This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.
He is one of the richest person in the world. His former friends, who are now his enemies, hate to even hear his name. His company wants to be with you mostly of times in your office, your car, and even your kitchen. His name is Bill Gates. He is one of the people responsible for setting off the computer revolution, and by doing that, he as changed the way mankind lives forever. Who is Bill Gates? Most people do not even know what it is that he does.
In 1970, Bill's parents stated that he was becoming too addicted to computers and made him give up his obsession. With the same enthusiasm he had placed into computers, he dove into his high school classes, achieving better than he ever had before. Even though he tried to be "normal" in high school, he was still very much considered an outcast to those who did not know him. They thought of him as egotistical and nerdy. However, those who did know him This articleÂ talks aboutÂ BillÂ Gates'Â debutÂ inÂ computers,Â itsÂ leaderÂ inÂ the computer industry,Â theÂ creationÂ of Microsoft,Â and itsÂ extraordinaryÂ wealthÂ and leadership.
WilliamÂ HenryÂ GatesÂ IIIÂ was bornÂ October 28, 1955Â inÂ Seattle, Washington.Â ItÂ wasÂ the middle childÂ ofÂ threeÂ bornÂ toÂ WilliamÂ andÂ MaryÂ Gates.Â WilliamÂ wasÂ aÂ lawyerÂ andÂ Mary wasÂ aÂ part-timeÂ teacherÂ socialite.Â Trey,Â asÂ he was calledÂ because ofÂ theÂ III,Â wasÂ sent toÂ a privateÂ schoolÂ byÂ his parents.
AtÂ 13,Â BillÂ wasÂ completelyÂ self-taughtÂ programmingÂ after takingÂ aÂ classÂ toÂ study computer scienceÂ atÂ LakesideÂ SchoolÂ (anÂ expensiveÂ private schoolÂ in Seattle).Â In one year,Â heÂ and aÂ manÂ namedÂ PaulÂ AllanÂ formedÂ theÂ LakesideÂ ProgrammersÂ Group.Â The groupÂ wasÂ commissioned byÂ theÂ cityÂ toÂ createÂ a program toÂ monitorÂ traffic.Â TheyÂ builtÂ an applicationÂ calledÂ Tarff Data, whichÂ calculatesÂ the numberÂ ofÂ cars onÂ a highwayÂ and thenÂ giveÂ the best timeÂ forÂ a red light. thought of him as energetic and a risk taker.
After scoring a perfect 800 on the mathematics half of the SAT, he graduated from Lakeside School and enrolled at Harvard University, as a pre-law major. As a student here, Gates was phenomenal. He received an A in an economics class without even attending and he crammed the night before the final exam. In June 1975, Bill Gates dropped out of Harvard to pursue a career in computers full time. His best friend throughout life has been Paul Allan. Later, it would be these two men who created the multi-billion dollar company, Microsoft.
While still at Harvard Bill had been working on a new program he called "BASIC" (Beginner's All-Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code), a new programming language. He later purchased a product and rights to a revolutionary new disk operating system called 86-QDOS from Seattle Computer Products and changed the name to MS-DOS. He then resold the product for profit. Keeping the rights, he got to receive royalties in addition to the sale price of MS-DOS. Even today, profits are still coming in from the sale of the original 86-QDOS.
Later in the life of Microsoft, Bill Gates developed a new Graphical User Interface for a disk operating system. He called it Windows. The first two versions earned him a small amount of money, but the major jackpot came from the later versions, such as Windows 3.1, Windows 95, and now Windows XP. This new graphical style was often imitated but none so far have had the staying power Windows has. Not only has Bill Gates changed the computer market for individuals, but with Windows NT (a version of Windows geared for networking in the business environment), he has focused in on the business world as well.
As of April 30, 2005, Bill Gates is worth one hundred five billion dollars. This underestimates Bill Gates" wealth because it only counts his holdings of Microsoft stock as of 1995 (it is assumed if he has sold stock since then he has invested it in assets that perform about as well as Microsoft). The cars, houses, helicopters, aircraft carriers, islands, and small European countries that he bought before 1995 are not included.
Bill Gates is the richest man in the world, and looking at his house, it shows. There was almost five hundred thousand feet of lumber used for his house, all of it being five hundred year-old Douglas Fir, sanded to a satin finish. The five acres have been planted with native trees including Douglas Fir, alder and maple, all kept in their natural appearance. Since the house is in an earthquake region, the entire foundation is concrete. All the roofing in his house is stainless steel. The house is located in Medina, Washington and is at an estimated cost of $100 million dollars, which is less than one percent of his quarterly earnings.
Features of the house include a twenty-seat theater with a popcorn machine, a one thousand square foot dining room, and a two thousand three hundred square foot reception hall with a twenty-two foot video display, made out of twenty-four separate forty-inch projection televisions. There is also a nine hundred square foot multi-purpose room, which was originally intended to be an art gallery. He has three separate garages, one of which holds thirty cars. It is a huge six thousand three hundred square feet. His exercise facility includes a sauna, steam room, and a trampoline room with a twenty-foot ceiling. Gates finds bouncing beneficial for concentration, as others find rocking in a chair the same way. There is also a three thousand nine hundred square foot indoor pool that's connected to an outdoor pool via a glass ceiling that you can swim under to reach either side. The pool also has its own underwater music system. Attached to his piece of land that touches Lake Washington is a boathouse and also a man-made beach with imported driftwood.
A billionaire's mansion would not be complete without a library. Gates hired a New York rare books store to stock up his two thousand one hundred square foot library. It is domed, has a fireplace and two secret pivoting bookshelves, behind is hidden some of his secret treasures. One of which, being the sixteenth-century notebook of Leonardo da Vinci he purchased for thirty million dollars. One of his favorite books is The Great Gatsby, and around the base of the library he has inscribed the last line from the novel, "He had come a long way to this blue lawn and his dream must have seemed so close he could hardly fail to grasp it", perhaps because he found it fitting to his own life.
The heart of the house is the technology. There are miles of communication cables, which are for computer servers. Upon entering the house, residents and guests wear an electronic pin programmed with things such as favorite music, art, and television shows. Located in various rooms are wall displays that scan the pin and begin playing the person"s favorite music, television show, or displays their favorite art on video screens in the room. The pin also controls the climate of the room and only allows the phone nearest the person to ring.
Bill Gates is not any ordinary person. He is a dreamer that wants to succeed. He will not put up with anything other than perfection. At the start of the computer revolution, he was told that his vision of a computer for the home was only whimsical. Bill Gates worked hard to reach the top, and prove everyone wrong.
Awards and Honours
1. One of the 100 people who most influenced the 20th century by Times Magazine
2. 2005 Persons of the Year Times
3. CEO of the year by Chief Executive Officers magazine in 1994
4. Order of the Aztec Eagle for his philanthropic workÂ
Bill Gates (Leadership Lessons)
1. Years and years of hard work precede success
ManyÂ ofÂ usÂ haveÂ heardÂ thatÂ Microsoft hasÂ startedÂ a garageÂ door,Â would beÂ tempted to thinkÂ he wasÂ aÂ childÂ withoutÂ anyÂ prior knowledgeÂ and managedÂ toÂ launchÂ a businessÂ of severalÂ billionÂ ofÂ theseÂ little experimentsÂ doneÂ thereÂ low.
But theÂ truthÂ isÂ thatÂ a quick readingÂ inÂ its historyÂ youÂ willÂ realizeÂ thatÂ GatesÂ hasÂ had extensive experienceÂ withÂ programmingÂ andÂ codingÂ beforeÂ theÂ startÂ of Microsoft.
ItÂ wasÂ hisÂ extensiveÂ experience inÂ theÂ field ofÂ programmingÂ andÂ codingÂ whichÂ enabled him toÂ buildÂ the firstÂ DOS softwareÂ thatÂ MicrosoftÂ launchedÂ itsÂ globalÂ position.
SoÂ beforeÂ you startÂ toÂ believeÂ thatÂ overnightÂ successÂ isÂ possible, rememberÂ thatÂ even theÂ richestÂ inÂ the worldÂ has doneÂ manyÂ hoursÂ of hardÂ work,Â and therefore you shouldÂ too, if youÂ really wantÂ succeedÂ in your life.
2. Go where your passion leads
BillÂ GatesÂ hasÂ noÂ additionalÂ programmingÂ workÂ hard toÂ do becauseÂ heÂ was hungryÂ to become aÂ millionaireÂ andÂ he wanted toÂ doÂ everything heÂ couldÂ pursueÂ that.Â HeÂ worked veryÂ hardÂ because heÂ wasÂ simplyÂ passionate aboutÂ what heÂ did.Â He foundÂ aÂ software programÂ isÂ extremelyÂ interestingÂ toÂ him andÂ heÂ wasÂ motivatedÂ toÂ do more.Â WithÂ that,Â he gave himÂ the experienceÂ to implementÂ Microsoft.
IfÂ youÂ wantÂ to beÂ successfulÂ like BillÂ Gates, doÂ not chaseÂ theÂ dollar sign.Â DoÂ not goÂ toÂ the opportunity afterÂ opportunityÂ to tryÂ to find oneÂ thatÂ makes youÂ top dollar.Â ItÂ willÂ onlyÂ make youÂ loseÂ focusÂ on whatÂ youÂ want forÂ yourÂ own lifeÂ andÂ set youÂ upÂ for aÂ bigÂ fall.
MoneyÂ isÂ everywhereÂ andÂ there are manyÂ waysÂ toÂ do this,Â theÂ most important thingÂ is that youÂ followÂ your passion.Â The moneyÂ youÂ can findÂ naturally.
3. Give back
Giving back toÂ theÂ community isÂ anÂ important actÂ becauseÂ itÂ is a reflectionÂ ofÂ your character.Â AreÂ youÂ aÂ giverÂ orÂ aÂ taker?Â DoÂ youÂ exist inÂ thisÂ worldÂ toÂ becomeÂ a blessingÂ to the community,Â orÂ do you expectÂ the communityÂ thatÂ you areÂ to bless you?
TheÂ attitudeÂ you adoptÂ inÂ whatÂ will determineÂ ifÂ youÂ want toÂ becomeÂ aÂ successfulÂ person or aÂ personÂ of importance.Â There areÂ manyÂ people whoÂ are successful,Â butÂ remember fewÂ namesÂ over time.Â Those whomÂ weÂ rememberÂ todayÂ areÂ evenÂ those whoÂ haveÂ made aÂ difference inÂ the worldÂ thatÂ weÂ lived
IfÂ youÂ wantÂ to becomeÂ a leaderÂ thatÂ peopleÂ admireÂ and respect,Â you must becomeÂ aperson of importance.Â PeopleÂ doÂ not follow youÂ because youÂ takeÂ them,Â theyÂ follow youbecauseÂ youÂ giveÂ them.
TryÂ toÂ liveÂ aÂ lifeÂ thatÂ made a differenceÂ inÂ this world,Â give back moreÂ thanÂ youÂ takeÂ in society.Â YourÂ lifeÂ will beÂ aÂ success.
Leadership and management styles
Leaders and managers are not the same, though they can act in similar ways. A manager is responsible for setting objectives and using resources efficiently. A leader is responsible for motivating a group of people (or a team) to use their individual skills. So therefore leadership is a vital skill of any successful manager.
A Paternalistic manager is more dictatorial; however their decisions tend to be in the best interests of the employees rather than the business. Feedback from this method is again generally downward; however feedback to the management will occur in order for the employees to be kept happy. This style can be highly advantageous and can engender loyalty from the employees, leading to a lower labour turnover, thanks to the emphasis on social needs.
In a democratic management style, the manager will allow the lower employees to participate in the decision process; therefore everything is agreed by the majority of employees. The communication is extensive in both directions, meaning that lower employees can discuss matters with managers etc.
This is where the employee participates in decision making processes that could change the plant. Some employees might not want to participate, but Ford try to get every employee involved. Ford also tries to get workers to participate in the use of 'suggestion boxes' these can be used to show to individual employee's initiative. Also as an incentive to participate they can be entered into a prize draw at the end of each month the win a car or a cash sum of £20 -25,000
Ford emphasise on teamwork, they know that it is needed to create high quality engines. That is why Managers seek to train teams to work as efficiently as possible. Each team is responsible for their productivity quality.
The Laizzez-faire manger is one who leaves employees to 'get on' with their work with little or no interference. A wide range of guidelines may be established, but with the daily role of a manager minimal. By giving employees freedom, it gives them an opportunity to show some responsibility, initiative and creativity. At Ford, they guarantee that their aims are made clear. These are to create engines at the right price, time and to meet demand. Computer aided Manufacture (CAM) is used, to cut job time and to increase the level of quality in engines. Every individual is personally responsible for his/her quality of output.
A reactive manager is one who deals with problems and issues when they happen rather than before (like Pro-Active). This form of manager can be described as 'surviving the seat of you pants'. The only difficulty is that there may not be enough time or resources to deal with a situation because it is simply too late.
A Pro-Active manager is one who looks to the future and plans ahead, rather than waiting for events to happen. They anticipate recent events and see how they can affect the business. If it looks like it could affect the business then they come up with suitable solutions to overcome it just incase it happens. The proactive manager then communicates with the team so that they are trained and prepared to deal with new situations. Ford tend to use this type management style rather than Reactive.
The autocrat leader sets objectives and allocates tasks and demands obedience. The advantages of this at Ford are that the group will respond quickly and effectively and direction will always be constant. The disadvantages are that the team may become too dependant on the leader and may even become unable to operate machinery without them. Constant supervision of the team will be required and also the team may become dissatisfied with the leader.
The democrat leader encourages participation in the decision making process by consulting team members, delegating where possible and explaining decisions. The disadvantages of this leadership style are that they need to enhance the commitment of the employees and the participation will need to be improved.
When trying to spill the beans of MS's success, the titles of two books from Bill Gates slip into my mind. They are "The Road Ahead" and "Business @ the speed of thought", which I would translate into "Direction" and "Speed" and could be the reason for MS's success - be good at setting strategy and adapting to the changes. However, to reframe them within the context of Modern Competitive Strategy, the reasons for MS's success are to create and maintain its modern COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES.
With the analysis of it competitive advantages, MS's profitability was more rely on its ability to DEFEND its market position rather than to create. To put it another way, the usage of MS's resources and capabilities can be better understood in light of isolating mechanisms.
On one hand, MS focus on increasing customer retention. Software is an experience good. It can be tell exactly from the name - Windows XP - where XP is short for experience. For an experience good, the search costs, training cost and learning cost are high, which in turn help to increase customer retention. Here is a classic example. In 1998, Bill Gates gave his speech at Washington University and talk about piracy in China, and he said: "About 3 million computers get sold every year in China, but people don't pay for the software. Someday they will, though. As long as they are going to steal it, we want them to steal ours. They'll get sort of addicted, and then we'll somehow figure out how to collect sometime in the next decade." For the same reason, MS bundled Office Suite, expanded server platforms, and gave many stuffs/features for free like IE and Media Player. We can expect the adding to the list will grow on and on. Its broad scope of products and global presence also helped MS to increase customer retention.
On the other hand, MS defend its market position fiercely. A typical tactic used by MS is the prohibitive development cost. For example, it spent $2 billion alone in 2001 for its .net platform. When MS identifies a potential threat, it react with all of it resources and capabilities to compete with. Through advance technology, enticement OEM manufactures, or even giving for free, it won battles over Office Suite, OS, Internet browser and media player.
As a result, MS stands above its competitors and reaps its profit like printing money. For example, while application software price dropped by an average of 8.9% at 1989, MS could raise its OS price. While WordPerfect was priced at $79, MS charged $249 for upgrades of Office 2000.
The challenges MS faced somehow derived from its own marketing activities. The antitrust litigation is a warning for its aggressive assault on its competitors. In general, Microsoft should keep focus on defending its market positions, using its resources and capabilities cautiously and smartly. Its isolation mechanisms could be enhanced by strategies like product development and acquisition, platform integration, user and channel enticement, all happen at prohibitive cost.
BUILDING EFFECTIVE TEAMS
In this age of rapid technological change, making market-driven, customer sophistication, and the agitation of the employees, officers and managers are facing new challenges.Â Organizations must build new structures and master new skills to compete and survive.Â
As workplaces become more complex and involve a greater number of interpersonal interactions, individual effort has less impact.Â To increase the efficiency and effectiveness, a group effort is needed.Â Team building has become a key strategy in many organizations.Â Team building is essential in supporting and improving the effectiveness of small groups and working groups and must be a key element of a comprehensive organizational change.Â
Hellriegel, Slocum, & Woodman (1986) state that the team is used to improve the effectiveness of working groups focusing on one of the following four goals: setting goals and priorities, decide onÂ means one of the methods by examining how the group works, and exploring the quality of labor relations.Â A cycle then develops, it begins with the awareness or perception of a problem and is followed sequentially by the data collection, sharing of diagnostic data, action planning, implementation of action, and behavioral assessment.Â This style is repeated as new problems are identified.Â
Not all groups working teams.Â Reilly and Jones (1974) lists four essential elements of teams: goals, interdependence, commitment and accountability.Â Members must have mutual goals or a reason to work together, there must be an interdependent world of labor relations, individuals must be committed to the effort of the group and the group is accountable to a higher levelÂ within the organization.Â A good example is a sports team, whose members share goals and overall objective.Â Individual players have specific tasks they are responsible, but each depends on team members to accomplish their other tasks.Â Lack of commitment to team effort reduces overall efficiency.Â Finally, the team usually occurs within an organization than this league.Â
The overall objective of a task force is to exert control on organizational change (functionally, this increase decision-making and problem-solving efforts), but can be a side effect ofÂ increase the productivity of each member.Â A major goal of teamwork is to increase awareness of group processes.Â In essence, group members learn to master change outside the experimental in-house.Â The team-building effort will focus on barriers to efficient and choice of strategies to overcome these obstacles.Â
Organizational failures are often not due to lack of leadership, but poor followers.Â A member of the team is part of a group of mutual followers.Â Observation of individuals functioning within teams leads to the list of characteristics of an effective team member.Â
Â· Understands and is committed to group goals;
Â· Is friendly, concerned, and interested in others;
Â· Acknowledges and confronts conflict openly;
Â· Listens to others with understanding;
Â· Includes others in the decision-making process;
Â· Recognizes and respects individual differences;
Â· Contributes ideas and solutions;
Â· Values the ideas and contributions of others;
Â· Recognizes and rewards team efforts; and
Â· Encourages and appreciates comments about team performance.
These characteristics are in sequential pattern, alternating task and relationship behaviors. This pattern of behaviors is the starting point for the development of effective team building.
STAGES OF TEAM DEVELOPMENT
Team Building is a planned change intervention that focuses on team dynamics, AOS operation.Â The purpose of the team is to improve the team, the participant's ability to adapt, to allow members to operate at the level of resources more productively, and achieve the objectives of the teams.Â In the development of teams, there are four different steps that must be accomplished to fully achieve its mission through the achievement of better quality in the workplace.Â These steps in order are: forming, storming, norming, and performing.Â The first three stages of team development must be completed to reach the fourth stage.Â In each step, there are different attitudes, feelings and questions that team members may experience.Â
In the first step of forming personal relationships are unique for the force.Â Team members depend on the behavior and preventing imitation and turn to the team leader for perspective and advice.Â
An effective and efficient behavior is expected of the team leader.Â A leader must answer all the questions that members of the team.Â A leader must also guide them through each step and verify the expected need of each member.Â A team will be formed effectively.Â All the ideas and objectives of the teams will have a positive effect in the organization.Â
The second step, Standardization, is characterized by cohesion within the team.Â Team members recognize each other, AO positions and privileges and are willing to change their preconceived ideas to reach a mutual agreement.Â
In normalization, the team has finally put the fear of failure behind them.Â They are willing to work any conflict that may arise.Â positive and negative feedback becomes more accepted within the team.Â With increased information, members have a better understanding of their situation and become more involved in decision-making.Â
In the third phase, the assault, rivalry, competition and conflict in personal relationships characterize members of the team.Â The roles and objectives are being questioned and challengedÂ
It is natural for team members to question their existence in the team.Â After all, it takes a while to get used to people with whom you work in an organization.Â It is natural for team members to be challenged and competition with each other.Â An important aspect to the attack must be open and honest with each team member.Â In this way, members can learn from each other, AOS different experiences and perspectives.Â
In the fourth stage, the stage, people are able to work individually or in small groups or as a group.Â The roles and responsibilities change according to the commitments of the group.Â
They have already conquered all the obstacles that had to be treated in the previous steps.Â To succeed in the fourth stage, team members must meet and overcome the first three stages of team development.Â
In all four stages, there are complementary approaches facilitator that can be applied to make each step more reliable.Â During training, an approach the scene is used.Â This approach gives clear direction by telling people what to do, when, where and how. Coaching is an approach used in the assault.Â It is also an embodiment, but also includes support to strengthen the team members will and enthusiasm.Â Goals and expectations are redefined on the basis of the team, the reactions AO and training is available for the tasks and processes.Â An approach to support is used in normalization implies a more non-directive.Â Leadership shifts over the group for more self-management and recognition of the group's efforts involved.Â Delegation is an approach used in the scene.Â This employs a low profile with little direction and support.Â team members to determine what, when and
how to accomplish the tasks and processes. Leaders monitor and track performance goals.
Conclusion and recommendation
The Microsoft case makes amply clear the importance of regulation in order to both, engender and protect competition in an economy. As far as engendering com-petition is concerned, there is no question that India has a lot of catching up to do, not only with the market driven economies of the west, but also those of east Asia. The question really is, can the task of engendering competition be separated from that of protecting it? The task of engen-dering competition basically involves putting in place a set of policies and in-stitutions, which will, hopefully, be attractive enough for players to enter. This is nothing but the third proposition of Hay (1996) as well as the comments made in para 2.1.2 of the Report, mentioned at the beginning of this paper. However, the nurturing of competition, after having engendered it, would require regulation. The Report is very clear on this: "Where this (i e, preventing abuse of market power via competition) is not feasible, it requires the creation of a suitable regulatory frame-work for achieving efficiency". Confusion has, however, been created by the submis-sion of dissenting notes by some of the members, namely, Rakesh Mohan and Sudhir Mulji. Mohan in his Supplementary Note to the Report writes that while he, by and large, agrees with the contours of competition discussed by the Committee "..I have had a sinking feeling that I am contributing to something that could possibly stop the growing Indian economy in its tracks". He is uncomfortable with the fact that "...not only are we recommending the creation of a new powerful government authority but we are also vesting it with tremendous discretionary powers". It is not at all difficult to disagree with Mohan's apprehensions. The politics of regulation, including in its scope the discretionary powers vested with the regulator as well as the capture of the regulator by the regulated have been discussed in the literature [ Noll 1989]. However, given Mohan's recognition of the dangers of regulation, his submission of a dissenting note seems like an easy way out. As someone who could see the dangers, it should have been incumbent on his part to ensure that these dangers did not come to pass. After all institution building is a formidable task and a wrong step can set fhe economy back, as Mohan correctly points out. If expert economists, in the presence of such a task, merely submit notes, distancing themselves from the Report, the institutions created will bear the stamp of bureaucrats who may have a vested interest in arrogating discretionary powers to themselves. In such an event, Mohan's fears will certainly come to pass. I would treat Mulji's dissenting note on a slightly different footing. While Mohan is concerned with the discretionary powers of the government and the dangers of regulatory capture, Mulji is against all Numerous Internet Service Providers (ISP) operate in Mumbai, as indeed they do in numerous other cities. One of these is MTNL, which also provides telephone services in the city. It is, of course, known that to access the internet one needs to make use of telephone lines whoever the ISP may be. Suppose MTNL were to devise a mechanism by which, a subscriber to a non-MTNL ISP, would face poor quality telephone connection, say frequent dis-connections. On the other hand, suppose that a subscriber to MTNL internet service would not face this disadvantage. Sub-scribers of non-MTNL ISP would be tempted to shift their subscription to MTNL leading to an increase in MTNL's market share to the detriment of others. This fictitious situation, it should be obvious, is not dissimilar to the denial of interfaces information by Microsoft to Netscape Navigator causing the use of the Navigator to be a 'jolting experience'. Clearly, in the hypothetical situation outlined above MTNL's actions would constitute anti-competitive activity and these would need to be checked in order to protect the interests of the other ISPs and consumers. Mulji would characterise regulation that checked such behaviour as nanny syndrome' and he would rather live with such 'excesses'. He believes that 'policy-makers should scrap all monopoly laws until we can see here the competitive spirit is harmful". While Mulji is worried about acts of commission by a prospec-tive Competitive Commission, which would obstruct the freedom of markets, I am worried about acts of omission as well. I am convinced that scrapping all monopoly laws and then waiting to see if competition is harmful is a dangerous act of omission. Certainly, there is a need to move away from the mindset of the licence-permit Raj and the MRTP act, but these cannot be substituted by a vacuum, as Mulji suggests.