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The Recruitment and selection process is an important Human Resource Management task that needs to be done by the HR manager. The main reason companies engage in the recruitment and selection process is because they want to appoint the right person at the right job" (Dale 2004). There are different stages in a recruitment and selection process for example Job analysis, Recruitment, Selection and Induction/follow up.
The HR manager needs to understand the benefit of having effective recruitment in the organisation. It is important to employ high quality employees because they can achieve the goals of the company. This will reduce the risk of having incompetent employees that could affect the organisation in achieving its long term goals. Effective recruitment is beneficial because vacancies are filled quickly and performance is maintained. And the organisation does not need to worry about financial losses because the hiring of staff is done immediately and effectively.
An organisation must plan their recruitment and selection process before appointing new staff. First of all human resources managers need to know "how many people" (Armstrong 2003) are needed and "what sort of people" (Armstrong 2003) with skills are they looking for in the organisation. It is important to forecast the needs of manpower in different department areas of the organisation in order to achieve the long term strategies of the company.
Job analysis is the process of collecting, analysing and setting out information about "the content of jobs in order to provide the basis for a job description and data for recruitment" (Armstrong 2003). It basically concentrates on what employees are expected to do. Job analysis divides its self into three other phases' description, person specifications and terns and conditions of employment.
Job description is an important part of job analysis and is a list of "tasks, duties, and responsibilities that a job entails" (Raymond 2004). Preparing a job description is not a simple task for a HR manager because he needs to gather information. There are different elements in a job description. The first one is the title of the job and it must be descriptive and if appropriate indicate the jobs level in the organisation by using terms such as " junior, senior, assistant, and executive" ( Raymond 2004). Summary of the job is an important element in the job description that focuses on its purpose and duties for example "responsibilities, tools and equipment used and the degree of authority the person is supervised and how much the person supervises others or participation in team work" (Raymond 2004).
Essential duties of the job include tasks for successful future performance for example "the persons with whom an employee in this job interacts, and the results to be accomplished". (Raymond 2004). Additional responsibilities are one of the elements in the job description stating that the position requires extra responsibilities for example managing more people. The final element in the job description is Job specifications it requires the "knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics required for a person to be qualified to perform the job successfully" (Raymond 2004)
Person specification is an important part of job analysis because is trying to find a person that would fit in the organisation. The person must have required competencies including "knowledge, skills, attitudes and personal attributes" (Tyson 2006). Specific qualifications are a key requirement that is needed by the organisation for example people with business degrees and masters qualifications. Previous experience if any is needed for example minimum two years of experience in the retail sector. Organisations can also look for people with health requirements for example in the armed forces and the police. There can also be special conditions asked by employers for example to have a car and full B driving licence.
The difference between job description and person specification is that firstly in the job description describes the job that is needed in the organisation. And the task requirements to achieve the organisation long term goals. But on the other hand person specification is all about finding the right person with the necessary skills and competence to achieve long term goals and to fit with the job description.
Terms and conditions are included in the job analysis. And it refers to the effort-reward relationship and so includes details on "the hours to be worked, method of payment, job entitlements (holiday, bonuses, allowances) and other attendant benefits" (Gunnigle 2006). A good attractive terms and conditions can attract people to work for the organisation and it can motivate them to work at their best potential.
Recruitment is the next phase once the job analysis stage has been completed. The organisation wants to attract people for the particular vacancy. There are three important functions why organisations recruit people. First they want to "attract a pool of suitable applicants for the vacancy" (Gunnigle 2006). Secondly to "deter unsuitable candidates form applying" (Gunnigle 2006) and thirdly to "create a positive image of the company"(Gunnigle 2006).
A company can have two options to recruit people it can be internal or external sourcing. Internal sourcing is a good cost effective method to reduce costs by eliminating the need for external advertising/sourcing. Employees that are promoted in the organisation can get highly motivated and ambitious to work really hard for the company. They also have the accumulated experience in the organisation and job induction would not be necessary for them. Internal recruitment can be beneficial to HR managers because they know the internal strengths and weaknesses of people. The HR manager can train internal employees to have up to date skills for the new job function in the organisation.
There can also be issues by recruiting internally it can "lead to huge issues when the candidates come from one department" (Anonymous 2008). Also there can be the danger that the organisation "with an intensive usage of the internal recruitment can suffer from fresh blood"(Anonymous 2008) and they may end up losing out on good potential employees from the external recruitment environment.
External recruitment can be used by organisations to bring new people to the organisation. This can be a huge benefit for the company because they can select the candidate which suits the organisation best. The downside of recruiting externally is that it can be "expensive and takes a lot of energy from the HRM function to handle all job candidates in the selection process" (Anonymous 2008).
Job advertisement is an important element in the recruitment process to get the required skills for the job in a short period of time. The aim for advertising is to get the attention of job seekers. The more people you can attract to apply for the job the better the chance you have to select the best suitable candidate. It would be ideal to try and advertise at a national level where the advertising can be seeing by everyone in the country. This can be done through the "newspaper media, trade and professional journals, or employ the services of recruitment agencies or consultants".(Gunnigle 2006). One of the best ways people look for jobs is by the use of the internet. Advertising on important web sites like jobs.ie, irishjobs.ie and bestjobs.ie can have a great impact to reach on to people because now a day's people search the internet for everything they want or need.
Job advertisements needs to cover information derived from the job description and person specification in seven broad areas. The first area is "the work organization, its main occupation and location" (Tyson 2006). The second area deals with "the job title, main duties and location" (Tyson 2006).Qualification and experience is the third area requiring "personal experience, qualifications" (Tyson 2006). Reward and opportunities contains important elements in the advertising for example "basic salary and other emoluments" (Tyson 2006). Fifth area contains training given, Conditions would be an important area relating to any "special factors and circumstances affecting the job" (Tyson 2006). And finally Applications "form of application, closing date and forwarding" (Tyson 2006).
Human resource managers will need to decide how future candidates will apply for the job. There can be two alternatives application forms or CV`s (Curriculum Vitae). Many organisations prefer candidates to send in CV`s. The CV is a document prepared by the candidate and it contains information giving "personal details, education and employment history, and other relevant information" (Banfield 2008).
Application forms are mostly suitable for lower level jobs where the candidates are lacking in computer application skills in writing up a CV. The advantage for recruiters is that it makes their life easier because "all data is in a similar format" (Banfield 2008). With this type of method using application forms, is much easier to attract a wider candidate pool.
Once all the applications have been received, organisations must analyse each application forms and CV`s. Person specification becomes an important tool in identifying suitable and non suitable applicants. It is important to compare applicants against each other to see which candidate is most relevant for the vacant position. Managers use the short listing matrix to identify the best candidates. For example below is a sample short listing matrix from the Liverpool university website (Anonymous 2009)
Chair of Panel:
Scoring: 1 = Fully Meets Criterion 3 = Fails to Meet Criterion
2 = Partially Meets Criterion 4 = No evidence for this criterion
Assessed against Employee Specification : Essential/Desirable criteria
Education, Training Qualifications
Selection is the next important phase in the recruitment and selection process. Human resource managers will try and organise Interviews. Traditional approaches to interviews are face-to-face interviews when there is a social interaction between employer and applicant. It is important to have interviews before appointing any candidates for the vacant job. The reason for this is that it "allows the applicant to find out about the job and its place in the company, career prospects, development and training" (Price 2000). And to provide a further screening process so that statements on "application forms and references can be checked for ambiguity and veracity" (Price 2000).
Interviews can be divided into three types' biographical, stress, and problem solving. Biographical interviews focuses on candidates passed experience and is important for recruiters to gather information about the candidate accumulated skills. Stress interviews are when applicants are put under pressure to see how they will respond under stressful situations. Problem solving interviews are when the candidates are put into different situation scenarios to try and solve the problem. This will determine the employer if this is the right candidate for the job.
Many employers are seeking an important skill for a person to posses. Psychometric tests are used in interviews to challenge candidate's abilities. Aptitude tests are used to measure "general mental ability or general intelligence" and "measuring specific abilities or aptitudes" (Torrington 2008). Intelligence tests are used by employers to test candidates on "vocabulary, analogies, and similarities, arithmetic" (Torrington 2008). Personality tests are important to find out whether the candidate has the right personality for the right job. Depending on the job position employers might look for candidates to have a great leadership personality to achieve success for the organisation.
Induction Programme is a necessary component of the recruitment and selection process. When a new successful candidate have been selected for the required position is important to introduce new candidates in the organisation. This will lessen the anxiety of new entrants and it will be much easier to settle in. Training is a key role to get the candidate well prepared and it will reduce misunderstandings, grievances and turnover. Introducing the candidate to the people he has to work with will be much easier to integrate in the organisation.
It is recommended for companies to engage in the recruitment and selection process because they can appoint highly skilled candidates. Companies can easily identify the type of people they need in the organisation to achieve the long term goals. By recruiting the organisation can have a lot of applicants for the vacant position where they can choose the best person for the job.
The conclusion is that all the different components of the recruitment and selection process have been covered into great detail and examples have been given. The components covered were
Internal or external sourcing
Training and socialisation
Terms and conditions
Application forms, CV