such an approach as to minimize employee conflict and cost to the organization while concurrently maximizing the effectiveness of the change effort.
Business environment today's requires companies to go through changes almost continuously if they are to stay competitive. Factors such as globalization of markets and speedily developing technology force businesses to react in order to endure.
Organizational change initiatives frequently come up out of trouble faced by a company. In some cases, though, companies change under the momentum of enlightened leaders who first distinguish and then develop new potentials inactive in the organization or its situation. Some observers, more glumly, label this a "performance gap" which capable management is encouraged to close.
TECHNIQUES FOR MANAGING CHANGE EFFECTIVELY
Managing change effectively requires moving the organization from its recent state to a future wanted state at minimal cost to the organization. There are five key steps in these process are:
Understanding the current state of the organization.
Competently envisioning and laying out the desired future state of the organization.
Implementing the change in an orderly manner.
Change is natural, of course. (Gilley,Ann 2012)
For the last task you will need to analyse and assess organisational approaches to decision making and the risks and/or uncertainty in decision making and then evaluate the effectiveness of organisational decisions adapted.
4.1 Analyze approaches to organizational decision making
Decision makingÂ is a significant method for organizational effectiveness. Decision making is about generally defined as choosing between alternatives. It is directly related to all theÂ traditionalÂ management functions. Effective decisions are aimed at achieving zero defects in recent years this focus has also been applied toÂ the serviceÂ sector in instruct to make zero defections in the manufacturing area. Decision making is an organizational process because it transcends the person and has a result on organizational goals. Firstly, the overall nature of the decision making is explored.Â
Then theÂ modelsÂ are described of behavioural decision making. Next, theÂ traditional and modern participative techniques are presented as behaviourally oriented decision techniques. Creativeness in decision making can apply to individuals or groups. While individual decision making has mainly given way to group decision making in today, organizations, an understanding of group dynamics become relevant. In hasty a no of social decision schemes have emerged. Decisions can beÂ classifyÂ as either programmed or non-programmed. Programmed decisions are monotonous or regular and can be solved from beginning to end clear-cut mechanical procedures, such asÂ applyingÂ the rules to discover the bestÂ solution. There were up to 90 percent ofÂ management decisionsÂ are programmed. Exceptional or non-recurring are Non-programmed decisions and they are frequently made under emergency conditions which engage so much uncertainty that specific procedures or programs are not offered. Hence, managers who should make non-programmed decisions depend on judgement and creativity. (blurtit.com)
4.2 Assess approaches to risk and uncertainty in decision making
Risk: Risk is the combination of the possibility of an outcome and its magnitude. Therefore risk considers the regularity or likelihood of occurrence of certain states or events (often termed 'hazards') and the magnitude of the probable consequences associated with those bare to these hazardous states or events.
Uncertainty: Uncertainty exists where there is a lack of knowledge regarding outcomes. Uncertainty may outcome from an inaccurate knowledge of the risk, i.e. where the probabilities and level of either the hazards and/or their associated consequences are undecided. Even when there is an accurate knowledge of these components there is still uncertainty because outcomes are strong-minded probabilistically.
Finally, the managers did not act in accordance with optional normative rules, explicitly expressed their incapability to handle many risky situations due to be short of information and expressed their fear of doing something wrong, e.g. making deprived decisions. The manager's majority also tense the fact that there are some of unwritten rules built into the culture that show them when making decisions. Using computer-based decision sustain could be one way to circumvent such traditional, well-established, ways of thoughts and making decisions.
The study of the managers' behavior tells us, additionally, that it would be helpful to do a formal analysis of several of the decision problems they deal with. When doing such a official analysis of decision situations, computer-based decision tools would be helpful, e.g. in order to do responsive analysis, risk estimations and to envision the outcomes of different scenario. Today, however, only some of the managers make use of computers when making decisions and none of them actually use any kind of decision analysis tool.
Moreover, a main obstacle when analyzing managerial decision problems is the elicitation processes and the practical use of probabilities as well as utilities. Therefore, in instruct to develop the use of computer-based decision tools; it is of huge concern to produce better techniques and methods for the elicitation of utility and probability measures.
4.3 evaluate the effectiveness of organizational decisions in specific organization
Decision rights are a framework to manage any company topic requiring decision making. The framework includes three key components:
Decision inventoryÂ - A complete list of the key decisions that should be prepared by an organization, leaders, team, business unit or function
Decision rights modelÂ - The hierarchy of decision makers or decision-making groups who own the distinct decisions. This model is designed by defining guiding principles, assigning decision-making accountability, and designing committees and advisory groups
Decision making processesÂ - The defined roles and procedures that support delivery of decision making (e.g., meeting procedures and protocol, issue and action tracking tools, escalation processes)
Jointly, these three aspects of decision rights form a reference point for leaders and employees to formalize a reliable and efficient approach to decision making.
Why is it so significant to formalize the decision-making process? In a number of ways decision rights give to organizational effectiveness and can make quantitative and qualitative value.