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In times to having better leadership will become the prerequisite of the socio economic changes in society and technological advancements .The armed forces essentially require to focus and review the leadership technique practiced by its leaders. The prerequisite to effective 21st century leadership will be effectively determined by the various factors such as technological breakthroughs , information technology, ethical and principled practices, subordinate empowerment and socio-economic-political scenarios to name a few. In addition, the resources that will be at the disposal of the military leader will be drastically reduced as compared to earlier times, which means leaders will be tasked with producing better results with comparatively lesser resources, thus putting forth an enormous challenge to military leadership.
6. The military leader of the future will be required to have extensive and detailed knowledge of minutiae intricacies of the operations and men he commands so as to undertake and pull off missions. The fact that the existing military leadership techniques are unable to meet the requirements of the changed situation can be attributed to factors like technological and socio -economic changes. The existing environment has even gone as far as to have a negative and adverse impact on the moral and ethical values of the men. The contributing fact could be that the men whom the leader commands are much more informed than the men of earlier era. Military leaders, in future are likely to be faced with extraordinary problems of man management as integrity and loyalty of men, insubordination etc. It is therefore important to prioritize these changes and analyse them in detail to enable military leaders in resolving and determining the most effective manner and means of employing their command and control for realization of the assigned task successfully.
7. This dissertation aims to study the various challenges that a military leader is likely to come across in future. To necessitate this, an analysis of the leadership challenges in the armed forces and problems faced by a military leader in the present day contest has been studied. The study restricts its analysis to above deliberations and thereafter compares various existing models to arrive at a recommended leadership model for the military leaders of the 21st century.
Methods of Data Collection
8. The Defence Service Staff College, library is the basic source of data. In addition, some relevant periodicals and journal containing the subject available in print and on internet were perused. The studies and surveys earlier conducted on similar subject was also examined.
Definition of Leadership
9. 'Leadership' is defined in the oxford dictionary as "the action of leading a group of people or an organization, or the ability to do this" similarly the dictionary defines a 'leader' as "the person who leads or commands a group, organization, or country". However, the below given quote appropriately describes that leadership cannot be defined in so simple terms as it encompasses various distinctive features:
"There are almost as many definitions of leadership as there are persons who have attempted to define the concept."Â
Stogdill R.M (1974)
10. As described by PG Northouse  , leadership means, that it is a process whereby an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal. Further, defining leadership as a process means that it is not a trait or characteristic that resides in the leader, but is a transactional event that occurs between the leader and his or her followers. Leadership involves influence; it is concerned with how the leader affects followers. Leadership occurs in groups; it involves influencing a group of people who have a common purpose and this can be a small task group, a community group or a large group encompassing an entire organization. Leadership includes attention to goals; which means that leadership has to do with directing a group of individuals towards accomplishing some task or end and leaders direct their energies toward individuals who are trying to achieve something together.
11. The elemental meaning of leadership has not changed in all of recorded history. It has always been about the person in charge of the group. Being a leader has always meant having power over people and the authority to make decisions for the group. The meaning of leadership amended a little bit, thus moving from dictatorial to more participative styles but the quintessential value has remained basically unchanged for centuries.
12. Our interpretation of leadership  needs to change for a knowledge driven world that is no longer rigidly hierarchical, stable or static but one that is dynamic, fluid, self motivated and less formally structured. Leadership has always been essentially centered on power. For the conventional view, this means the power of personality to dominate a group. But in the present day sceanario, business is a war of ideas where the command to innovate and promote new products is the new baton of leadership. This is the strength on which leadership will be based in the future. But such leadership can only be occasional influence, because no one can monopolize good ideas. Anyone with critical knowledge that could alter business direction can show leadership and this is thought leadership. It can be shown by front line employees who don't manage anyone. It can be bottom-up as well as top-down. It can even come from outside. It can be shown between organizations too as in market leadership. Leadership of the new era is an intermittent act, like creativity, not a role or position. In the times to come those at the top will sometimes be privy to pure leadership while at times just management. Self motivation will serve as the basis of new Leadership. Youthful rebelliousness and personal drive of young people will challenge the status quo and find a better way. This kind of inspiring leadership is more like the actions of Martin Luther King Jr. than of business leadership wherein his demonstrations had a profound bearing and leadership impact on policy makers in the U.S. government though they did not report to him. This shows that leadership is really just about taking a stand for what you believe and trying to convince people to think and act differently. Management acts strongly in a supporting role alongside leadership as an engaging, dependable, facilitative, empowering and developmental function. Managers reinvented and reformed are catalysts, propagators , enablers, facilitators, trainers and developers of people and decision makers, thereby not confining themselves to being mere controlling bureaucrats.
13. Traditional leadership theories put forth a distorted picture of leadership by focusing primarily on people in positions of power. These theories are predictably in commotion today because they face an disagreeable dilemma: either they have to say that CEOs no longer lead or they have to change the implication and sense of leadership. Another option is to retain the conventional notion that leaders promote new directions but to say that CEOs no longer have a monopoly on leadership is ground breaking. By saying that leadership means promoting new directions, such as new products and services, we open the door to everyone being able to show leadership. This means that CEOs slip into managerial role as much as leadership. But to strengthen and fortify this strategy, we need to upgrade management, to make it a more positive concept. At present, management is cast in a perverse light. Needless to say the fact need to reinforced in the minds of the masses that Leadership in the 21st century is no longer a permanent and static function In a fluid, dynamic environment where innovation rules, leadership is only an special act that can come from any direction including outside the group. Showing leadership means convincing others to change direction. It is time to separate leadership and management. We need to upgrade management to take its rightful place as a constructive force for getting the best out of people and managing all resources along the lines of investment, which is to get the best possible return. The 21st century leadership is thought leadership, an variable act that all employees can show even if they have no inclination to be a manager.
14. Military leadership is defined as "the art of direct and indirect influence and the skill of creating the conditions for organizational success to accomplish missions effectively." In general, junior leaders exercise their influence directly, while senior leaders must employ both direct and indirect influencing methods.
15. While the basic doctrine of leadership can be applied to the military environment without any difficulty, the greatest challenge faced by military leadership is of leading subordinates into confronting fear and death and motivating them to fight. There are no profits involved for the organisation or the individual to fight in the face of death. In such a parlance the military leader has to lead from the front and become the 'larger than life' figure for his subordinates to follow. In the military environment, leadership is not a domain of the few. Every individual at every level is a leader in his/her own way and thus leadership qualities are a requisite in all uniformed individuals. This may not hold good in the civilian environment where in the leadership reins may be in the hands of few and the others are mere followers.
"Standing up for what you believe in regardless of the odds and the pressure that tears at your resistance, is courage."
EVALUATION OF LEADERSHIP TRAITS
"In matters of style, swim with the current;
In matters of principle, stand like a rock."
- Thomas Jefferson.
14. This leadership quote from Thomas Jefferson's who was the third president of United States, is a glaring reminder about when to be adaptable and when to stand tough. Too often people are uncompromising on their style and malleable on their principles-the opposite of what he advocates. Leaders have both good and bad traits, qualities that characterise their behaviour and we need to determine those traits which needs to be developed and the ones to stay away from. A trait can be defined as a constant attribute which potentially lasts throughout one's entire life.
"Master the mechanics and techniques; understand the art and profession; and
be smart enough to know when to deviate from it"
-Â Â General Anthony Zinni
15. It is believed that Napoleon listed 115 qualities of leadership  and the common belief is that he stopped before completing the list. The US Army's doctrinal leadership manual, FM 22-100  , Army Leadership, has a cumulative list of forty-one competencies. There are enormous quantities of writing available on military leadership. Almost every military leader while writing has enumerated a list of traits necessary to be a successful leader.Â The three significant pillars of leadership has always rested on the following: -
(a) What a leader must be: the values that form character (e.g., loyalty, duty, respect) as well as the mental, physical, and emotional attributes needed to support these values.
(b) What a leader must know: areas of knowledge ranging from very general (e.g., interpersonal, conceptual) to very specific areas of expertise and skill over a range of disciplines.
(c) What a leader must do: the kinds of actions leaders must take to make their organizations accomplish their tasks and function effectively (i.e., influencing, operating, and improving the units and systems under their control).
16. Leaders who are not connected with these basics of leadership will be unsuccessful, notwithstanding their superior technical or operational skills, as their subordinates will not follow them. Beyond this basis, challenges posed by the new operational environment demands more emphasis on certain kinds of leadership skills and background.Â Â
Discovering Leadership Traits
17. In psychology, a trait is a stable characteristic--potentially lasting throughout one's entire life. Coming up with an exact list  of set of leadership traits is difficult due to:
(a) Culture - What works in the West does not work in the East, a trait that works in France will be less successful in America.
(b) Context - What trait is appropriate depends on the context one finds oneself.
(c) Paradox -Â Leadership is paradoxical. It defies logic due to unconscious factors and emotions.
(d) Means and Ends -Â Leadership is both a means when it focuses on process and behaviors and an end when leaders focuses on goals and outcomes.Â
18. Though an ideal listing of traits is impossible, does not mean that leadership traits are not important in leadership development. It basically means that different experts will come up with different listing; therefore, certain amount of confusion will need to be accepted.Â It's reasonable to assume that certain personality traits are associated with leadership, while others are not.Â SomeÂ researchÂ articles talk about traits associated with leadership success and failure.
Leadership Traits Associated With Failure
19. Many times we focus on leadership traits associated with success, but it is interesting to understand failures of leadership as well. This includes:
Shift in Focus. When leaders forget the big picture and shift focus on little things. Like making money or fixating on fame as the reason why they are doing what they are doing.
Poor Communication. Great leaders understand that followers don't read minds. Great leadership is about communicating ideas.
Risk Aversion. This trait talks about the fear of failure and how past successes can be a treasure.
Ethics Slip. There has to be a close relationship between what a leader does and what he/she is.
Poor Self-Management. It's very important that the leader takes care of him/herself to be able to achieve goals. (Physical, psychological, emotional and spiritual needs)
Lost Love. Leaders have to remember the vision that brought them there. Stay on track-stay the course.
Five Enemies of Effective Leadership:
20. This is about how employees don't want to be managed, but need to be lead. It covers five "enemies" to successful leadership that include  :
Selfishness. here we focus on what we want and don't consider what other people want and need.
Power Struggles. As leaders, we have to learn to serve, not demand.
Poor Communication. If we don't communicate well, our message will be misunderstood, misinterpreted and misplaced. We often use wrong words, tone of voice, or our body sends a different message than our mouth.
Behavior: we need to know ourselves and what are the issues that get us out of control are, we need to learn when we have to delegate.
Jealousy. One needs to learn that more does not always lead to happiness.Â
21. Core values pervade leadership at all levels, at all times. Leaders at the lower levels must display the personal leadership qualities that are needed to create a unified section fully supportive of achieving its assignment. Mid-level leaders must use people and team leadership to progress the organisation's responsibilities within the structure of the operational assignments. As the seniority increases it becomes more essential for the leaders to influence on the institutional excellence of the organization. The ability to influence people, improve performance, and accomplish a mission is part of all levels of leadership.
22. The soldier's core values are the foundation of leadership in the Armed Forces. The core values are an account of those organizational values and principles of conduct that provide the moral structure within which military activities take place. The military ethic consists of fundamental values such as integrity, service, and excellence. These morals are the set of values that show the way members of the armed forces function. Success revolves around the amalgamation of these values in to the lifestyles. In today's time-compressed, dynamic, and risky battle space a soldier does not have the comfort of examining each issue at leisure. Leaders must fully imbibe these values so as to know how to instinctively act in all situations upholding integrity, displaying service before self, performing with quality and promote the same in others.
23. There are some of the most relevant and common traits in the characteristic of leadership those are all the more important to analyse while we study the requirements for 21st century armed forces:
(a) Empathy:Â generating a genuine understanding with the staff makes it less likely that personal issues and antipathy can creep in and upset the group. When the team is aware that the leader is compassionate to their apprehension, they will be more likely to work with you and share in your vision, rather than foster negative feelings. With the complexities of living style increasing with the changes in socio-economic scenario, men find themselves in stress and strain, this warrants leaders to show more empathy when dealing with subordinates.
(b) Consistency:Â Being a dependable leader will gain you admiration and standing, which is essential to getting continuous acceptance from the group. By setting an example of righteousness and reliability, the group will wish for to perform the same way. The present generation subordinates are well informed and therefore leaders must understand that if they should perform to the standards demanded by the group.
(c) Honesty:Â Another feature of leadership that contribute itself to credibility. Those who are honest, naturally tries to address the problems rather than avoiding it. Honesty also allows for improved appraisal and progress. In the present century the image of armed forces leadership are at times challenged by untoward incidents, therefore, honesty and integrity of the officers need to be the most excellent at all times to ensure that the standards expected from the armed forces officers are maintained.
(d) Direction:Â Possessing the foresight to select and maintain the objective as well as to understand course to maintain to achieve that objective is an essential characteristic of good leadership. By visualising and organising the goals, an effective leader can create remarkable change. Losing way on the approach to objective will result in subordinates losing faith in leaders which should be guarded against.
(e) Communication:Â Effective communication helps keep he team working on the right projects with the right attitude. If you communicate effectively about expectations, issues and advice, your staff will be more likely to react and meet your goals. In the present info-tech era, leaders must explore all possible means to reach out to his group in conveying his thoughts clearly as well as maintaining transparency in dealings.
(f) Flexibility:Â All problems posed to a leader might not demand the same solution. If you are flexible to new ideas and keep the mind open to varied options, you enhance the probability of finding the best possible answer. As the complexities of future battle field increases, the leader needs to be flexible enough to adopt to new situations and open to ideas from subordinates. Rigidity will not only bring unpleasantness amongst the team but also make problem solving difficult.
(g) Conviction:Â A strong visualization and the willingness to see it through is one of the most important characterizes of leadership. The leader who believes in the mission and works toward it will be an inspiration and a resource to their followers.
24. There are a number of other character traits which come into play when practicing leadership. However, the basic few traits mentioned above are displayed, leaders will be well equipped to lead a team effectively.
25. As per the Army Field Manual FM 22-100 (the U.S. Army Leadership Field Manual)  On the day a person joins the forces, leaders begin building on that character. Armed Forces values emphasize the relationship between character and competence. Although competence is a fundamental attribute of armed forces leaders, character is even more critical.
26. Leaders in the armed forces are responsible for cultivating the personality of soldiers. The questions that arise are that how can the forces ensure proper character development and what can the leaders do to inspire these core values in their subordinates? The core values are taught to every new member once he is inducted to the forces. Once they learn these values, as they progress in service, their leaders ensure adherence of these value system. Adhering to the principle values is essential, as unethical actions are unacceptable in armed forces. Unethical behaviour damages the morale and unity of the group; this dents the faith and confidence which is crucial for efficient functioning of team and its task achievement.
27. The ethical conduct must display the values and convictions, and not the fear of punishment. The Indian armed forces is undergoing a bad patch in this regard where incidences tarnish the image of the forces, however, soldiers stick to values as they would like to live morally and advocate these set of values to others. Eventually, leaders are responsible for developing character and values in subordinates. The Figure  below shows how the actions by the leader can contribute to character development among his subordinates.
Character Development Pyramid
Educating Values and Culture
28. The leaders must educate their subordinates the ethical principles, moral theory, value system, and leadership traits. By cultivating these as also by setting examples, the armed forces leaders can facilitate their subordinates to make principled decisions which will produce excellence. Subordinates acquire better comprehension by perceiving, practicing and displaying the characteristics of leadership as displayed by their leaders. Therefore, it is all the more important that the leaders maintain their standards and practice what they preach. Inducing the armed forces values is a continuous process and doesn't get over with basic training. The leaders in armed forces should endeavour to enhance the subordinates' understanding of the value system of through regular formal lectures, informal discussions, personalised training and counselling. The future battlefield will be complex and the time available compared to the workload will be at variance and therefore, providing formalised leadership training to the officers might not be possible continuously at all times, hence leaders should improve their own understanding through self learning, real situation analysis and discussions.
29. Leaders need to emphasize and regulate conduct of the subordinates so as to guide them towards personality development. There are rules, directives, policies and regulations which are enforced by the armed forces to ensure the personnel in armed forces maintain the desirable standard of conduct which is peculiar to the armed forces. The present generation at times tend to violate them due to circumstantial effects, which is not good for the health of the forces. This problem can by and large be obviated if the leaders ensure that they set impeccable examples of values system so as to effectively reinforce these in to their subordinates. Leaders need to understand this value system which can come from training and self-development. Leaders develop personalities through understanding these values, but this should go beyond theories and must be practical. Leaders should understand why these values are essential and how to practice them in daily life. The value system set up by the earlier generation are of very high standard, due to which the armed forces are looked upon and these histories and traditions are not only be imbibed but also displayed and reinforced in the system. There are a number of prominent individuals in past and present who displayed exemplary leadership qualities comparing that to the recent events will go a long way in leadership development for the present and future armed forces.
30. Leadership trait theory  is the thought that men are born with some moral fiber, traits or persona. There are certain traits which are related with leadership, it presumes that if people with these traits are identified, one can identify people with leadership potential. Many a bilefs exist that the leadership trait are acquired by birth. However, the theory that leadership traits comes by birth, and they are fixed as well as unchangeable seems to be false. However, it is proper to say that character, nature and outlook of a person does get influenced by inborn qualities and their bringing up. Having said that, it should be borne in mind that it is feasible for an individual to alter his personality traits for the worse, something like a person known for honesty can change over a time to become deceitful. This means that a person can learn bad character over a time. Therefore, on a positive thought it can be said that in a similar way they can learn good personality traits as well. A person who has tendency to being dishonest can be transformed to be honest. Somebody who avoids taking risks can be transformed the other way. These may not be an easy task, however they are doable.